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Tuesday Simmons, Daniel F Caddell, Siwen Deng, Devin Coleman-Derr
The intimate interaction between plant host and associated microorganisms is crucial in determining plant fitness, and can foster improved tolerance to abiotic stresses and diseases. As the plant microbiome can be highly complex, low-cost, high-throughput methods such as amplicon-based sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene are often preferred for characterizing its microbial composition and diversity. However, the selection of appropriate methodology when conducting such experiments is critical for reducing biases that can make analysis and comparisons between samples and studies difficult...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Karolina Heyduk, Jeremy N Ray, Saravanaraj Ayyampalayam, James Leebens-Mack
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The relative ease of high throughput sequencing is facilitating comprehensive phylogenomic and gene expression studies, even for nonmodel groups. To date, however, these two approaches have not been merged; while phylogenomic methods might use transcriptome sequences to resolve relationships, assessment of gene expression patterns in a phylogenetic context is less common. Here we analyzed both carbon assimilation and gene expression patterns of closely related species within the Agavoideae (Asparagaceae) to elucidate changes in gene expression across weak and strong phenotypes for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)...
March 2018: American Journal of Botany
Daniela L Aguilar, Rosa M Rodríguez-Jasso, Elisa Zanuso, Diana Jasso de Rodríguez, Lorena Amaya-Delgado, Arturo Sanchez, Héctor A Ruiz
The production of tequila in Mexico generates a large amount of agave bagasse per year. However, this biomass can be considered as a potential source for biofuel production. In this study, it is described how the hydrothermal pretreatment was scaled in a bench scale, considering the severity index as a strategy. The best condition was at 180 °C in isothermal regime for 20 min with 65.87% of cellulose content and high concentration of xylooligosaccharides (15.31 g/L). This condition was scaled up (using severity factor: [logR0 ] = 4...
April 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Prajakta P Kamble, Maheshkumar V Kore, Sushama A Patil, Jyoti P Jadhav, Yasmin C Attar
Tithonia rotundifolia is an easily available and abundant inulin rich weed reported to be competitive and allelopathic. This weed inulin is hydrolyzed by inulinase into fructose. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize culture conditions for the inulinase production from Arthrobacter mysorens strain no.1 isolated from rhizospheric area of Tithonia weed. Initially, Plackett- Burman design was used for screening 11 nutritional parameters for inulinase production including inulin containing weeds as cost effective substrate...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Sergio Alan Cervantes-Pérez, Annie Espinal-Centeno, Araceli Oropeza-Aburto, Juan Caballero-Pérez, Francisco Falcon, Alejandro Aragón-Raygoza, Lino Sánchez-Segura, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Andrés Cruz-Hernández, Alfredo Cruz-Ramírez
In plants, the best characterized plant regeneration process is de novo organogenesis. This type of regeneration is characterized by the formation of a multicellular structure called callus. Calli are induced via phytohormone treatment of plant sections. The callus formation in plants like Agave species with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) is poorly studied. In this study, we induced callus formation from Agave salmiana leaves and describe cell arrangement in this tissue. Moreover, we determined and analyzed the transcriptional program of calli, as well as those of differentiated root and leaf tissues, by using RNA-seq...
April 26, 2018: Developmental Biology
Miguel Ángel Robles-García, Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez, Enrique Márquez-Ríos, Arturo Barrera-Rodríguez, Jacobo Aguilar, José A Aguilar, Francisco Javier Reynoso-Marín, I Ceja, R Dórame-Miranda, Francisco Rodríguez-Félix
In this study, cellulose of bagasse from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul was extracted to elaborate nanofibers by the electrospinning technique. Fiber characterization was performed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), x-ray, Fournier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermal analysis by Differential Scanning Calorimetry-Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSC-TGA). Different diameters (ranging from 54.57 ± 0.02 to 171 ± 0.01 nm) of nanofibers were obtained. Cellulose nanofibers were analyzed by means of x-ray diffraction, where we observed a total loss of crystallinity in comparison with the cellulose, while FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that the hemicellulose and lignin present in the agave bagasse were removed...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
MarÍa Del Rosario CÁrdenas-Aquino, Norma Marina AlarcÓn-rodrÍguez, Mario Rivas-Medrano, HÉctor GonzÁlez-hernÁndez, Mateo Vargas-hernÁndez, Hussein SÁnchez-Arroyo, Celina Llanderal-cÁzares
Comadia redtenbacheri (Hammerschmidt) (Agave Red Worm) is the only member of the family Cossidae that has been described as a phytophagous specialist of the plant genus Agave, which is mainly distributed in México. A new extraction protocol adapted from Stewart Via (1993) has been implemented for sequencing the COI gene from samples collected in five states of the North Central (Querétaro and Zacatecas), South Central (Estado de México) and East Central (Hidalgo and Tlaxcala) regions of México with the purpose of contributing to delineation of the species...
January 25, 2018: Zootaxa
Mouna Sahnoun, Walid Saibi, Faiçal Brini, Samir Bejar
Agave americana extract was analyzed by reverse phase HPLC for characterization. Among phenolic compounds identified, apigenin was observed to be present. The finding showed an inhibitory effect of apigenin towards Human and Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylases. Apigenin inhibition towards Human and A. oryzae α-amylase activities was observed to be competitive. IC50 and  % inhibition of apigenin for A. oryzae α-amylase were 3.98 and 1.65 fold higher than for Human α-amylase. The inhibition of the described biocatalyst activity was significantly lowered when apigenin was pre-incubated with starch...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi, Maristela Oliveira Dos Santos, Fabiane Faria Barbon, Bruna Aparecida Manjerona, Bruno Rosa Meirelles, Pedro de Oliva Neto, Pedro Ismael da Silva, Lucinéia Dos Santos, Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo, Edislane Barreiros de Souza
Brazilian Northeast is the world's largest producer of Agave sisalana Perrine for the supply of the sisal fiber. About 95% of plant biomass, which comprise the mucilage and sisal juice, is considered a waste residual is discarded in the soil. However, the sisal juice is rich in steroidal saponins, which exhibits different pharmacological properties. Despite this, natural products are not necessarily safe. Based on this, this study analyzed the antioxidant, cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of three extracts derived from acid hydrolysis (AHAS), dried precipitate (DPAS) and hexanic of A...
February 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Arup Kumar Misra, Sushil Kumar Varma, Ranjeet Kumar
Background: Medicinal plants have the potential treasure to treat medical conditions for a long time based on error and trial method. Agave americana has been known as century plant or American aloe. The leaves contain genins, saponins, steroidal flavonoids, isoflavones, and coumarins. It has long been used for anti-inflammatory effects. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract of A. americana . Materials and Methods: A...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Research
Scott D Hamilton-Brehm, Lidia T Hristova, Susan R Edwards, Jeffrey R Wedding, Meradeth Snow, Brittany R Kruger, Duane P Moser
Chewed and expectorated quids, indigestible stringy fibers from the roasted inner pulp of agave or yucca root, have proven resilient over long periods of time in dry cave environments and correspondingly, although little studied, are common in archaeological archives. In the late 1960s, thousands of quids were recovered from Mule Spring Rockshelter (Nevada, USA) deposits and stored without consideration to DNA preservation in a museum collection, remaining unstudied for over fifty years. To assess the utility of these materials as repositories for genetic information about past inhabitants of the region and their movements, twenty-one quids were selected from arbitrary excavation depths for detailed analysis...
2018: PloS One
Yuliana Rosas Hernández, Luz Arcelia García Serrano, Daniel Tapia Maruri, Antonio Ruperto Jiménez Aparicio, Brenda Hildeliza Camacho Díaz, Martha Lucía Arenas Ocampo
The main objective of this work was to optimize the process of fractionation of the bagasse of Agave angustifolia Haw, applying organosolv assisted with microwaves. The DCC was used to evaluate the effect of independent variables such as ethanol concentration (40, 50, and 60%) and reaction time (1, 1.5, and 2 h) on yield, cellulose and lignin percentages. Lignocellulosic fractions (F1 and F2) were obtained by means of organosolv assisted with microwave in an open system (atmospheric pressure) and a closed system (controlled pressure)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
William J Allen, Refaat E Gabr, Getaneh B Tefera, Amol S Pednekar, Matthew W Vaughn, Ponnada A Narayana
Biomedical data are quickly growing in volume and in variety, providing clinicians an opportunity for better clinical decision support. Here, we demonstrate a robust platform that uses software automation and high performance computing (HPC) resources to achieve real-time analytics of clinical data, specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. We used the Agave application programming interface to facilitate communication, data transfer, and job control between an MRI scanner and an off-site HPC resource...
March 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Sascha Siebenhaller, Julian Gentes, Alba Infantes, Claudia Muhle-Goll, Frank Kirschhöfer, Gerald Brenner-Weiß, Katrin Ochsenreither, Christoph Syldatk
Honey and agave syrup are high quality natural products and consist of more than 80% sugars. They are used as sweeteners, and are ingredients of cosmetics or medical ointments. Furthermore, both have low water content, are often liquid at room temperature and resemble some known sugar-based deep eutectic solvents (DES). Since it has been shown that it is possible to synthesize sugar esters in these DESs, in the current work honey or, as vegan alternative, agave syrup are used simultaneously as solvent and substrate for the enzymatic sugar ester production...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Eduardo Padilla-Camberos, Carla P Barragán-Álvarez, Nestor E Diaz-Martinez, Vineet Rathod, José Miguel Flores-Fernández
Obesity affects millions of people worldwide, constituting a public health problem associated with premature mortality. Agave fructans decrease fat mass, body and liver weight, and generate satiety in rodents. In the present study the effects of agave fructans on weight control, lipid profile, and physical tolerability were evaluated in obese people. Twenty-eight obese volunteers were randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, 96 mg/bw of agave fructans was administered for 12 weeks; in the second group, maltodextrin as a placebo was administered for 12 weeks...
March 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Arnaud G Blouin, Kar Mun Chooi, Ben Warren, Kathryn R Napier, Roberto A Barrero, Robin M MacDiarmid
A novel virus, with characteristics of viruses classified within the genus Vitivirus, was identified from a sample of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay in New Zealand. The virus was detected with high throughput sequencing (small RNA and total RNA) and its sequence was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Its genome is 7507 nt long (excluding the polyA tail) with an organisation similar to that described for other classifiable members of the genus Vitivirus. The closest relative of the virus is grapevine virus E (GVE) with 65% aa identity in ORF1 (65% nt identity) and 63% aa identity in the coat protein (66% nt identity)...
May 2018: Archives of Virology
João Victor A de Oliveira, Mariana B Botura, Jener D G Dos Santos, Deivison S Argolo, Victor Diogenes A da Silva, Gisele D da Silva, Hélimar G de Lima, Raimundo Braz Filho, Ivo Jose C Vieira, Alexsandro Branco, Maria José M Batatinha, Silvia L Costa
Astrocytic tumour cells derived from human (GL-15) and rat (C6) gliomas, as well as non-tumoural astrocytic cells, were exposed to the saponin-rich fraction (SF) from Agave sisalana waste and the cytotoxic effects were evaluated. Cytotoxicity assays revealed a reduction of cell viability that was more intensive in glioma than in non-tumoural cells. The SF induced morphological changes in C6 cells. They were characterised by cytoplasmic vacuole formation associated with increase in the formation of acidic lysosomes...
February 2, 2018: Natural Product Research
Xochitl Niehus, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le Coq, Georgina Sandoval, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Rodrigo Ledesma-Amaro
Background: Yarrowia lipolytica is a common biotechnological chassis for the production of lipids, which are the preferred feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. To reduce the cost of microbial lipid production, inexpensive carbon sources must be used, such as lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Unfortunately, lignocellulosic materials often contain toxic compounds and a large amount of xylose, which cannot be used by Y. lipolytica . Results: In this work, we engineered this yeast to efficiently use xylose as a carbon source for the production of lipids by overexpressing native genes...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Carlos A Flores-Gómez, Eleazar M Escamilla Silva, Cheng Zhong, Bruce E Dale, Leonardo da Costa Sousa, Venkatesh Balan
Background: Agave-based alcoholic beverage companies generate thousands of tons of solid residues per year in Mexico. These agave residues might be used for biofuel production due to their abundance and favorable sustainability characteristics. In this work, agave leaf and bagasse residues from species Agave tequilana and Agave salmiana were subjected to pretreatment using the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process. The pretreatment conditions were optimized using a response surface design methodology...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Joaquina María García-Martín, Juan Mosquera, Carlos Lado
A new plasmodiocarpic and sporocarpic species of myxomycete in the genus Physarum is described and illustrated. This new species appeared on decayed leaves and remains of succulent plants (Agave, Opuntia, Yucca) growing in arid zones. It differs from all other species in the genus in having polyhedral spores linked in chains like a string of beads, a unique feature within all known myxomycetes. Apart from detailed morphological data, partial sequences of both the small-subunit ribosomal RNA and elongation factor 1-alpha genes, generated from four isolates collected in two distant regions, i...
April 2018: European Journal of Protistology
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