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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324172/enzymes-involved-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-in-humans
#1
REVIEW
María M Adeva-Andany, Laura López-Maside, Cristóbal Donapetry-García, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, Cristina Sixto-Leal
Branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) are structurally related to branched-chain fatty acids. Leucine is 2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoic acid, isoleucine is 2-amino-3-methyl-pentanoic acid, and valine is 2-amino-3-methyl-butanoic acid. Similar to fatty acid oxidation, leucine and isoleucine produce acetyl-coA. Additionally, leucine generates acetoacetate and isoleucine yields propionyl-coA. Valine oxidation produces propionyl-coA, which is converted into methylmalonyl-coA and succinyl-coA. Branched-chain aminotransferase catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, a reversible transamination that converts branched-chain amino acids into branched-chain ketoacids...
March 21, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323243/proteomics-of-facs-sorted-heterogeneous-corynebacterium-glutamicum-populations
#2
Andreas Harst, Stefan P Albaum, Tanja Bojarzyn, Christian Trötschel, Ansgar Poetsch
The metabolic status of individual cells in microbial cultures can differ, being relevant for biotechnology, environmental and medical microbiology. However, it is hardly understood in molecular detail due to limitations of current analytical tools. Here, we demonstrate that FACS in combination with proteomics can be used to sort and analyze cell populations based on their metabolic state. A previously established GFP reporter system was used to detect and sort single Corynebacterium glutamicum cells based on the concentration of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) using FACS...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321934/multi-layered-control-of-peroxisomal-activity-upon-salt-stress-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Joan Espí-Bardisa, Benito Alarcón, Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Markus Proft
Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles and the sole location for fatty acid β-oxidation in yeast cells. Here we report that peroxisomal function is crucial for the adaptation to salt stress, especially upon sugar limitation. Upon stress, multiple layers of control regulate the activity and the number of peroxisomes. Activated Hog1 MAP kinase triggers the induction of genes encoding enzymes for fatty acid activation, peroxisomal import and β-oxidation through the Adr1 transcriptional activator, which transiently associates with genes encoding fatty acid metabolic enzymes in a stress- and Hog1-dependent manner...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319092/the-tdh-gcn5l1-fbxo15-kbp-axis-limits-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-mouse-embryonic-stem%C3%A2-cells
#4
Valerio Donato, Massimo Bonora, Daniele Simoneschi, Davide Sartini, Yasusei Kudo, Anita Saraf, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Matthias Stadtfeld, Paolo Pinton, Michele Pagano
Self-renewing naive mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) contain few mitochondria, which increase in number and volume at the onset of differentiation. KBP (encoded by Kif1bp) is an interactor of the mitochondrial-associated kinesin Kif1Bα. We found that TDH, responsible for mitochondrial production of acetyl-CoA in mESCs, and the acetyltransferase GCN5L1 cooperate to acetylate Lys501 in KBP, allowing its recognition by and degradation via Fbxo15, an F-box protein transcriptionally controlled by the pluripotency core factors and repressed following differentiation...
March 20, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314774/the-rare-sugar-n-acetylated-viosamine-is-a-major-component-of-mimivirus-fibers
#5
Francesco Piacente, Cristina De Castro, Sandra Jeudy, Matteo Gaglianone, Maria Elena Laugieri, Anna Notaro, Annalisa Salis, Gianluca Damonte, Chantal Abergel, Michela G Tonetti
The giant virus Mimivirus encodes an autonomous glycosylation system, which is thought to be responsible for the formation of complex and unusual glycans composing the fibers surrounding its icosahedral capsid, including the dideoxyhexose viosamine. Previous studies have identified a gene cluster in the virus genome, encoding enzymes involved in nucleotide-sugar production and glycan formation, but the functional characterization of these enzymes and the full identification of the glycans found in viral fibers remains incomplete...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303408/methylene-blue-decreases-mitochondrial-lysine-acetylation-in-the-diabetic-heart
#6
Jessica M Berthiaume, Chia-Heng Hsiung, Alison B Austin, Sean P McBrayer, Mikayla M Depuydt, Margaret P Chandler, Masaru Miyagi, Mariana G Rosca
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is preceded by mitochondrial alterations, and progresses to heart failure. We studied whether treatment with methylene blue (MB), a compound that was reported to serve as an alternate electron carrier within the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), improves mitochondrial metabolism and cardiac function in type 1 diabetes. MB was administered at 10 mg/kg/day to control and diabetic rats. Both echocardiography and hemodynamic studies were performed to assess cardiac function...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302472/erk1-and-erk2-activation-modulates-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#7
Amira Sayed Khan, Selvakumar Subramaniam, Gado Dramane, Douadi Khelifi, Naim Akhtar Khan
Obesity is a worldwide problem, and dietary lipids play an important role in its pathogenesis. Recently, Erk1 knock-out (ERK1(-/-)) mice have been shown to exhibit low preference for dietary fatty acids. Hence, we maintained Erk1(-/-) mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) to assess the implication of this mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in obesity. The Erk1(-/-) mice, fed the HFD, were more obese than wild-type (WT) animals, fed the same diet. Erk1(-/-) obese mice gained more fat and liver mass than WT obese animals...
March 13, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300786/hypocholesterolemic-effects-of-probiotic-mixture-on-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemic-rats
#8
Shang-Jin Kim, Sang Hoon Park, Hong-Sig Sin, Seung-Hwan Jang, Sang-Wang Lee, Seon-Young Kim, Bora Kwon, Kang-Yeol Yu, Su Young Kim, Dong Kwon Yang
Growing evidence has indicated that supplementation with probiotics improves lipid metabolism. We aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of a probiotics mixture (PM) of three strains belonging to the species Bifidobacterium (B. longum, B. lactis, and B. breve) and two strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus (L. reuteri and L. plantarum) on cholesterol-lowering efficacy in hypercholesterolemic rats. A hypercholesterolemic rat model was established by feeding a high-cholesterol diet for eight weeks...
March 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295163/cyanobacterial-carbon-metabolism-fluxome-plasticity-and-oxygen-dependence
#9
Ni Wan, Drew M DeLorenzo, Lian He, Le You, Cheryl M Immethun, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Whitney Hollinshead, Jay D Keasling, Tae Seok Moon, Yinjie J Tang
Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 has been widely used as a photo-biorefinery chassis. Based on its genome annotation, this species contains a complete TCA cycle, an Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMPP), an oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), and an Entner-Doudoroff pathway (EDP). To evaluate how Synechocystis 6803 catabolizes glucose under heterotrophic conditions, we performed (13) C metabolic flux analysis, metabolite pool size analysis, gene knockouts, and heterologous expressions. The results revealed a cyclic mode of flux through the OPPP...
March 14, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294288/engineering-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-fatty-acid-composition-for-increased-tolerance-to-octanoic-acid
#10
Pamela B Besada-Lombana, Ruben Fernandez-Moya, Jacob Fenster, Nancy A Da Silva
Biorenewable chemicals such as short and medium chain fatty acids enable functional or direct substitution of petroleum-derived building blocks, allowing reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gases while meeting market needs of high-demand products like aliphatic alcohols and alpha olefins. However, producing these fatty acids in microorganisms can be challenging due to toxicity issues. Octanoic acid (C8) can disrupt the integrity of the cell membrane in yeast, and exogenous supplementation of oleic acid has been shown to help alleviate this...
March 14, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293193/isobaric-tags-for-relative-and-absolute-quantitation-itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-of-hugan-qingzhi-and-its-protective-properties-against-free-fatty-acid-induced-l02-hepatocyte-injury
#11
Fan Xia, Xiaorui Yao, Waijiao Tang, Chunxin Xiao, Miaoting Yang, Benjie Zhou
In previous research, Hugan Qingzhi, a traditional Chinese medicine, was shown to have protective effects against hepatic steatosis. However, its activity against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the mechanisms by which it exerts its effects remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of Hugan Qingzhi on free fatty acid (FFA)-induced L02 cells were examined. The techniques of iTRAQ labeling, together with strong cation exchange-non-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SCX-non-LC-MS/MS) analysis and serum pharmacology, were used to evaluate the effects of Hugan Qingzhi-medicated serum on FFA-induced L02 hepatocyte injury...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292742/fatty-acid-synthesis-intermediates-represent-novel-noninvasive-biomarkers-of-prostate-cancer-chemoprevention-by-phenethyl-isothiocyanate
#12
Krishna B Singh, Shivendra V Singh
Increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids is a distinctive feature of prostate cancer, which continues to be a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among American men. Therefore, inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis represents an attractive strategy for chemoprevention of prostate cancer. We have shown previously that dietary feeding of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a phytochemical derived from edible cruciferous vegetables such as watercress, inhibits incidence and burden of poorly-differentiated prostate cancer in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290443/inhibition-of-hepatic-lipogenesis-enhances-liver-tumorigenesis-by-increasing-antioxidant-defence-and-promoting-cell-survival
#13
Marin E Nelson, Sujoy Lahiri, Jenny D Y Chow, Frances L Byrne, Stefan R Hargett, David S Breen, Ellen M Olzomer, Lindsay E Wu, Gregory J Cooney, Nigel Turner, David E James, Jill K Slack-Davis, Carolin Lackner, Stephen H Caldwell, Kyle L Hoehn
The metabolic pathway of de novo lipogenesis is frequently upregulated in human liver tumours, and its upregulation is associated with poor prognosis. Blocking lipogenesis in cultured liver cancer cells is sufficient to decrease cell viability; however, it is not known whether blocking lipogenesis in vivo can prevent liver tumorigenesis. Herein, we inhibit hepatic lipogenesis in mice by liver-specific knockout of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) genes and treat the mice with the hepatocellular carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN)...
March 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284693/the-effects-of-cell-death-inducing-dna-fragmentation-factor-%C3%AE-like-effector-c-on-milk-lipid-synthesis-in-mammary-glands-of-dairy-cows
#14
Yang Yang, Ye Lin, Xiaoyu Duan, He Lv, Weinan Xing, Qingzhang Li, Xuejun Gao, Xiaoming Hou
Adequate lipid synthesis by the mammary gland during lactation is essential for the survival of mammalian offspring. Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector C (CIDEC) is a lipid droplet-associated protein and functions to promote lipid accumulation and inhibit lipolysis in mice and human adipocytes. However, the function of CIDEC in regulation of milk lipid synthesis in dairy cow mammary gland remains largely unknown. In this study, 6 multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3) in early lactation were allocated to high-fat milk (milk yield 33...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278108/influence-of-al-3-on-the-titer-of-spiramycin-and-effective-components-in-fermentor
#15
Zhen Li, Fengxian Hu, Ruifang Ye, Heping Lv, Jun Zeng
Spiramycin is a multi-component antibiotic and different components have different antibacterial activities. In Streptomyces spiramyceticus16-10-2, SPMII and SPMIII (spiramycin II and spiramycin III) are the main components, while SPMI (spiramycin I) need to be controlled below 12%. Based on this, the influences of Al(3+) on total spiramycin titer and components were investigated in this work. Those experiments were mainly performed in 15 L fermentor and Al(3+) made a great improvement in spiramycin titer...
February 17, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277148/adverse-effects-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-liver-hepatocytes-and-endothelium-in-hiv-patients-an-ultrastructural-perspective
#16
Sarah Chwiki, Maria Mercedes Campos, Mary E McLaughlin, David E Kleiner, Joseph A Kovacs, Caryn G Morse, Mones S Abu-Asab
Human immunodeficiency virus and antiretroviral therapy (ART) together can be far more detrimental to liver cells than either of the two unaided. However, ultrastructural aspects of the synergistic effects of HIV and ART have been understudied. In a patient cohort receiving ART, this study characterizes ultrastructurally sinusoidal degeneration, hepatocytic aberrations, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of bulky lipid droplets (steatosis), and occlusion of sinusoidal lumina. Mitochondrial dysfunction causes the accumulation of acetyl-CoA which leads to insulin upregulation and resistance, lipid synthesis, and steatosis...
February 28, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274171/differential-representation-of-liver-proteins-in-obese-human-subjects-suggests-novel-biomarkers-and-promising-targets-for-drug-development-in-obesity
#17
Simonetta Caira, Antonio Iannelli, Rosaria Sciarrillo, Gianluca Picariello, Giovanni Renzone, Andrea Scaloni, Pietro Addeo
The proteome of liver biopsies from human obese (O) subjects has been compared to those of nonobese (NO) subjects using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Differentially represented proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)-based peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and nanoflow-liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). Overall, 61 gene products common to all of the liver biopsies were identified within 65 spots, among which 25 ones were differently represented between O and NO subjects...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271481/-pyruvate-carboxylase-structure-and-function
#18
Mikel Valle
Pyruvate carboxylase is a metabolic enzyme that fuels the tricarboxylic acid cycle with one of its intermediates and also participates in the first step of gluconeogenesis. This large enzyme is multifunctional, and each subunit contains two active sites that catalyze two consecutive reactions that lead to the carboxylation of pyruvate into oxaloacetate, and a binding site for acetyl-CoA, an allosteric regulator of the enzyme. Pyruvate carboxylase oligomers arrange in tetramers and covalently attached biotins mediate the transfer of carboxyl groups between distant active sites...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266085/branched-chain-amino-acid-ratios-in-low-protein-diets-regulate-the-free-amino-acid-profile-and-the-expression-of-hepatic-fatty-acid-metabolism-related-genes-in-growing-pigs
#19
Y H Duan, F N Li, C Y Wen, W L Wang, Q P Guo, Y H Li, Y L Yin
Liver metabolism is affected by nutrients. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of low-protein diets (17% crude protein, CP) supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val), on hepatic amino acid profile and lipid metabolism in growing pigs. The ratio of Leu : Ile : Val in all groups was 1 : 0.51 : 0.63 (20% crude protein, CP), 1 : 1 : 1 (17% CP), 1 : 0.75 : 0.75 (17% CP), 1 : 0.51 : 0.63 (17% CP) and 1 : 0.25 : 0...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265263/genome-sequence-of-desulfurella-amilsii-strain-tr1-and-comparative-genomics-of-desulfurellaceae-family
#20
Anna P Florentino, Alfons J M Stams, Irene Sánchez-Andrea
The acidotolerant sulfur reducer Desulfurella amilsii was isolated from sediments of Tinto River, an extremely acidic environment. Its ability to grow in a broad range of pH and to tolerate certain heavy metals offers potential for metal recovery processes. Here we report its high-quality draft genome sequence and compare it to the available genome sequences of other members of Desulfurellaceae family: D. acetivorans. D. multipotens, Hippea maritima. H. alviniae, H. medeae, and H. jasoniae. For most species, pairwise comparisons for average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) revealed ANI values from 67...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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