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Acetyl coa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647567/stearoyl-coa-desaturase-regulates-sorafenib-resistance-via-modulation-of-er-stress-induced-differentiation
#1
Mark Kin Fai Ma, Eunice Yuen Ting Lau, Doris Hoi Wing Leung, Jessica Lo, Nicole Pui Yu Ho, Lily Kwan Wai Cheng, Stephanie Ma, Chi Ho Lin, John A Copland, Jin Ding, Regina Cheuk Lam Lo, Irene Oi Lin Ng, Terence Kin Wah Lee
We investigated the functional role and clinical significance of Stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in regulation of liver tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and sorafenib resistance, aiming to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) METHODS We evaluated the clinic-pathological relevance of SCD1 and its correlation with sorafenib resistance in large cohorts of HCC clinical samples by qPCR and immunohistochemical analyses. Lentiviral-based overexpression and knockdown approaches were performed to characterize functional roles of SCD1 in regulation of liver T-ICs and sorafenib resistance...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647371/triglyceride-synthesis-in-hepatocytes-isolated-from-rats-fed-a-low-protein-diet-is-enhanced-independently-of-upregulation-of-insulin-signaling
#2
Yusuke Taguchi, Yuka Toyoshima, Reiko Tokita, Hisanori Kato, Shin-Ichiro Takahashi, Shiro Minami
It is known that protein malnutrition develops fatty liver in rats. However, the mechanisms by which protein malnutrition enhances lipid accumulation in the liver are not fully understood. Our previous studies have demonstrated that protein malnutrition upregulates insulin signaling with an increase in TG levels in rat livers. Here, we examined whether the upregulated insulin signaling contributes to an enhancement of TG accumulation under protein malnutrition. As it is difficult to analyze insulin-induced hepatic TG synthesis in vivo, the isolated hepatocytes derived from rats fed a low-protein diet were used...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646170/triphenyltin-recognition-by-primary-structures-of-effector-proteins-and-the-protein-network-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-during-the-triphenyltin-degradation-process
#3
Linlin Wang, Jinshao Ye, Huase Ou, Huaming Qin, Yan Long, Jing Ke
Herein, triphenyltin (TPT) biodegradation efficiency and its transformation pathway have been elucidated. To better understand the molecular mechanism of TPT degradation, the interactions between amino acids, primary structures, and quaternary conformations of effector proteins and TPT were studied. The results verified that TPT recognition and binding depended on amino acid sequences but not on secondary, tertiary or quaternary protein structure. During this process, TPT could change the molecular weight and isoelectric point of effector proteins, induce their methylation or demethylation, and alter their conformation...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644444/energy-and-carbon-metabolisms-in-a-deep-terrestrial-subsurface-fluid-microbial-community
#4
Lily Momper, Sean P Jungbluth, Michael D Lee, Jan P Amend
The terrestrial deep subsurface is a huge repository of microbial biomass, but in relation to its size and physical heterogeneity, few sites have been investigated in detail. Here, we applied a culture-independent metagenomic approach to characterize the microbial community composition in deep (1500 meters below surface) terrestrial fluids. Samples were collected from a former gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, USA, now Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF). We reconstructed 74 genomes from metagenomes (MAGs), enabling the identification of common metabolic pathways...
June 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643621/linoleic-acid-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-enterolactone-affect-lipid-oxidation-and-expression-of-lipid-metabolism-and-antioxidant-related-genes-in-hepatic-tissue-of-dairy-cows
#5
Émilie Fortin, Richard Blouin, Jérôme Lapointe, Hélène V Petit, Marie-France Palin
Although beneficial effects have been attributed to PUFA supplementation in high-yielding dairy cows, diets rich in PUFA may also increase oxidative stress in tissues such as the liver. To fully exploit the health benefits of PUFA, we believe that the addition of natural antioxidants could help in preventing oxidative damage. Using an in vitro precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) tissue culture system, we investigated the effects of different linoleic acid (LA, n-6):α-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3) ratios (LA:ALA ratio of 4, LA:ALA ratio of 15 and LA:ALA ratio of 25) in the presence or absence of the antioxidant enterolactone (ENL) on (1) the mRNA abundance of genes with key roles in hepatic lipid metabolism, oxidative stress response and inflammatory processes, (2) oxidative damages to lipids and proteins and (3) superoxide dismutase activity in early-lactating dairy cows...
May 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641075/postconditioning-with-intralipid-emulsion-protects-against-reperfusion-injury-in-postinfarct-remodeled-rat-hearts-by-activation-of-ros-akt-erk-signaling
#6
Michael Zaugg, Phing-How Lou, Eliana Lucchinetti, Manoj Gandhi, Alexander S Clanachan
The clinically used lipid emulsion Intralipid (ILE) reduces ischemia reperfusion injury in healthy rodent hearts. We tested whether ILE is cardioprotective in postinfarct remodeled hearts. Postinfarct remodeled and sham Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were perfused in working mode and subjected to ischemia (15 minutes) and reperfusion (30 minutes). Left ventricular (LV) work was measured in hearts that were untreated or that received ILE (1%) postconditioning administered at the onset of reperfusion, or the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (10 μM) alone or in combination with ILE...
June 1, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638220/green-tea-polyphenols-ameliorate-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-through-upregulating-ampk-activation-in-high-fat-fed-zucker-fatty-rats
#7
Yi Tan, Jane Kim, Jing Cheng, Madeleine Ong, Wei-Guo Lao, Xing-Liang Jin, Yi-Guang Lin, Linda Xiao, Xue-Qiong Zhu, Xian-Qin Qu
AIM: To investigate protective effects and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. METHODS: Male ZF rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 wk then treated with GTP (200 mg/kg) or saline (5 mL/kg) for 8 wk, with Zucker lean rat as their control. At the end of experiment, serum and liver tissue were collected for measurement of metabolic parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), inflammatory cytokines and hepatic triglyceride and liver histology...
June 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637476/eliminating-acetate-formation-improves-citramalate-production-by-metabolically-engineered-escherichia-coli
#8
Naga Sirisha Parimi, Ian A Durie, Xianghao Wu, Afaq M M Niyas, Mark A Eiteman
BACKGROUND: Citramalate, a chemical precursor to the industrially important methacrylic acid (MAA), can be synthesized using Escherichia coli overexpressing citramalate synthase (cimA gene). Deletion of gltA encoding citrate synthase and leuC encoding 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase were critical to achieving high citramalate yields. Acetate is an undesirable by-product potentially formed from pyruvate and acetyl-CoA, the precursors of citramalate during aerobic growth of E. coli. This study investigated strategies to minimize acetate and maximize citramalate production in E...
June 21, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634846/lipid-accumulation-and-metabolic-analysis-based-on-transcriptome-sequencing-of-filamentous-oleaginous-microalgae-tribonema-minus-at-different-growth-phases
#9
Hui Wang, Lili Gao, Huimin Shao, Wenjun Zhou, Tianzhong Liu
Filamentous oleaginous microalgae specie Tribonema minus is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. However, the metabolic mechanism of lipid production in this filamentous microalgal specie remains unclear. Here, we compared the lipid accumulation of T. minus at different growth phases, and described the de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly and identified important pathways and genes involved in TAG production. Total lipid increased by 2.5-fold and its TAG level in total lipid reached 81.1% at stationary phase...
June 20, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634175/interrelations-between-3-hydroxypropionate-and-propionate-metabolism-in-rat-liver-relevance-to-disorders-of-propionyl-coa-metabolism
#10
Kirkland A Wilson, Yong Han, Miaoqi Zhang, Jeremy Hess, Kimberly A Chapman, Gary W Cline, Gregory P Tochtrop, Henri Brunengraber, Guo-Fang Zhang
Propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), methylcitrate, related compounds and ammonium accumulate in body fluids of patients with disorders of propionyl-CoA metabolism, such as propionic acidemia. Although liver transplantation alleviates hyperammonemia, high concentrations of propionate, 3HP and methylcitrate persist in body fluids. We hypothesized that conserved metabolic perturbations occurring in transplanted patients result from the simultaneous presence of propionate and 3HP in body fluids. We investigated the interrelations of propionate and 3HP metabolism in perfused livers from normal rats using metabolomic and stable isotopic technologies...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632266/proteomic-analysis-reveals-xuesaitong-injection-attenuates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-elevating-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-mediated-aerobic-metabolism
#11
Xiaoping Zhao, Feng Zhang, Yi Wang
Xuesaitong injection (XST), which mainly consists of Panax notoginseng saponins, has been widely used for treating cardio-cerebral vascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms of XST associated with its cardioprotective effects are still unclear. To identify the potential target proteins of XST, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomics was utilized to analyze the protein profile of myocardium in rats with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
June 20, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630323/role-of-the-cbp-catalytic-core-in-intramolecular-sumoylation-and-control-of-histone-h3-acetylation
#12
Sangho Park, Robyn L Stanfield, Maria A Martinez-Yamout, H Jane Dyson, Ian A Wilson, Peter E Wright
The histone acetyl transferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its paralog p300 play a critical role in numerous cellular processes. Dysregulation of their catalytic activity is associated with several human diseases. Previous work has elucidated the regulatory mechanisms of p300 acetyltransferase activity, but it is not known whether CBP activity is controlled similarly. Here, we present the crystal structure of the CBP catalytic core encompassing the bromodomain (BRD), CH2 (comprising PHD and RING), HAT, and ZZ domains at 2...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627452/engineering-of-unconventional-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica-for-efficient-succinic-acid-production-from-glycerol-at-low-ph
#13
Zhiyong Cui, Cuijuan Gao, Jiaojiao Li, Jin Hou, Carol Sze Ki Lin, Qingsheng Qi
Yarrowia lipolytica is considered as a potential candidate for succinic acid production because of its innate ability to accumulate citric acid cycle intermediates and its tolerance to acidic pH. Previously, a succinate-production strain was obtained through the deletion of succinate dehydrogenase subunit encoding gene Ylsdh5. However, the accumulation of by-product acetate limited further improvement of succinate production. Meanwhile, additional pH adjustment procedure increased the downstream cost in industrial application...
June 13, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625981/heterologous-expression-of-the-clostridium-carboxidivorans-co-dehydrogenase-alone-or-together-with-the-acetyl-coa-synthase-enables-clostridium-acetobutylicum-to-both-reduce-co2-and-oxidize-co
#14
Ellinor D Carlson, Eleftherios T Papoutsakis
With recent advances in synthetic biology, CO2 could be utilized as a carbon feedstock by native or engineered organisms, assuming the availability of electrons. Two key enzymes used in autotrophic CO2 fixation are the CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS), which form a bifunctional heterotetrameric complex. CODH/ACS can reversibly catalyze CO2 to CO, effectively enabling a biological water-gas shift reaction at ambient temperatures and pressures. The CODH/ACS complex is part of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) used by acetogens to fix CO2 and has been well characterized in native hosts...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624287/variants-in-the-3-untranslated-region-of-the-ovine-acetyl-coenzyme-a-acyltransferase-2-gene-are-associated-with-dairy-traits-and-exhibit-differential-allelic-expression
#15
D Miltiadou, A L Hager-Theodorides, S Symeou, C Constantinou, A Psifidi, G Banos, O Tzamaloukas
The acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2) gene encodes an enzyme of the thiolase family that is involved in mitochondrial fatty acid elongation and degradation by catalyzing the last step of the respective β-oxidation pathway. The increased energy needs for gluconeogenesis and triglyceride synthesis during lactation are met primarily by increased fatty acid oxidation. Therefore, the ACAA2 enzyme plays an important role in the supply of energy and carbon substrates for lactation and may thus affect milk production traits...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621732/lipid-accumulation-in-hepg2-cells-is-attenuated-by-strawberry-extract-through-ampk-activation
#16
Tamara Y Forbes-Hernández, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Sadia Afrin, Luca Mazzoni, Mario D Cordero, Bruno Mezzetti, José L Quiles, Maurizio Battino
Regulation of lipid metabolism is essential for treatment and prevention of several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are responsible for most deaths worldwide. It has been demonstrated that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a direct impact on lipid metabolism by modulating several downstream-signaling components. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of a methanolic strawberry extract on AMPK and its possible repercussion on lipid metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2)...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620312/thermodynamics-in-gliomas-interactions-between-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-and-ppar-gamma
#17
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Gliomas cells are the site of numerous metabolic and thermodynamics abnormalities with an increasing entropy rate which is characteristic of irreversible processes driven by changes in Gibbs energy, heat production, intracellular acidity, membrane potential gradient, and ionic conductance. We focus our review on the opposing interactions observed in glioma between the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR gamma and their metabolic and thermodynamic implications. In gliomas, WNT/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated while PPAR gamma is downregulated...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620248/relative-gene-expression-of-fatty-acid-synthesis-genes-at-60-days-postpartum-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-of-surti-and-jafarabadi-buffaloes
#18
Mamta Janmeda, Vishnu Kharadi, Gaurav Pandya, Balkrishna Brahmkshtri, Umed Ramani, Kuldeep Tyagi
AIM: Aim of the study was to study the relative gene expression of genes associated with fatty acid synthesis at 60 days postpartum (pp) in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MECs) of Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 healthy Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes of each breed were selected at random from Livestock Research Station, Navsari and Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh, Gujarat, respectively, for this study. Milk sample was collected from each selected buffalo at day 60 pp from these two breeds to study relative gene expression of major milk fat genes using non-invasive approach of obtaining primary bovine MECs (pBMEC) from milk samples...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619669/sex-pheromone-in-the-moth-heliothis-virescens-is-produced-as-a-mixture-of-two-pools-de-novo-and-via-precursor-storage-in-glycerolipids
#19
Stephen P Foster, Karin G Anderson, Jérôme Casas
Most species of moths use a female-produced volatile sex pheromone, typically produced via de novo fatty acid synthesis in a specialized gland, for communication among mates. While de novo biosynthesis of pheromone (DNP) is rapid, suggesting transient precursor acids, substantial amounts of pheromone precursor (and other) acids are stored, predominantly in triacylglycerols in the pheromone gland. Whether these stored acids are converted to pheromone later or not has been the subject of some debate. Using a tracer/tracee approach, in which we fed female Heliothis virescens U-(13)C-glucose, we were able to distinguish two pools of pheromone, in which precursors were temporally separated (after and before feeding on labeled glucose): DNP synthesized from a mixed tracer/tracee acetyl CoA pool after feeding, and pheromone made from precursor acids primarily synthesized before feeding, which we call recycled precursor fat pheromone (RPP)...
June 12, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617592/kinetic-and-thermodynamic-analysis-of-acetyl-coa-activation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-pyruvate-carboxylase
#20
Lauren E Westerhold, Lance C Bridges, Saame Raza Shaikh, Tonya Nicole Zeczycki
Allosteric regulation of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activity is pivotal to maintaining metabolic homeostasis. In contrast, dysregulated PC activity contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, rendering PC a possible target for allosteric therapeutic development. Recent research efforts have focused on demarcating the role of acetyl-CoA, one of the most potent activators of PC, in coordinating catalytic events within the multifunctional enzyme. Herein, we report a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of acetyl-CoA activation of the Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC) catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate to identify novel means by which acetyl-CoA synchronizes catalytic events within the PC tetramer...
June 15, 2017: Biochemistry
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