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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647839/do-bumble-bee-bombus-impatiens-queens-signal-their-reproductive-and-mating-status-to-their-workers
#1
Etya Amsalem, Mario Padilla, Paul M Schreiber, Naomi S Altman, Abraham Hefetz, Christina M Grozinger
Reproduction in social insect societies reflects a delicate balance between cooperation and conflict over offspring production, and worker reproduction is widespread even in species showing strong reproductive skew in favor of the queen. To navigate these conflicts, workers are predicted to develop the means to estimate the queen's fecundity - potentially through behavioral and/or chemical cues - and to adjust their reproduction to maximize their fitness. Here, we introduced bumble bee, Bombus impatiens, workers to queens of different mating and reproductive status and examined worker reproduction and expression levels of two genes which were previously shown to be sensitive to the presence of the queen, vitellogenin and Krüppel-homolog 1...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647753/the-bee-the-flower-and-the-electric-field-electric-ecology-and-aerial-electroreception
#2
REVIEW
Dominic Clarke, Erica Morley, Daniel Robert
Bees and flowering plants have a long-standing and remarkable co-evolutionary history. Flowers and bees evolved traits that enable pollination, a process that is as important to plants as it is for pollinating insects. From the sensory ecological viewpoint, bee-flower interactions rely on senses such as vision, olfaction, humidity sensing, and touch. Recently, another sensory modality has been unveiled; the detection of the weak electrostatic field that arises between a flower and a bee. Here, we present our latest understanding of how these electric interactions arise and how they contribute to pollination and electroreception...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647729/analgesic-effects-of-diluted-bee-venom-acupuncture-mediated-by-%C3%AE-opioid-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptors-in-osteoarthritic-rats
#3
Jeong-Eun Huh, Byung-Kwan Seo, Jung-Woo Lee, Yeon-Cheol Park, Yong-Hyeon Baek
Context • Pain from osteoarthritis is associated with peripheral nociception and central pain processing. Given the unmet need for innovative, effective, and well-tolerated therapies, many patients, after looking for more satisfactory alternatives, decide to use complementary and alternative modalities. The analgesic mechanism of subcutaneous injections of diluted bee venom into an acupoint is thought to be part of an anti-inflammatory effect and the central modulation of pain processing. Objectives • Using the rat model of collagenase-induced osteoarthritis (CIOA), the study intended to investigate the analgesic effects of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) as they are related to the acupuncture points and dosage used and to determine whether the analgesic mechanisms of BVA for pain were mediated by opioid or adrenergic receptors...
June 23, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647560/transcript-expression-bias-of-phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-protein-gene-in-bumblebee-bombus-lantschouensis-hymenoptera-apidae
#4
Jie Dong, Lei Han, Ye Wang, Jiaxing Huang, Jie Wu
The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family is a highly conserved group of proteins found in a wide range of organism. It plays an important role in innate immunity of insects. Little is known on the expression characteristic and function of PEBP in bees. In the current study, we cloned the pebp gene and investigated its expression profiles at different developmental stages and reproductive status from bumblebee, Bombus lantschouensis (Vogt), which is one of the most abundant pollinators for wild plants and crops in Northern China...
June 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643415/cultivation-of-human-dermal-fibroblasts-and-epidermal-keratinocytes-on-keratin-coated-silica-bead-substrates
#5
Bee Yi Tan, Luong T H Nguyen, Hyo-Sop Kim, Jae-Ho Kim, Kee Woei Ng
Human hair keratin is promising as a bioactive material platform for various biomedical applications. To explore its versatility further, human hair keratin was coated onto monolayers of silica beads to produce film-like substrates. This combination was hypothesized to provide a synergistic effect in improving the biochemical properties of the resultant composite. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis showed uniform coatings of keratin on the silica beads with a slight increase in the resulting surface roughness...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641602/milk-replacers-supplemented-with-either-l-arginine-or-l-carnitine-potentially-improve-muscle-maturation-of-early-reared-low-birth-weight-piglets-from-hyperprolific-sows
#6
J G Madsen, S Mueller, M Kreuzer, M B Bigler, P Silacci, G Bee
As a result of the selection for genotypes with greater sow prolificacy, litter size increased and, concomitantly, average litter birth weight and early postnatal survival rates of low birth weight (L-BtW) offspring decreased. This study compared the impact of l-carnitine (CAR) and l-arginine (ARG) supplemented with a milk replacer and fed to L-BtW piglets born from large litters from days 7 to 28 of age on growth performance, carcass composition, organ and Semitendinosus muscle (STM) development. A total of 30 female and castrated Swiss Large White piglets weaned at 7 days of age were assigned to three milk replacer diets containing either no supplement (CON), CAR (0...
June 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641462/microbiological-control-and-antibacterial-action-of-a-propolis-containing-mouthwash-and-control-of-dental-plaque-in-humans
#7
Karina Basso Santiago, Gilce Maria Piana, Bruno José Conti, Eliza de Oliveira Cardoso, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles Andrade, Mirella Rossitto Zanutto, Vera Lúcia Mores Rall, Ary Fernandes, José Maurício Sforcin
Propolis is a bee product with several biological properties. This study aimed at investigating a propolis-containing mouthwash, its organoleptic properties, microbial contamination and its antibacterial action in vitro. This mouthwash was assessed in vivo to control dental plaque in humans. The presence of microorganisms was analyzed and the minimum inhibitory concentration against Streptococcus mutans was determined. A comparative study was done in vivo using propolis, chlorhexidine, and propolis plus chlorhexidine in lower concentrations for 14 days...
June 23, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640811/comparing-bee-species-responses-to-chemical-mixtures-common-response-patterns
#8
Alex Robinson, Helen Hesketh, Elma Lahive, Alice A Horton, Claus Svendsen, Agnes Rortais, Jean Lou Dorne, Jan Baas, Matthew S Heard, David J Spurgeon
Pollinators in agricultural landscapes can be exposed to mixtures of pesticides and environmental pollutants. Existing mixture toxicity modelling approaches, such as the models of concentration addition and independent action and the mechanistic DEBtox framework have been previously shown as valuable tools for understanding and ultimately predicting joint toxicity. Here we apply these mixture models to investigate the potential to interpret the effects of semi-chronic binary mixture exposure for three bee species: Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis within potentiation and mixture toxicity experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637837/physiological-thermal-limits-predict-differential-responses-of-bees-to-urban-heat-island-effects
#9
April L Hamblin, Elsa Youngsteadt, Margarita M López-Uribe, Steven D Frank
Changes in community composition are an important, but hard to predict, effect of climate change. Here, we use a wild-bee study system to test the ability of critical thermal maxima (CTmax, a measure of heat tolerance) to predict community responses to urban heat-island effects in Raleigh, NC, USA. Among 15 focal species, CTmax ranged from 44.6 to 51.3°C, and was strongly predictive of population responses to urban warming across 18 study sites (r(2) = 0.44). Species with low CTmax declined the most. After phylogenetic correction, solitary species and cavity-nesting species (bumblebees) had the lowest CTmax, suggesting that these groups may be most sensitive to climate change...
June 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634533/a-study-to-evaluate-the-prevalence-of-impaired-awareness-of-hypoglycaemia-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-in-outpatient-clinic-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-singapore
#10
Ling Zhu, Li Chang Ang, Wee Boon Tan, Xiaohui Xin, Yong Mong Bee, Su-Yen Goh, Ming Ming Teh
BACKGROUND: Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia (IAH) predisposes affected patients to severe hypoglycaemia. There are few data on prevalence of IAH in adults with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in Asia. We aim to ascertain the prevalence of IAH among insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes in an outpatient clinic in a tertiary care centre in Singapore. METHODS: A total of 374 patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes attending the outpatient diabetes clinic in a tertiary referral centre in Singapore were recruited over a 4-month period...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634446/are-distal-and-proximal-visual-cues-equally-important-during-spatial-learning-in-mice-a-pilot-study-of-overshadowing-in-the-spatial-domain
#11
Marie Hébert, Jan Bulla, Denis Vivien, Véronique Agin
Animals use distal and proximal visual cues to accurately navigate in their environment, with the possibility of the occurrence of associative mechanisms such as cue competition as previously reported in honey-bees, rats, birds and humans. In this pilot study, we investigated one of the most common forms of cue competition, namely the overshadowing effect, between visual landmarks during spatial learning in mice. To this end, C57BL/6J × Sv129 mice were given a two-trial place recognition task in a T-maze, based on a novelty free-choice exploration paradigm previously developed to study spatial memory in rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631108/reproduction-number-and-asymptotic-stability-for-the-dynamics-of-a-honey-bee-colony-with-continuous-age-structure
#12
M I Betti, L M Wahl, M Zamir
A system of partial differential equations is derived as a model for the dynamics of a honey bee colony with a continuous age distribution, and the system is then extended to include the effects of a simplified infectious disease. In the disease-free case, we analytically derive the equilibrium age distribution within the colony and propose a novel approach for determining the global asymptotic stability of a reduced model. Furthermore, we present a method for determining the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] of the infection; the method can be applied to other age-structured disease models with interacting susceptible classes...
June 19, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630879/imaging-cajal-s-neuronal-avalanche-how-wide-field-optical-imaging-of-the-point-spread-advanced-the-understanding-of-neocortical-structure-function-relationship
#13
REVIEW
Ron D Frostig, Cynthia H Chen-Bee, Brett A Johnson, Nathan S Jacobs
This review brings together a collection of studies that specifically use wide-field high-resolution mesoscopic level imaging techniques (intrinsic signal optical imaging; voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging) to image the cortical point spread (PS): the total spread of cortical activation comprising a large neuronal ensemble evoked by spatially restricted (point) stimulation of the sensory periphery (e.g., whisker, pure tone, point visual stimulation). The collective imaging findings, combined with supporting anatomical and electrophysiological findings, revealed some key aspects about the PS including its very large (radius of several mm) and relatively symmetrical spatial extent capable of crossing cytoarchitectural borders and trespassing into other cortical areas; its relationship with underlying evoked subthreshold activity and underlying anatomical system of long-range horizontal projections within gray matter, both also crossing borders; its contextual modulation and plasticity; the ability of its relative spatiotemporal profile to remain invariant to major changes in stimulation parameters; its potential role as a building block for integrative cortical activity; and its ubiquitous presence across various cortical areas and across mammalian species...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630412/the-challenges-of-predicting-pesticide-exposure-of-honey-bees-at-landscape-level
#14
Noa Simon-Delso, Gilles San Martin, Etienne Bruneau, Christine Delcourt, Louis Hautier
To evaluate the risks of pesticides for pollinators, we must not only evaluate their toxicity but also understand how pollinators are exposed to these xenobiotics in the field. We focused on this last point and modeled honey bee exposure to pesticides at the landscape level. Pollen pellet samples (n = 60) from 40 Belgian apiaries were collected from late July to October 2011 and underwent palynological and pesticide residue analyses. Areas of various crops around each apiary were measured at 4 spatial scales...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630407/colony-adaptive-response-to-simulated-heat-waves-and-consequences-at-the-individual-level-in-honeybees-apis-mellifera
#15
Célia Bordier, Hélène Dechatre, Séverine Suchail, Mathilde Peruzzi, Samuel Soubeyrand, Maryline Pioz, Michel Pélissier, Didier Crauser, Yves Le Conte, Cédric Alaux
Since climate change is expected to bring more severe and frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, assessing the physiological and behavioural sensitivity of organisms to temperature becomes a priority. We therefore investigated the responses of honeybees, an important insect pollinator, to simulated heat waves (SHW). Honeybees are known to maintain strict brood thermoregulation, but the consequences at the colony and individual levels remain poorly understood. For the first time, we quantified and modelled colony real-time activity and found a 70% increase in foraging activity with SHW, which was likely due to the recruitment of previously inactive bees...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629290/functional-foods-how-functional-are-they-a-case-report-of-supplement-induced-psychosis
#16
Priyanka Yadav, Kyle Stigall, Hannah E Johnson, Abner O Rayapati, Nitin Chopra
There is rising evidence of patients' use of alternative and complementary medicine. The percentage of the U.S. population who used at least one dietary supplement increased from 42% in 1988-1994 to 53% in 2003-2006. We present a case of an Asian female in her 40s, with no previous psychiatric illness, who presented to the emergency room following a brief psychotic episode, during which she self-amputated the tips of her fingers, after using multivitamins and herbal supplements including ginseng, gui yuan rou (Chinese herb), astaxanthin, goji (Chinese fruit), selenium, saw palmetto, grape seed extract, citrus bioflavanoid, lutein (zeaxantin), resvexatrol, sun chlorella, spirulina powder, phytoceramides, phytoestrogen, glucosatrin, bromelain plus, and American bee pollen...
August 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625889/massive-attack-of-honeybee-on-macaws-ara-ararauna-and-ara-chloropterus-in-brazil-a-case-report
#17
Elisane Lenita Milbradt, Tarcísio Macedo Silva, Alessandre Hataka, Carlos Roberto Teixeira, Adriano Sakai Okamoto, Raphael Lucio Andreatti Filho
Three adult birds of the species Ara chloropterus and five of the species Ara ararauna from a conservation breeding facility suffered a massive attack by honeybees. The A. chloropterus birds presented swollen puncture lesions with stingers (mainly in the facial regions without feathers), swelling of the eyelids and subcutaneous tissue, and respiratory distress, and they were treated with intramuscular injections of 1.67 mg/kg of promethazine and 10 mg/kg of hydrocortisone followed by removal of the stingers...
June 15, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622594/the-role-of-apitoxin-in-alleviating-propionic-acid-induced-neurobehavioral-impairments-in-rat-pups-the-expression-pattern-of-reelin-gene
#18
Maha H Daghestani, Manar E Selim, Yasmina M Abd-Elhakim, Enas N Said, Noura E Abd El-Hameed, Samah R Khalil, Osama S El-Tawil
The efficacy of apitoxin (bee venom; BV) in ameliorating propionic acid (PPA) -induced neurobehavioral impacts was studied. Sixty rat pups were enrolled in a split litter design to six groups: a control group, a PPA-treated group, a BV-treated group, a BV/PPA protective group, a PPA/BV therapeutic group, and a BV/PPA/BV protective and therapeutic group. Exploratory, social, locomotor, and repetitive/stereotype-like activities were assessed and prosocial, empathy, and acquired behavior were evaluated. Levels of neurotransmitter including serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were determined and a quantitative analysis of Reelin gene expression was performed...
June 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622279/hydrogen-sulphide-in-exhaled-gases-from-ventilated-septic-neonates-and-children-a-preliminary-report
#19
Natalie Bee, Ruth White, Andy J Petros
OBJECTIVES: There is increasing interest in hydrogen sulphide as a marker of pathologic conditions or predictors of outcome. We speculate that as hydrogen sulphide is a diffusible molecule, if there is an increase in plasma hydrogen sulphide in sepsis, it may accumulate in the alveolar space and be detected in exhaled gas. "We wished to determine whether we could detect hydrogen sulphide in exhaled gases of ventilated children and neonates and if the levels changed in sepsis." DESIGN: Prospective, observational study...
June 15, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620971/the-adipokinetic-hormone-of-the-coleopteran-suborder-adephaga-structure-function-and-comparison-of-distribution-in-other-insects
#20
Gerd Gäde, Heather G Marco
The aim of the current study is to identify the adipokinetic hormone(s) (AKHs) of a basal suborder of the species-rich Coleoptera, the Adephaga, and possibly learn more about the ancestral AKH of beetles. Moreover, we wanted to compare the ancestral AKH with AKHs of more advanced beetles, of which a number are pest insects. This would allow us to assess whether AKH mimetics would be suitable as insecticides, that is, be harmful to the pest species but not to the beneficial species. Nine species of the Adephaga were investigated and all synthesize only one octapeptide in the corpus cardiacum, as revealed by Edman degradation sequencing techniques or by mass spectrometry...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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