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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331043/world-health-organization-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update
#1
Dennis Falzon, Holger J Schünemann, Elizabeth Harausz, Licé González-Angulo, Christian Lienhardt, Ernesto Jaramillo, Karin Weyer
Antimicrobial resistance is a major global concern. Tuberculosis (TB) strains resistant to rifampicin and other TB medicines challenge patient survival and public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published treatment guidelines for drug-resistant TB since 1997 and last updated them in 2016 based on reviews of aggregated and individual patient data from published and unpublished studies. An international expert panel formulated recommendations following the GRADE approach. The new WHO guidelines recommend a standardised 9-12 months shorter treatment regimen as first choice in patients with multidrug- or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) strains not resistant to fluoroquinolones or second-line injectable agents; resistance to these two classes of core second-line medicines is rapidly detectable with molecular diagnostics also approved by WHO in 2016...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325527/collaborative-pharmacist-prescribing-within-the-opioid-substitution-treatment-program-in-south-australia-patient-and-pharmacist-views
#2
Phuong-Phi Le, Annette Braunack-Mayer, Caroline Laurence
There is a shortage of medical practitioners able and/or willing to prescribe OST. This qualitative study investigated an alternative model of care where by pharmacists co-prescribed with an accredited doctor for OST patients. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 14 OST patients were conducted at a state government drug and alcohol clinic about their views on pharmacist prescribing OST for them. In the second phase of the study, three focus group interviews with 18 pharmacists were conducted to explore their views on a policy proposal which would allow them to co-prescribe for OST patients...
February 27, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322415/association-between-us-norepinephrine-shortage-and-mortality-among-patients-with-septic-shock
#3
Emily Vail, Hayley B Gershengorn, May Hua, Allan J Walkey, Gordon Rubenfeld, Hannah Wunsch
Importance: Drug shortages in the United States are common, but their effect on patient care and outcomes has rarely been reported. Objective: To assess changes to patient care and outcomes associated with a 2011 national shortage of norepinephrine, the first-line vasopressor for septic shock. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 26 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database with a baseline rate of norepinephrine use of at least 60% for patients with septic shock...
March 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322412/national-shortages-of-generic-sterile-injectable-drugs-norepinephrine-as-a-case-study-of-potential-harm
#4
Julie M Donohue, Derek C Angus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317421/a-prospective-cohort-study-evaluating-the-cost-effectiveness-of-carbetocin-for-prevention-of-postpartum-haemorrhage-in-caesarean-sections
#5
Yasmin Luni, Aditya Borakati, Arti Matah, Katie Skeats, Padma Eedarapalli
Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Prophylaxis with oxytocic medication is recommended by the WHO to prevent its occurrence. Carbetocin is a newer oxytocic, with potential to lower PPH rates, reduce the total use of oxytocic drugs and lead to financial savings. Meta-analyses have confirmed a reduction in the use of additional oxytocic medication with the use of carbetocin compared to oxytocin. However, there are few studies evaluating the costs of carbetocin prophylaxis...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301493/obstetrician-s-risk-perception-on-the-prescription-of-magnesium-sulfate-in-severe-preeclampsia-and-eclampsia-a-qualitative-study-in-brazil
#6
Fátima Aparecida Lotufo, Mary Angela Parpinelli, Maria José Osis, Fernanda Garanhani Surita, Maria Laura Costa, José Guilherme Cecatti
INTRODUCTION: Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is the drug of choice for the prevention and control of seizures in the management of severe preeclampsia/eclampsia. Several barriers have been identified in the use of MgSO4, especially in low and middle-income settings. OBJECTIVE: To describe the obstetrician's perception on possible reasons for underutilizing magnesium sulfate to treat preeclampsia/eclampsia. METHOD: A qualitative clinical study, based on phenomenological reference by semi-structured interviews and open-ended discussions with obstetricians of the public healthcare system in primary care units (PCU) and referral maternity hospitals (RMH), in a southeastern Brazilian city...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299158/a-study-on-strategic-planning-and-procurement-of-medicals-in-uganda-s-regional-referral-hospitals
#7
Ishak Kamaradi Masembe
This study was an analysis of the effect of strategic planning on procurement of medicals in Uganda's regional referral hospitals (RRH's). Medicals were defined as essential medicines, medical devices and medical equipment. The Ministry of Health (MOH) has been carrying out strategic planning for the last 15 years via the Health Sector Strategic Plans. Their assumption was that strategic planning would translate to strategic procurement and consequently, availability of medicals in the RRH's. However, despite the existence of these plans, there have been many complaints about expired drugs and shortages in RRH's...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296287/bio-inspired-nanomedicine-strategies-for-artificial-blood-components
#8
REVIEW
Anirban Sen Gupta
Blood is a fluid connective tissue where living cells are suspended in noncellular liquid matrix. The cellular components of blood render gas exchange (RBCs), immune surveillance (WBCs) and hemostatic responses (platelets), and the noncellular components (salts, proteins, etc.) provide nutrition to various tissues in the body. Dysfunction and deficiencies in these blood components can lead to significant tissue morbidity and mortality. Consequently, transfusion of whole blood or its components is a clinical mainstay in the management of trauma, surgery, myelosuppression, and congenital blood disorders...
March 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292504/pharmacists-perceptions-regarding-the-impact-of-hydrocodone-rescheduling-on-prescription-volume-workflow-management-and-patient-outcomes
#9
Tyler J Varisco, Motolani E Ogunsanya, Jamie C Barner, Marc L Fleming
OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) pharmacists' perceptions of how rescheduling of hydrocodone combination products (HCPs) from Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) Schedule III to DEA Schedule II has influenced prescription volume and revenue, pharmacy workflow management, and patient outcomes; and (2) whether perceptions differed between pharmacists who support versus those who oppose HCP rescheduling. DESIGN: A cross-sectional mail survey. SETTING: Texas community pharmacies from October to December 2015...
March 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283966/data-standardization-and-quality-management
#10
Paul A Lapchak, John H Zhang
Important questions regarding the conduct of scientific research and data transparency have been raised in various scientific forums over the last 10 years. It is becoming clear, that in spite of published RIGOR guidelines, that improvement in the transparency of scientific research is required to focus on the discovery and drug development process so that a treatment can be provided to stroke patients. We have the unique privilege of conducting research using animal models of a disease so that we can address the development of a new therapy, and we should do this with great care and vigilance...
March 10, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271465/porcine-islet-xenografts-a-clinical-source-of-%C3%A3-cell-grafts
#11
REVIEW
Bassem F Salama, Gregory S Korbutt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes is medical and social burden affecting millions around the world. Despite intensive therapy, insulin fails to maintain adequate glucose homeostasis and often results in episodes of hypoglycemic unawareness. Islet transplantation is a propitious replacement therapy, and incremental improvements in islet isolation and immunosuppressive drugs have made this procedure a feasible option. Shortage of donors, graft loss, and toxic immunosuppressive agents are few of many hurdles against making human allogenic islet transplantation a routine procedure...
March 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266864/recent-advances-in-therapeutic-applications-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Farzaneh Rami, Shamsi Naderi Beni, Mahboobeh Mojaver Kahnamooi, Ilnaz Rahimmanesh, Ahmad Reza Salehi, Rasoul Salehi
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by reprogramming of differentiated somatic cells. These cells are identical to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in gene expression pattern and the ability to differentiate. iPS cells can be used in in vitro modeling of diseases, testing drugs, assessing gene therapy methods, and cell therapy. Yet, the most important and promising application of iPS cells is in regenerative medicine. Regenerative medicine is a novel area in medicine aiming at the treatment of impaired or lost tissues by replacing them with functional and healthy ones...
March 7, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265882/cardiovascular-bio-engineering-current-state-of-the-art
#13
REVIEW
Teresa Simon-Yarza, Isabelle Bataille, Didier Letourneur
Despite the introduction of new drugs and innovative devices contributing in the last years to improve patients' quality of life, morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases remain high. There is an urgent need for addressing the underlying problem of the loss of cardiac or vascular tissues and therefore developing new therapies. Autologous vascular transplants are often limited by poor quality of donor sites and heart organ transplantation by donor shortage. Vascular and cardiac tissue engineering, whose aim is to repair or replace cardiovascular tissues by the use of cells, engineering and materials, as well as biochemical and physicochemical factors, appears in this scenario as a promising tool to repair the damaged hearts and vessels...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265471/public-medical-preparedness-at-the-swiss-wrestling-and-alpine-games-2013-descriptive-analysis-of-1-533-patients-treated-at-the-largest-3-day-sporting-event-in-switzerland
#14
Simone Hostettler-Blunier, Nora Müller, Tobias Haltmeier, Andreas Hosner, Heinz Bähler, Frank Neff, Daniel Baumberger, Aristomenis Exadaktylos, Beat Schnüriger
Introduction. Medical preparedness at mass gatherings is challenging, as little is known about the optimal planning. Most studies and case reports are based on mass casualty incidents, so the results cannot be extrapolated to mass gatherings. Aim of this study was to evaluate the preclinical medical structure and the frequency of specific injuries and medical emergencies during the event. Methods. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database. Three on-site medical assistance points were set up, completed by mobile teams, and coordinated by an on-site operational management team...
2017: Emergency Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265347/value-added-medicines-what-value-repurposed-medicines-might-bring-to-society
#15
Mondher Toumi, Cécile Rémuzat
Background & objectives: Despite the wide interest surrounding drug repurposing, no common terminology has been yet agreed for these products and their full potential value is not always recognised and rewarded, creating a disincentive for further development. The objectives of the present study were to assess from a wide perspective which value drug repurposing might bring to society, but also to identify key obstacles for adoption of these medicines and to discuss policy recommendations. Methods: A preliminary comprehensive search was conducted to assess how the concept of drug repurposing was described in the literature...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254113/development-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-evaluation-of-self-microemulsion-as-delivery-system-for-%C3%AE-mangostin
#16
Wen-Ke Xu, Hui Jiang, Kui Yang, Ya-Qin Wang, Qian Zhang, Jian Zuo
α-Mangostin (MG) is a versatile bioactive compound isolated from mangosteen and possesses significant pharmacokinetic shortages. To augment the potential clinical efficacy, MG-loaded self-microemulsion (MG-SME) was designed and prepared in this study, and its potential as a drug loading system was evaluated based on the pharmacokinetic performance and tissue distribution feature. The formula of MG-SME was optimized by an orthogonal test under the guidance of ternary phase diagram, and the prepared MG-SME was characterized by encapsulation efficiency, size distribution, and morphology...
March 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237034/machine-learning-and-docking-models-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-topoisomerase-i
#17
Sean Ekins, Adwait Anand Godbole, György Kéri, Lászlo Orfi, János Pato, Rajeshwari Subray Bhat, Rinkee Verma, Erin K Bradley, Valakunja Nagaraja
There is a shortage of compounds that are directed towards new targets apart from those targeted by the FDA approved drugs used against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Topoisomerase I (Mttopo I) is an essential mycobacterial enzyme and a promising target in this regard. However, it suffers from a shortage of known inhibitors. We have previously used computational approaches such as homology modeling and docking to propose 38 FDA approved drugs for testing and identified several active molecules. To follow on from this, we now describe the in vitro testing of a library of 639 compounds...
March 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235161/shortage-of-digitoxin-and-switching-to-digoxin-in-norway-a-retrospective-study-of-blood-samples-submitted-to-a-clinical-pharmacology-laboratory
#18
Jan Schjøtt, Hilde Marie Torgauten, Tormod Karlsen Bjånes
Drug shortages occur frequently and they can affect patient safety [1-3]. Shortage involves medicines used in cancer, anaesthesia and in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases and life-threatening conditions [1-3]. The potential for medication errors increases during drug shortages due to prescribing of unfamiliar agents [4]. This problem was highlighted with digitalis glycosides in Norway 2012. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 24, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209130/determination-of-antibacterial-activity-and-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-of-larval-extract-of-fly-via-resazurin-based-turbidometric-assay
#19
Chien Huey Teh, Wasi Ahmad Nazni, Ab Hamid Nurulhusna, Ahmad Norazah, Han Lim Lee
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is currently a major global issue. As the rate of emergence of antimicrobial resistance has superseded the rate of discovery and introduction of new effective drugs, the medical arsenal now is experiencing shortage of effective drugs to combat diseases, particularly against diseases caused by the dreadful multidrug-resistant strains, such as the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The ability of fly larvae to thrive in septic habitats has prompted us to determine the antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of larval extract of flies, namely Lucilia cuprina, Sarcophaga peregrina and Musca domestica against 4 pathogenic bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S...
February 16, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183573/glycopyrrolate-it-s-time-to-review
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan Howard, Jason Wigley, Gerald Rosen, Jay D'mello
Medication shortages have become an all-too-common inconvenience that has forced anesthesia providers to examine our administering practices. Because of these shortages, commonly used medications are at the greatest risk. Glycopyrrolate (Robinul), which has been in short supply in recent years, is one of the most widely used anticholinergic agents, especially in conjunction with the anticholinesterase neostigmine, for reversal of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) drugs. Here we review multiple studies from 1972 through 1986 that used varying methods of patient selection and dosage and drug combination criteria, and which noted that glycopyrrolate had a superior efficacy and adverse effect profile when compared with atropine in NMB reversal...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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