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Carpal Instability

Marko Bumbaširević, Tomislav Palibrk, Henry Dushan E Atkinson, Aleksandar Lešić
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Ilizarov fine-wire compression/distraction technique in the treatment of scaphoid nonunion (SNU), without the use of bone graft. DESIGN: This is a prospective study of 20 consecutive patients in one center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 20 patients (19 males) with a mean SNU duration of 14.5 months. Four patients had proximal pole, 15 had waist, and 1 had a distal SNU. Patients with carpal instability, humpback deformities, carpal collapse, avascular necrosis, and marked degenerative change were excluded...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
M Schädel-Höpfner, B Bickert, C Dumont, P Laier, R Meier, A Nusche, T Pillukat, H Rosenthal, R Schmitt, F Siemers, A Zach, M Jung
BACKGROUND: Scaphoid fractures represent the most common carpal fractures and are often problematic and frequently lead to nonunion with osteoarthritis and collapse of the wrist. The reasons for the nonunion are manifold. Therefore, the main goal of diagnosis and therapy of acute fractures is to achieve bony union and to restore the anatomic shape of the scaphoid. In the long run, only this can preserve the normal function of the wrist. METHODOLOGY: The given recommendations are based on the new S3-level guideline of the AWMF (Association of the Scientific Medical Societies)...
October 10, 2016: Der Orthopäde
Robin N Kamal, Adam Starr, Edward Akelman
The complex interaction of the carpal bones, their intrinsic and extrinsic ligaments, and the forces in the normal wrist continue to be studied. Factors that influence kinematics, such as carpal bone morphology and clinical laxity, continue to be identified. As imaging technology improves, so does our ability to better understand and identify these factors. In this review, we describe advances in our understanding of carpal kinematics and kinetics. We use scapholunate ligament tears as an example of the disconnect that exists between our knowledge of carpal instability and limitations in current reconstruction techniques...
October 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery
Alicia Cowan, Joao Panattoni
Kienböck disease, or lunate avascular necrosis, can lead to chronic wrist pain and instability. Its etiology appears to be multifactorial including variations in adjacent anatomical structures, interrupted blood supply, and trauma. Capitate-hamate fusion is the second most commonly diagnosed carpal coalition and not treated unless symptomatic. Coalitions may alter the wrist mechanics depending on their extent. No prior reports have associated Kienböck disease with capitate-hamate coalition. We present 2 cases with congenital capitate-hamate fusion and lunate AVN...
October 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery
Frederico Barra de Moraes, Rodrigo Cunha Ferreira, Stéphanie Zago Geraldino, Renato Silva Farias, Ricardo Pereira da Silva, Mário Yoshihide Kuwae
The wrist is a region that is very vulnerable to injuries of the extremities. Among these injuries, fractures of the pyramidal bone (or triquetrum) in association with dislocation of the hamate and carpal instability are uncommon. They are generally correlated with high-energy trauma and may be associated with neurovascular deficits, muscle-tendon disorders, skin lesions or injuries to other carpal bones. Thus, in this report, one of these rare cases of transtriquetral perihamate fracture-dislocation with carpal instability is presented, diagnosed by means of radiography on the right wrist of the patient who presented pain, edema and limitation of flexion-extension of the carpus after trauma to the region...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
Brian D Adams, Ericka A Lawler, Taften L Kuhl
INTRODUCTION: Due to a higher risk for implant loosening, particularly of the distal component, patients with physically demanding lifestyles are infrequently considered for total wrist arthroplasty (TWA). A distal radius hemiarthroplasty may obviate the need for the strict restrictions recommended for patients treated by TWA, thus providing another surgical option for active patients with severe wrist arthritis, especially those with articular degeneration of the lunate facet of the radius, capitate head, or combination of both, who are not typically candidates for traditional motion-preserving procedures...
August 2016: Journal of Wrist Surgery
Tadanobu Onishi, Shohei Omokawa, Akio Iida, Yasuaki Nakanishi, Tsutomu Kira, Hisao Moritomo, Sompob Ruxasagluwang, Jirchart Kraisarin, Takamasa Shimizu, Yasuhito Tanaka
We investigated the reliability and accuracy of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) ballottement test using five fresh-frozen cadaver specimens in triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC)-intact, and TFCC-sectioned wrists. The humerus and proximal ulna were fixed. The ulna was allowed to translate in dorsopalmar directions without rotation, and the radius was allowed to move freely. Four sensors of a magnetic tracking system were attached to the radius and ulna, and the nails of each examiner's thumbs. Five examiners conducted the DRUJ ballottement test before and after TFCC sectioning...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Olga L Hincapie, Jeananne S Elkins, Laura Vasquez-Welsh
STUDY DESIGN: Case report. INTRODUCTION: Previously published studies demonstrate the importance of the sensory innervation of the carpal ligaments and the implication for the sensorimotor control of the wrist. In addition, this case considers key rehabilitation concepts to include the dart-throwing motion and the stabilizing effect of the forearm muscles. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To describe the rehabilitation program for a patient with chronic wrist pain, diagnosed with a partial tear of the dorsal intercarpal ligament and a sprain of the scapholunate ligament of the right wrist...
April 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Mireia Esplugas, Marc Garcia-Elias, Alex Lluch, Manuel Llusá Pérez
This article reviews the results of a series of cadaver investigations aimed at clarifying the role of muscles in the stabilization of ligament-deficient wrists. According to these studies, isometric contraction of some forearm muscles induces midcarpal (MC) supination (ie, the abductor pollicis longus, extensor carpi radialis longus, and flexor carpi ulnaris), whereas other muscles induce MC pronation (ie, the extensor carpi ulnaris). Because MC supination implies tightening of the volar scaphoid-distal row ligaments, the MC supination muscles are likely to prevent scaphoid collapse of wrists with scapholunate ligament insufficiency...
April 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Sanglim Lee, Jae-Ha Yu, Suk Ha Jeon
Carpal malalignments in malunion of distal radius fracture are considered as an adaptive response of the carpus to loss of normal architecture of the distal radius. This condition leads to mechanical overload, ligament attenuation and progressive dynamic instability around the wrist joint. Radial corrective osteotomy is suggested as a treatment option of carpal malalignment after distal radius malunion. In radiocarpal malalignment, the lunate is usually observed in flexion in contrast to its extension posture in the more common midcarpal malalignment...
June 2016: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
M Lefere, B Dallaudière, P Omoumi, C Cyteval, A Larbi
Posttraumatic carpal and carpometacarpal dislocations represent a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from high-energy wrist trauma. Perilunate injury is the most common and best-known manifestation of carpal dislocation, typically occurring after hyperextension trauma. Other forms are very rare and have different causative mechanisms. Carpometacarpal (CMC) dislocations are also uncommon and may affect isolated or multiple CMC joints. These lesions are prone to wrist instability if not treated promptly...
October 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Eric Cockenpot, Guillaume Lefebvre, Xavier Demondion, Christophe Chantelot, Anne Cotten
Hand and wrist injuries are common occurrences in amateur and professional sports and many of them are sport-specific. These can be divided into two categories: traumatic injuries and overuse injuries. The aim of this article is to review the most common hand and wrist sports-related lesions. Acute wrist injuries are predominantly bone fractures, such as those of the scaphoid, hamate hook, and ulnar styloid. Ligament lesions are more challenging for radiologists and may lead to carpal instability if undiagnosed...
June 2016: Radiology
Luc Van Overstraeten, Emmanuel J Camus
Several biomechanical studies have shown that the scapholunate (SL) and lunotriquetral (LT) ligaments are not the only stabilizers of the proximal carpal row. However, no study has yet analyzed the range of ligament lesions leading to instability in vivo. Arthroscopy has been used to assess the condition of the wrist's extrinsic ligaments by palpating and tensioning the various ligament and capsule structures. In this prospective study, this arthroscopic method was used in 85 cases of wrist sprain without static instability to evaluate the correlation between lesions of the intrinsic and extrinsic carpal ligaments and carpal instability...
February 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
J Brunet, G Bacle, E Marteau, F Gadea, J Laulan
Secondary osteoarthritis due to a scapholunate malalignment is well known, but is debatable in cases of lunotriquetral malalignment. It has been shown that lunotriquetral malalignment can lead to midcarpal osteoarthritis. The hypothesis of this retrospective study was that a relationship exists between the presence of midcarpal osteoarthritis and the presence of lunotriquetral malalignment. All patients with midcarpal osteoarthritis, isolated or predominant, treated between 1981 and 2013 were reviewed. Intracarpal angles were measured and the relative position of the carpal bones was analyzed by two examiners...
February 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
Kimia Khalatbari Kani, Hyojeong Mulcahy, Felix S Chew
The wrist is disposed to a variety of instability patterns owing to its complex anatomical and biomechanical properties. Various classification schemes have been proposed to describe the different patterns of carpal instability, of which the Mayo classification is the most commonly used. Understanding the concepts and pertinent terminology of this classification scheme is important for the correct interpretation of images and optimal communication with referring physicians. Standard wrist radiographs are the first line of imaging in carpal instability...
August 2016: Skeletal Radiology
D Israel, S Delclaux, A André, C Apredoaei, M Rongières, P Bonnevialle, P Mansat
INTRODUCTION: Peri-lunate wrist dislocations and fracture-dislocations are related to high-energy trauma. Prognosis is often compromised because of the complexity of the lesions. The purpose of this study was to assess outcomes of acute peri-lunate injuries and correlate them with the type of lesion and management. MATERIEL AND METHODS: A monocenter retrospective study has been conducted. Sixty-five patients (65 wrists) were reviewed. According to Herzberg's classification, there were 18 isolated peri-lunate dislocations and 47 peri-lunate fracture-dislocations - 27 with a scaphoid fracture and 20 with an intact scaphoid...
May 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Frederick W Werner, Hugo St-Amand, Hisao Moritomo, Levi G Sutton, Walter H Short
Background Scaphoid fractures are common carpal fractures that are often misdiagnosed as wrist sprains and may go on to nonunion. The location of the fracture site may influence the stability of scaphoid nonunions. Purpose To determine whether the stability of a scaphoid nonunion depends upon the fracture's location, we tested the hypothesis that a simulated fracture distal to the apex of the scaphoid dorsal ridge will have greater interfragmentary motion than proximal. Methods Eleven cadaver wrists were moved through three wrist motions using a wrist simulator...
March 2016: Journal of Wrist Surgery
Denise Ramponi, Tara McSwigan
Wrist injuries are a common complaint in the emergency setting. Any disruption of the anatomy of the carpal bones can impair hand function, leading to pain, weakness, and complications. One of the most common forms of carpal bone instability is scapholunate dissociation. This injury can lead to significant morbidity including avascular necrosis, impaired healing, limited function, and arthritis. These diagnostic findings may be subtle, thus identifying high-risk mechanisms of injury, and clinical manifestations will assist the emergency practitioner with early diagnosis and treatment of this high-risk injury...
January 2016: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
Kalenia Márquez-Florez, Enrique Vergara-Amador, Maria Gavilán-Alfonso, Diego Garzón-Alvarado
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Carpal fusions are useful for treating specific carpal disorders, maximizing postoperative wrist motion, hand strength, reducing pain and instability of the joint. The surgeon selects the appropriate treatment by considering the degree of stability, the chronicity of the injury, functional demands of the patient and former patient's outcomes as well. However there are not many studies regarding the load distribution provided by the treatment. So, the purpose of this study is to analyze the load distribution through the wrist joint with an arthrodesis treatment and compare the results with a normal wrist...
April 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
P-S Marcheix, G Vergnenegre, C Chevalier, J Hardy, J-L Charissoux, C Mabit
BACKGROUND: Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow is the second most common nerve entrapment syndrome at the upper limp, after carpal tunnel syndrome. Many surgeons feel that ulnar nerve instability contra-indicates endoscopic nerve release. Published studies, however, found no evidence that pre-operative or intra-operative ulnar nerve instability adversely affected clinical outcomes. The objective of this prospective study was to define the indications and describe the outcomes of endoscopic ulnar nerve release at the elbow...
February 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
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