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Erika Mellado-Mojica, Luis E González de la Vara, Mercedes G López
Biosynthesis of agave fructans occurs in mesontle vacuoles which showed fluctuations in FAZY activities and synthesized a diverse spectrum of fructooligosaccharide isomers. Agave tequilana Weber Blue variety is an important agronomic crop in Mexico. Fructan metabolism in A. tequilana exhibits changes in fructan content, type, degree of polymerization (DP), and molecular structure. Specific activities of vacuolar fructan active enzymes (FAZY) in A. tequilana plants of different age and the biosynthesis of fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) were analyzed in this work...
October 11, 2016: Planta
A L Márquez-Aguirre, R M Camacho-Ruíz, Y K Gutiérrez-Mercado, E Padilla-Camberos, M González-Ávila, F J Gálvez-Gastélum, N E Díaz-Martínez, D Ortuño-Sahagún
Fructans from agave have received specific attention because of their highly branched fructan content. We have previously reported that the degree of polymerization (dp) influences their biological activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of unfractionated and fractionated fructans (higher and lower dps) from Agave tequilana in high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice. Fructans with a lower dp (HFD+ScF) decreased weight gain by 30 %, body fat mass by 51 %, hyperglycemia by 25 % and liver steatosis by 40 %...
September 27, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Ana María Leal-Díaz, Lilia G Noriega, Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, Nimbe Torres, Gabriela Alemán-Escondrillas, Patricia López-Romero, Mónica Sánchez-Tapia, Miriam Aguilar-López, Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Laura A Velázquez-Villegas, Azalia Avila-Nava, Guillermo Ordáz, Janet A Gutiérrez-Uribe, Sergio O Serna-Saldivar, Armando R Tovar
Obesity and its comorbidities are a severe public health problem worldwide. The use of bioactive compounds found in some foods has been demonstrated to ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the bioactive compounds present in aguamiel concentrate (AC) from Agave salmiana could attenuate glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high fat (HF) diet. HPLC-ELSD analysis showed that AC contained several saponins. The consumption of an AC extract rich in saponins reduced weight gain and fat mass and lowered serum glucose, insulin and LDL-cholesterol levels in mice fed a HF diet...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bashir Ahmad, Farah Shireen, Shumaila Bashir, Ibrar Khan, Sadiq Azam
The current study was performed to synthesize stable, eco-friendly and bio-compatible silver nano-particles (AgNPs) of Agave americana, Mentha spicata and Mangifera indica leaves and to screen them for biological activities. The ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic analysis revealed that λ-max for AgNPs range from 350-500 nm. All AgNPs possessed polycrystalline structure as notified as intense graphical peaks in complete spectrum of 20 values ranging from 10-80° in X-ray diffraction measurements and supported by scanning electron microscopy data...
October 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
Fernando Uriel Rojas-Rojas, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Manoj Pillay, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, Dimitrios Stamatis, T B K Reddy, Victor Markowitz, Natalia Ivanova, Nikos Kyrpides, Tanja Woyke, Nicole Shapiro, J Antonio Ibarra, Paulina Estrada-de Los Santos
Cupriavidus alkaliphilus ASC-732(T) was isolated from the rhizosphere of agave plant growing in alkaline soils in San Carlos, Tamaulipas, Mexico. The species is able to grow in the presence of arsenic, zinc, and copper. The genome sequence of strain ASC-732(T) is 6,125,055 bp with 5,586 genes and an average G+C content of 67.81%.
2016: Genome Announcements
Elijah Ige Ohimain
Incidence of methanol contamination of traditionally fermented beverages is increasing globally resulting in the death of several persons. The source of methanol contamination has not been clearly established in most countries. While there were speculations that unscrupulous vendors might have deliberately spiked the beverages with methanol, it is more likely that the methanol might have been produced by contaminating microbes during traditional ethanol fermentation, which is often inoculated spontaneously by mixed microbes, with a potential to produce mixed alcohols...
2016: SpringerPlus
Raúl A Morales-Luckie, Aldo Adrián Lopezfuentes-Ruiz, Oscar F Olea-Mejía, Argueta-Figueroa Liliana, Víctor Sanchez-Mendieta, Witold Brostow, Juan P Hinestroza
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized using a one-pot green methodology with aqueous extract of Heterotheca inuloides as a reducing agent, and the support of natural fibers: Agave lechuguilla and silk. UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS and transmission electron microscopy TEM were used to characterize the resulting bionanocomposite fibers. The average size of the Ag NPs was 16nm and they exhibited low polydispersity. XPS studies revealed the presence of only metallic Ag in the nanoparticles embedded in Agave...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Fátima Duarte-Aké, Eduardo Castillo-Castro, Felipe Barredo Pool, Francisco Espadas, Jorge M Santamaría, Manuel L Robert, Clelia De-la-Peña
Global DNA methylation changes caused by in vitro conditions are associated with the subculturing and phenotypic variation in Agave angustifolia Haw. While the relationship between the development of albinism and in vitro culture is well documented, the role of epigenetic processes in this development leaves some important questions unanswered. During the micropropagation of Agave angustifolia Haw., we found three different phenotypes, green (G), variegated (V) and albino (A). To understand the physiological and epigenetic differences among the somaclones, we analyzed several morphophysiological parameters and changes in the DNA methylation patterns in the three phenotypes during their in vitro development...
September 2, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
José Manuel Gutiérrez-Hernández, Alfredo Escalante, Raquel Nalleli Murillo-Vázquez, Ezequiel Delgado, Francisco Javier González, Guillermo Toríz
The use of sunscreens is essential for preventing skin damage and the potential appearance of skin cancer in humans. Inorganic active components such as zinc oxide (ZnO) have been used commonly in sunscreens due to their ability to block UVA radiation. This ultraviolet (UV) protection might be enhanced to cover the UVB and UVC bands when combined with other components such as titanium dioxide (TiO2). In this work we evaluate the photoprotection properties of organic nanoparticles made from lignin in combination with ZnO nanoparticles as active ingredients for sunscreens...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Jaquelina Sánchez-Ramírez, José L Martínez-Hernández, Patricia Segura-Ceniceros, Guillermo López, Hened Saade, Miguel A Medina-Morales, Rodolfo Ramos-González, Cristóbal N Aguilar, Anna Ilyina
In the present study, Trichoderma reesei cellulase was covalently immobilized on chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles using glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent. The average diameter of magnetic nanoparticles before and after enzyme immobilization was about 8 and 10 nm, respectively. The immobilized enzyme retained about 37 % of its initial activity, and also showed better thermal and storage stability than free enzyme. Immobilized cellulase retained about 80 % of its activity after 15 cycles of carboxymethylcellulose hydrolysis and was easily separated with the application of an external magnetic field...
August 17, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Elena Franco-Robles, Mercedes G López
BACKGROUND: Fructans obtained from agave, called agavins, have recently shown significant benefits for human health including obesity. Therefore, we evaluated the potential of agavins as neuroprotectors and antioxidants by determining their effect on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as well as oxidative brain damage in of obese mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated daily with 5% (HFD/A5) or 10% (HFD/A10) of agavins or a standard diet (SD) for 10 weeks...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Guillermo Hernández-Cortés, Juan Octavio Valle-Rodríguez, Enrique J Herrera-López, Dulce María Díaz-Montaño, Yolanda González-García, Héctor B Escalona-Buendía, Jesús Córdova
Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) fermentations are traditionally carried out employing batch systems in the process of tequila manufacturing; nevertheless, continuous cultures could be an attractive technological alternative to increase productivity and efficiency of sugar to ethanol conversion. However, agave juice (used as a culture medium) has nutritional deficiencies that limit the implementation of yeast continuous fermentations, resulting in high residual sugars and low fermentative rates. In this work, fermentations of agave juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae were put into operation to prove the necessity of supplementing yeast extract, in order to alleviate nutritional deficiencies of agave juice...
December 2016: AMB Express
Adelfo Escalante, David R López Soto, Judith E Velázquez Gutiérrez, Martha Giles-Gómez, Francisco Bolívar, Agustín López-Munguía
Pulque is a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage produced from the fermentation of the fresh sap known as aguamiel (mead) extracted from several species of Agave (maguey) plants that grow in the Central Mexico plateau. Currently, pulque is produced, sold and consumed in popular districts of Mexico City and rural areas. The fermented product is a milky white, viscous, and slightly acidic liquid beverage with an alcohol content between 4 and 7° GL and history of consumption that dates back to pre-Hispanic times...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
R G Moran-Salazar, A L Sanchez-Lizarraga, J Rodriguez-Campos, G Davila-Vazquez, E N Marino-Marmolejo, L Dendooven, S M Contreras-Ramos
Vinasses are a residual liquid generated after the production of beverages, such as mezcal and tequila, from agave (Agave L.), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) or sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). These effluents have specific characteristics such as an acidic pH (from 3.9 to 5.1), a high chemical oxygen demand (50,000-95,000 mg L(-1)) and biological oxygen demand content (18,900-78,300 mg L(-1)), a high total solids content (79,000 and 37,500 mg L(-1)), high total volatile solids 79,000 and 82,222 mg L(-1), and K(+) (10-345 g L(-1)) content...
2016: SpringerPlus
R Castro-Torres, C Llanderal-Cázares
The agave red worm, Comadia redtenbacheri (Hammerschmidt), is an important source of food and income in Mexico. Despite its importance, several aspects of its biology, morphology, and behavior remain poorly studied. In this work, we describe and illustrate the morphology of all the life stages that may aid in understanding certain aspects of its biology. To obtain all life stages, last instar larvae were collected from agave plants and allowed to pupate; after the adults emerged, they were allowed to mate and oviposit...
July 19, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Natalia Von Ellenrieder, Gillian Watson
A mealybug species that feeds on Agave spp., Pseudococcus variabilis sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely via the horticultural trade on its host plants in the genus Agave (Liliales: Agavaceae). Descriptions and illustrations of the adult female and male, diagnosis from congeners in the New World, and a molecular characterization based on COI are provided, as well as a key to adult females of all Pseudococcus species recorded from the New World...
2016: Zootaxa
William David Rodríguez, José Luis Navarrete-Heredia
A new species of Belonuchus Nordmann, 1837 is described based on 118 specimens from Cerro de Garcia, Jalisco, Mexico. Belonuchus cifuentesi Rodríguez & Navarrete-Heredia sp. nov. was primarily collected associated with Agave inaequidens, and is similar to B. arizonicus Casey, 1915 but differs mainly in the structure of the aedeagus and color pattern.
2016: Zootaxa
Jonathan Pã Rez-Flores, Helen Rueda-Calderon, Sebastian Kvist, Mark E Siddall, Alejandro Francisco Oceguera-Figueroa
Invertebrate-derived ingested DNA (iDNA) is quickly proving to be a valuable non-invasive tool for monitoring vertebrate species of conservation concern. Using the DNA barcoding locus, we successfully identified both the blood feeding leech Haementeria acuecueyetzin and its blood meal - the latter is shown to be derived from the Caribbean Manatee, Trichechus manatus. Remarkably, DNA amplification was successful despite of the fact that the specimen was fixed in Mezcal (a beverage distilled from agave). We report the first confirmed case of a leech feeding on a Manatee, the first record of H...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Liliana Santos-Zea, Aratza Mireya Rosas-Pérez, Ana María Leal-Díaz, Janet A Gutiérrez-Uribe
Concentrated agave sap (CAS) has gained popularity as an unrefined sweetener. It is obtained by boiling "aguamiel" that contains phytochemicals with diverse bioactivities. Saponins have been the most widely studied agave phytochemicals due to their cancer antiproliferative effect but their concentration may vary due to maturity of the agave plant and collection site. In this study, 18 CAS samples produced in different states of Mexico were analyzed using multivariate methods to determine which physicochemical or phytochemical parameters were responsible for variation...
August 2016: Journal of Food Science
Martha Giles-Gómez, Jorge Giovanni Sandoval García, Violeta Matus, Itzia Campos Quintana, Francisco Bolívar, Adelfo Escalante
Pulque is a Mexican traditional alcoholic, non-distilled, fermented beverage produced by the fermentation of the sap, known as aguamiel, extracted from several maguey (Agave) species. Pulque has traditionally been considered a healthy beverage due to its nutrient content and also a traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal infections. During pulque fermentation, the development of acidity, alcohol and viscosity define its final sensorial properties, developing an enriched environment where dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including diverse Leuconostoc species, are present...
2016: SpringerPlus
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