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Scott D Hamilton-Brehm, Lidia T Hristova, Susan R Edwards, Jeffrey R Wedding, Meradeth Snow, Brittany R Kruger, Duane P Moser
Chewed and expectorated quids, indigestible stringy fibers from the roasted inner pulp of agave or yucca root, have proven resilient over long periods of time in dry cave environments and correspondingly, although little studied, are common in archaeological archives. In the late 1960s, thousands of quids were recovered from Mule Spring Rockshelter (Nevada, USA) deposits and stored without consideration to DNA preservation in a museum collection, remaining unstudied for over fifty years. To assess the utility of these materials as repositories for genetic information about past inhabitants of the region and their movements, twenty-one quids were selected from arbitrary excavation depths for detailed analysis...
2018: PloS One
Yuliana Rosas Hernández, Luz Arcelia García Serrano, Daniel Tapia Maruri, Antonio Ruperto Jiménez Aparicio, Brenda Hildeliza Camacho Díaz, Martha Lucia Arenas-Ocampo
About 150 species of Agave genus exist in Mexico, including Agave angustifolia Haw, which is used mainly in the agroindustry for producing alcoholic beverages such as mescal, and for obtaining fructan macromolecules (agavin), during the manufacturing process, a by-product, known as bagasse, is formed. Oaxaca's mescal industry produces about 122,696 tons per year of bagasse (Martinez et al, 2013), likewise, this by-product is also formed in a process where macromolecules are obtained in the Center for Development of Biotic Products-IPN (Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bioticos-IPN (CeProBi-IPN)) (Patent No...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
William J Allen, Refaat E Gabr, Getaneh B Tefera, Amol S Pednekar, Matthew W Vaughn, Ponnada A Narayana
Biomedical data are quickly growing in volume and in variety, providing clinicians an opportunity for better clinical decision support. Here, we demonstrate a robust platform that uses software automation and high performance computing (HPC) resources to achieve real-time analytics of clinical data, specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. We used the Agave application programming interface to facilitate communication, data transfer, and job control between an MRI scanner and an off-site HPC resource...
March 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Sascha Siebenhaller, Julian Gentes, Alba Infantes, Claudia Muhle-Goll, Frank Kirschhöfer, Gerald Brenner-Weiß, Katrin Ochsenreither, Christoph Syldatk
Honey and agave syrup are high quality natural products and consist of more than 80% sugars. They are used as sweeteners, and are ingredients of cosmetics or medical ointments. Furthermore, both have low water content, are often liquid at room temperature and resemble some known sugar-based deep eutectic solvents (DES). Since it has been shown that it is possible to synthesize sugar esters in these DESs, in the current work honey or, as vegan alternative, agave syrup are used simultaneously as solvent and substrate for the enzymatic sugar ester production...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Eduardo Padilla-Camberos, Carla P Barragán-Álvarez, Nestor E Diaz-Martinez, Vineet Rathod, José Miguel Flores-Fernández
Obesity affects millions of people worldwide, constituting a public health problem associated with premature mortality. Agave fructans decrease fat mass, body and liver weight, and generate satiety in rodents. In the present study the effects of agave fructans on weight control, lipid profile, and physical tolerability were evaluated in obese people. Twenty-eight obese volunteers were randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, 96 mg/bw of agave fructans was administered for 12 weeks; in the second group, maltodextrin as a placebo was administered for 12 weeks...
February 7, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Arnaud G Blouin, Kar Mun Chooi, Ben Warren, Kathryn R Napier, Roberto A Barrero, Robin M MacDiarmid
A novel virus, with characteristics of viruses classified within the genus Vitivirus, was identified from a sample of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay in New Zealand. The virus was detected with high throughput sequencing (small RNA and total RNA) and its sequence was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Its genome is 7507 nt long (excluding the polyA tail) with an organisation similar to that described for other classifiable members of the genus Vitivirus. The closest relative of the virus is grapevine virus E (GVE) with 65% aa identity in ORF1 (65% nt identity) and 63% aa identity in the coat protein (66% nt identity)...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Virology
João Victor A de Oliveira, Mariana B Botura, Jener D G Dos Santos, Deivison S Argolo, Victor Diogenes A da Silva, Gisele D da Silva, Hélimar G de Lima, Raimundo Braz Filho, Ivo Jose C Vieira, Alexsandro Branco, Maria José M Batatinha, Silvia L Costa
Astrocytic tumour cells derived from human (GL-15) and rat (C6) gliomas, as well as non-tumoural astrocytic cells, were exposed to the saponin-rich fraction (SF) from Agave sisalana waste and the cytotoxic effects were evaluated. Cytotoxicity assays revealed a reduction of cell viability that was more intensive in glioma than in non-tumoural cells. The SF induced morphological changes in C6 cells. They were characterised by cytoplasmic vacuole formation associated with increase in the formation of acidic lysosomes...
February 2, 2018: Natural Product Research
Xochitl Niehus, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le Coq, Georgina Sandoval, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Rodrigo Ledesma-Amaro
Background: Yarrowia lipolytica is a common biotechnological chassis for the production of lipids, which are the preferred feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. To reduce the cost of microbial lipid production, inexpensive carbon sources must be used, such as lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Unfortunately, lignocellulosic materials often contain toxic compounds and a large amount of xylose, which cannot be used by Y. lipolytica. Results: In this work, we engineered this yeast to efficiently use xylose as a carbon source for the production of lipids by overexpressing native genes...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Carlos A Flores-Gómez, Eleazar M Escamilla Silva, Cheng Zhong, Bruce E Dale, Leonardo da Costa Sousa, Venkatesh Balan
Background: Agave-based alcoholic beverage companies generate thousands of tons of solid residues per year in Mexico. These agave residues might be used for biofuel production due to their abundance and favorable sustainability characteristics. In this work, agave leaf and bagasse residues from species Agave tequilana and Agave salmiana were subjected to pretreatment using the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process. The pretreatment conditions were optimized using a response surface design methodology...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Joaquina María García-Martín, Juan Mosquera, Carlos Lado
A new plasmodiocarpic and sporocarpic species of myxomycete in the genus Physarum is described and illustrated. This new species appeared on decayed leaves and remains of succulent plants (Agave, Opuntia, Yucca) growing in arid zones. It differs from all other species in the genus in having polyhedral spores linked in chains like a string of beads, a unique feature within all known myxomycetes. Apart from detailed morphological data, partial sequences of both the small-subunit ribosomal RNA and elongation factor 1-alpha genes, generated from four isolates collected in two distant regions, i...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
Eduardo Robles, Javier Fernández-Rodríguez, Ananda M Barbosa, Oihana Gordobil, Neftali L V Carreño, Jalel Labidi
Tequila elaboration leaves two main byproducts that are undervalued (bagasse and leaves). Organosolv pulping and Total Chlorine Free bleaching were integrated to obtain cellulose fibers from agricultural waste which consisted of blue agave bagasse and leaf fibers; together they represent a green process which valorizes biomass waste. The obtained celluloses were characterized by FT-IR, colorimetry, and SEM and their extraction yields were evaluated. These celluloses were used to produce cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibers...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
J A Aldrete-Tapia, D E Miranda-Castilleja, S M Arvizu-Medrano, M Hernández-Iturriaga
The high concentration of fructose in agave juice has been associated with reduced ethanol tolerance of commercial yeasts used for tequila production and low fermentation yields. The selection of autochthonous strains, which are better adapted to agave juice, could improve the process. In this study, a 2-step selection process of yeasts isolated from spontaneous fermentations for tequila production was carried out based on analysis of the growth dynamics in combined conditions of high fructose and ethanol. First, yeast isolates (605) were screened to identify strains tolerant to high fructose (20%) and to ethanol (10%), yielding 89 isolates able to grow in both conditions...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Elena Franco-Robles, Joel Ramírez-Emiliano, Mercedes G López
Obesity is currently a public health problem worldwide. Recently, non-reducing carbohydrates, that include β(2→1) and β(2→6) linkages in their structure, have been of particular interest in the field of obesity because they are involved in lipid metabolism. Some of these are agave fructans (AF) and oligofructose (OF). In this study, we evaluated both AF and OF on oxidative stress (OS) markers in the brain of overweight mice (OM). AF and OF decreased TBARS levels and carbonyls at different levels in hippocampus (HP), frontal cortex (FC) and cerebellum (CB) of OM...
January 9, 2018: Natural Product Research
Abhishek Khapre, Sunil Kumar, C Rajasekaran
Landfill gases are produced due to biodegradation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) when water comes into contact with buried wastes under prevailing anaerobic conditions. To minimize the percolation of water in landfills, the conventional approaches such as clay capping is still practised in India. As landfill gas extraction system is an expensive technique,'Phytocapping' to mitigate landfill gases and to minimize percolation of water into the landfill can be one of the attractive alternatives...
December 19, 2017: Environmental Technology
Deepa K Ingawale, Snehal S Patel
Hecogenin is a steroidal sapogenin isolated from the leaves of Agave genus species that plays an important role in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of hecogenin in Complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The hecogenin (40 µl of 50 µg/kg, orally) and hecogenin + fluticasone (40 µl of 25 µg/kg, each, orally) was tested against Complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats by evaluating various parameters such as paw volume, arthritic score, joint diameter, spleen weight, thymus weight, haematological and biochemical parameters and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
February 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Mouna Sahnoun, Samir Bejar, Lobna Daoud, Leila Ayadi, Faiçal Brini, Walid Saibi
Among phenolic compounds, Agave americana L. extract contained puerarin (38.4%) and p-coumaric acid (12.29%) (pCa). From the Lineweaver-Burk plots, pCa and puerarin demonstrated a competitive and a non competitive inhibitions towards human α-amylase activity, respectively. PCa exhibited a higher human inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 98.8 μM which was about 2.3 times than acarbose. Puerarin (IC50  = 3.87 μM) and pCa (IC50  = 10.16 μM) also showed an excellent inhibition for Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylase activity...
November 28, 2017: Natural Product Research
Víctor Manuel Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Marco Antonio Rogel-Hernandez, Gabriela Guerrero, Clara Ivette Rincón-Molina, Luis Galdino García-Perez, Federico Antonio Gutiérrez-Miceli, Juan José Villalobos-Maldonado, Aline López-López, Esperanza Martinez-Romero, Reiner Rincón-Rosales
We report here the complete genome sequence of Rhizobium sp. strain ACO-34A, isolated from Agave americana L. rhizosphere. No common nod genes were found, but there were nif genes for nitrogen fixing. A low average nucleotide identity to reported species supports its designation as a novel Rhizobium species that has a complete ribosomal operon in a plasmid.
November 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
A I Castillo Andrade, C Rivera Bautista, C Godínez Hernández, Ruiz Cabrera, C Fuentes Ahumada, E García Chávez, A Grajales Lagunes
A prospective completely randomized experimental study was conducted using 48 animals to evaluate the physiometabolic effects of Agave salmiana fructans as a dietary supplement in healthy Wistar rats. Five fructans concentrations from 5 to 20% (w/w) and one control were used in the rats' diet and were divided into six groups (n=8 rats/group). The treatments were carried out for 35 days, during which glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, body-weight gain, food intake, fecal excretion, organ weights, renal and hepatic functions and a histological analysis of the cecum were evaluated...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Carmen J Figueredo-Urbina, Alejandro Casas, Ignacio Torres-García
Agave inaequidens and A. cupreata are wild species with some populations under incipient management, while A. hookeri is exclusively cultivated, used for producing the fermented beverage pulque. These species are closely related and sympatric members of the Crenatae group, but taxonomists have previously hypothesized that A. inaequidens is the most probable ancestor of A. hookeri. Our study aims at evaluating patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the three species, in order to analyze their ecological and possible evolutionary relationships...
2017: PloS One
S Maio, S Baldacci, M Bresciani, M Simoni, M Latorre, N Murgia, F Spinozzi, M Braschi, L Antonicelli, B Brunetto, P Iacovacci, P Roazzi, C Pini, M Pata, L La Grasta, P Paggiaro, G Viegi
BACKGROUND: The Italian severe/uncontrolled asthma (SUA) web-based registry encompasses demographic, clinical, functional, and inflammatory data; it aims to raise SUA awareness, identifying specific phenotypes and promoting optimal care. METHODS: Four hundred and ninety three adult patients from 27 Italian centers (recruited in 2011-2014) were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean age was 53.8 years. SUA patients were more frequently female (60.6%), with allergic asthma (83...
October 26, 2017: Allergy
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