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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087090/quantifying-exposure-of-wild-bumblebees-to-mixtures-of-agrochemicals-in-agricultural-and-urban-landscapes
#1
Cristina Botías, Arthur David, Elizabeth M Hill, Dave Goulson
The increased use of pesticides has caused concern over the possible direct association of exposure to combinations of these compounds with bee health problems. There is growing proof that bees are regularly exposed to mixtures of agrochemicals, but most research has been focused on managed bees living in farmland, whereas little is known about exposure of wild bees, both in farmland and urban habitats. To determine exposure of wild bumblebees to pesticides in agricultural and urban environments through the season, specimens of five different species were collected from farms and ornamental urban gardens in three sampling periods...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081188/effect-of-varroa-destructor-wounding-and-varroa-homogenate-on-gene-expression-in-brood-and-adult-honey-bees
#2
Gun Koleoglu, Paul H Goodwin, Mariana Reyes-Quintana, Mollah Md Hamiduzzaman, Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) gene expression related to immunity for hymenoptaecin (AmHym) and defensin-1 (AmDef-1), longevity for vitellogenin (AmVit2) and stem cell proliferation for poly U binding factor 68 kDa (AmPuf68) was compared following Varroa destructor parasitism, buffer injection and injection of V. destructor compounds in its homogenate. In adults, V. destructor parasitism decreased expression of all four genes, while buffer injection decreased expression of AmHym, AmPuf68 and AmVit2, and homogenate injection decreased expression of AmPuf68 and AmVit2 but increased expression of AmDef-1 relative to their respective controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079517/pharmacokinetic-and-bioequivalence-study-comparing-a-candesartan-cilexetil-rosuvastatin-calcium-fixed-dose-combination-with-the-concomitant-administration-of-candesartan-cilexetil-and-rosuvastatin-calcium-in-healthy-korean-subjects%C3%A2
#3
Dan-Bee Park, Kyungho Jang, Jae-Won Lee, Cheol-Won Park, Back-Hwan Lee, Min-Gul Kim, Ji-Young Jeon
CONTEXT: A fixed-dose combination (FDC) of candesartan and rosuvastatin was recently developed for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and expected to enhance patient compliance. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to compare the single-dose pharmacokinetic properties and tolerability of DP-R208 (candesartan and rosuvastatin FDC) to those of each component administered alone in healthy Korean male volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 healthy Korean volunteers were enrolled in this randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-treatment, two-way crossover study...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079366/the-neonicotinoid-insecticide-thiacloprid-impacts-upon-bumblebee-colony-development-under-field-conditions
#4
Ciaran Ellis, Kirsty J Park, Penelope Whitehorn, Arthur David, Dave Goulson
The impacts of pesticides, and in particular of neonicotinoids, on bee health remain much debated. Many studies describing negative effects have been criticised as the experimental protocol did not perfectly simulate real-life field scenarios. Here, we placed free-flying bumblebee colonies next to raspberry crops that were either untreated or treated with the neonicotinoid thiacloprid as part of normal farming practice. Colonies were exposed to the raspberry crops for a two week period before being relocated to either a flower-rich or flower-poor site...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078783/new-propolis-type-from-northeast-brazil-chemical-composition-antioxidant-activity-and-botanical-origin
#5
Joselena M Ferreira, Caroline C Fernandes-Silva, Antonio Salatino, Giuseppina Negri, Dejair Message
BACKGROUND: Propolis is a bee product with wide diversity of biological activity. It has complex composition, which is dependent on its botanical source. The present work aimed at determining the chemical profile, antioxidant activity and botanical origin of two samples of a propolis type from two locations of the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, northeast Brazil). RESULTS: The standard chemical characteristics of the RN propolis are similar or superior to the internationally marketed Brazilian green propolis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076373/larvae-and-nests-of-aculeate-hymenoptera-hymenoptera-aculeata-nesting-in-reed-galls-induced-by-lipara-spp-diptera-chloropidae-with-a-review-of-species-recorded-part-ii
#6
Alena Astapenková, Petr Heneberg, Petr Bogusch
The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015-2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074124/involvement-of-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-the-infertility-age-associated-diseases-and-cancer-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Antonin Bukovsky
Blood mononuclear cells consist of T cells and monocyte derived cells. Beside immunity, the blood mononuclear cells belong to the complex tissue control system (TCS), where they exhibit morphostatic function by stimulating proliferation of tissue stem cells followed by cellular differentiation, that is stopped after attaining the proper functional stage, which differs among various tissue types. Therefore, the term immune and morphostatic system (IMS) should be implied. The TCS-mediated morphostasis also consists of vascular pericytes controlled by autonomic innervation, which is regulating the quantity of distinct tissues in vivo...
December 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073057/neonicotinoids-transference-from-the-field-to-the-hive-by-honey-bees-towards-a-pesticide-residues-biomonitor
#8
Niell Silvina, Jesús Florencia, Pérez Nicolás, Pérez Cecilia, Pareja Lucía, Silvana Abbate, Carrasco-Letelier Leonidas, Díaz Sebastián, Mendoza Yamandú, Cesio Verónica, Heinzen Horacio
The beehive as a quantitative monitor of pesticide residues applied over a soybean crop was studied through a semi field experiment of controlled exposure of honey bees to pesticides in macro tunnels. The distribution within exposed beehives of pesticides commonly used in soybean plantation, was assessed. Residue levels of insecticides in soybean leaves, honey bees, wax, honey and pollen were analyzed. The transference from pesticides present in the environment into the beehive was evidenced. The obtained results allow relating pesticide concentrations present in the environment with traces found in foraging bees...
January 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069631/pollination-reservoirs-in-lowbush-blueberry-ericales-ericaceae
#9
E M Venturini, F A Drummond, A K Hoshide, A C Dibble, L B Stack
Pollinator-dependent agriculture heavily relies upon a single pollinator-the honey bee. To diversify pollination strategies, growers are turning to alternatives. Densely planted reservoirs of pollen- and nectar-rich flowers (pollination reservoirs, hereafter "PRs") may improve pollination services provided by wild bees. Our focal agroecosystem, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), exists in a simple landscape uniquely positioned to benefit from PRs. First, we contrast bee visitation rates and use of three types of PR...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068337/a-swarm-of-bee-research
#10
Lauren A Richardson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064193/time-indices-of-multiphasic-development-in-genotypes-of-sweet-cherry-are-similar-from-dormancy-to-cessation-of-pit-growth
#11
David M Gibeaut, Matthew D Whiting, Todd Einhorn
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The archetypical double sigmoid-shaped growth curve of the sweet cherry drupe (Prunus avium) does not address critical development from eco-dormancy to anthesis and has not been correlated to reproductive bud development. Accurate representation of the growth and development of post-anthesis ovaries is confounded by anthesis timing, fruiting-density and the presence of unfertilized and defective ovaries whose growth differs from those that persist to maturation. These factors were addressed to assess pre-anthesis and full-season growth and development of three sweet cherry cultivars, 'Chelan', 'Bing' and 'Sweetheart', differing primarily in seasonal duration and fruit size...
January 7, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063825/impact-of-mutations-on-the-higher-order-structure-and-activity-of-a-recombinant-uricase
#12
Flaviu Gruia, Arun Parupudi, Manuel Baca, Chris Ward, Andrew Nyborg, Richard L Remmele, Jared S Bee
This study explores the structural and functional changes associated with a low temperature thermal transition of two engineered bacterial uricase mutants. Uricase has a non-covalent homo-tetrameric structure, with four active sites located at the interface of subunits. Using differential scanning calorimetry, a low temperature transition was identified at 42ºC for mutant A and at 33°C for mutant B. This transition was stabilized by the uricase inhibitor, oxonic acid, suggesting a strong structural relationship to the active site...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063405/effect-of-the-egyptian-propolis-on-the-hepatic-antioxidant-defense-and-pro-apoptotic-p53-and-anti-apoptotic-bcl2-expressions-in-aflatoxin-b1-treated-male-mice
#13
Abeer A Alm-Eldeen, Mohammed A Basyony, Nabil K Elfiky, Mohamed M Ghalwash
Aflatoxins are potent hepatotoxic due to their role in producing reactive oxygen species and consequently peroxidative damage. Propolis is a honey bee product known for its antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to verify the antioxidant effect of the Egyptian propolis extract (EPE) against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Forty eight male mice were divided: first, second and third groups were used as control receiving saline, olive oil and EPE respectively, fourth was AFB1 group, fifth and sixth received EPE post or pre AFB1 treatment, respectively...
January 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062536/a-comparison-of-honey-bee-collected-pollen-from-working-agricultural-lands-using-light-microscopy-and-its-metabarcoding
#14
M D Smart, R S Cornman, D D Iwanowicz, M McDermott-Kubeczko, J S Pettis, M S Spivak, C R V Otto
Taxonomic identification of pollen has historically been accomplished via light microscopy but requires specialized knowledge and reference collections, particularly when identification to lower taxonomic levels is necessary. Recently, next-generation sequencing technology has been used as a cost-effective alternative for identifying bee-collected pollen; however, this novel approach has not been tested on a spatially or temporally robust number of pollen samples. Here, we compare pollen identification results derived from light microscopy and DNA sequencing techniques with samples collected from honey bee colonies embedded within a gradient of intensive agricultural landscapes in the Northern Great Plains throughout the 2010-2011 growing seasons...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060305/dissection-and-observation-of-honey-bee-dorsal-vessel-for-studies-of-cardiac-function
#15
Scott T O'Neal, Troy D Anderson
The European honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is a valuable agricultural and commercial resource noted for producing honey and providing crop pollination services, as well as an important model social insect used to study memory and learning, aging, and more. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the dissection of the dorsal abdominal wall of a bee in order to visualize its dorsal vessel, which serves the role of the heart in the insect. A successful dissection will expose a functional heart that, under the proper conditions, can maintain a steady heartbeat for an extended period of time...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057943/taxonomic-description-of-in-situ-bee-pollen-from-the-middle-eocene-of-germany
#16
FriĐgeir Grímsson, Reinhard Zetter, Conrad C Labandeira, Michael S Engel, Torsten Wappler
The middle Eocene Messel and Eckfeld localities are renowned for their excellently preserved faunas and diverse floras. Here we describe for the first time pollen from insect-pollinated plants found in situ on well-preserved ancient bees using light and scanning electron microscopy. There have been 140 pollen types reported from Messel and 162 pollen types from Eckfeld. Here we document 23 pollen types, six from Messel and 18 from Eckfeld (one is shared). The taxa reported here are all pollinated by insects and mostly not recovered in the previously studied dispersed fossil pollen records...
January 2, 2017: Grana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053589/nectar-secretion-dynamics-and-honey-production-potentials-of-some-major-honey-plants-in-saudi-arabia
#17
Nuru Adgaba, Ahmed Al-Ghamdi, Yilma Tadesse, Awraris Getachew, Awad M Awad, Mohammad J Ansari, Ayman A Owayss, Seif Eldin A Mohammed, Abdulaziz S Alqarni
The contribution of a bee plant species to honey production depends on the plant's nectar secretion quality and quantity, which is mainly governed by biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of the current study, was to investigate the nectar secretion dynamics and honey production potential of 14 major bee plant species of the target area. We examined the quantity and dynamics of nectar sugar per flower five times a day using a nectar sugar washing technique and direct measuring of nectar with calibrated capillary tubes...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053231/cryo-em-study-of-slow-bee-paralysis-virus-at-low-ph-reveals-iflavirus-genome-release-mechanism
#18
Sergei Kalynych, Tibor Füzik, Antonín Přidal, Joachim de Miranda, Pavel Plevka
Viruses from the family Iflaviridae are insect pathogens. Many of them, including slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV), cause lethal diseases in honeybees and bumblebees, resulting in agricultural losses. Iflaviruses have nonenveloped icosahedral virions containing single-stranded RNA genomes. However, their genome release mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that low pH promotes SBPV genome release, indicating that the virus may use endosomes to enter host cells. We used cryo-EM to study a heterogeneous population of SBPV virions at pH 5...
January 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053207/dynamics-of-weight-change-and-temperature-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae-colonies-in-a-wintering-building-with-controlled-temperature
#19
E Stalidzans, A Zacepins, A Kviesis, V Brusbardis, J Meitalovs, L Paura, N Bulipopa, M Liepniece
Honey bee wintering in a wintering building (indoors) with controlled microclimate is used in some cold regions to minimize colony losses due to the hard weather conditions. The behavior and possible state of bee colonies in a dark room, isolated from natural environment during winter season, was studied by indirect temperature measurements to analyze the expression of their annual rhythm when it is not affected by ambient temperature, rain, snow, wind, and daylight. Thus, the observed behavior in the wintering building is initiated solely by bee colony internal processes...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053060/caste-biased-gene-expression-in-a-facultatively-eusocial-bee-suggests-a-role-for-genetic-accommodation-in-the-evolution-of-eusociality
#20
Beryl M Jones, Callum J Kingwell, William T Wcislo, Gene E Robinson
Developmental plasticity may accelerate the evolution of phenotypic novelty through genetic accommodation, but studies of genetic accommodation often lack knowledge of the ancestral state to place selected traits in an evolutionary context. A promising approach for assessing genetic accommodation involves using a comparative framework to ask whether ancestral plasticity is related to the evolution of a particular trait. Bees are an excellent group for such comparisons because caste-based societies (eusociality) have evolved multiple times independently and extant species exhibit different modes of eusociality...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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