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Vahid Reza Askari, Vafa Baradaran Rahimi, Parvin Zamani, Narges Fereydouni, Pouria Rahmanian-Devin, Amir Hossein Sahebkar, Hassan Rakhshandeh
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal adhesion is a major complication of surgery that can lead to serious problems such as bowel obstruction, pain, infertility and even mortality. Propolis is a honey bee product with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities that could potentially protect against adhesive surgical complications. METHODS: Forty 8-weeks-old rats (275 ± 25 g) were divided into five groups: normal group without any surgical procedure, and experimental groups treated with normal saline, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of propolis...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Antonio Felicioli, Simona Sagona, Marta Galloni, Laura Bortolotti, Gherardo Bogo, Massimo Guarnieri, Massimo Nepi
To investigate the effects of two non-protein amino acids, β-alanine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), on Osmia bicornis survival and locomotion, two groups of caged bees were fed with sugar syrup enriched with β-alanine and GABA, respectively. A further control group was fed with sugar syrup. Five behavioural categories were chosen according to the principle of parsimony and intrinsic unitary consistency from start to end, and recorded by scan sampling: two states (remaining under paper or in tubes) and three events (walking on net, feeding from flower and flying)...
April 17, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Anete Pedro Lourenço, Mônica Mazzei Florecki, Zilá Luz Paulino Simões, Jay Daniel Evans
Like all other insects, two key signaling pathways (Toll and Imd) regulate the induction of honey bee immune effectors that target microbial pathogens. Among these effectors are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are presumed to be produced by the NF-κB factors Dorsal and Relish from the Toll and Imd pathways, respectively. Using in silico analysis, we previously proposed that the honey bee AMP defensin-1 was regulated by the Toll pathway, while hymenoptaecin was regulated by Imd and abaecin by both the Toll and Imd pathways...
April 17, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Umma Habiba, Tawsif A Siddique, Jacky Jia Li Lee, Tan Chin Joo, Bee Chin Ang, Amalina M Afifi
The chitosan/polyvinyl Alcohol/zeolite electrospun composite nanofibrous membrane was fabricated for adsorption of methyl orange. The EDX, TGA and tensile test were carried out for the characterization of the membrane. The Young's Modulus of the nanofibrous membranes increased by more than 100% with the addition of zeolite to chitosan/PVA. The batch adsorption tests were conducted by varying the initial concentration of methyl orange, contact time and pH of the dye solution. UV-vis results showed that most of the dye was adsorbed within 6 min...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Margaret Bee, Anushree Shiroor, Zelee Hill
BACKGROUND: Recommended immediate newborn care practices include thermal care (immediate drying and wrapping, skin-to-skin contact after delivery, delayed bathing), hygienic cord care and early initiation of breastfeeding. This paper systematically reviews quantitative and qualitative data from sub-Saharan Africa on the prevalence of key immediate newborn care practices and the factors that influence them. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching relevant databases and websites, contacting national and international academics and implementers and hand-searching reference lists of included articles...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
M Khezri, M Moharrami, H Modirrousta, M Torkaman, B Rokhzad, H Khanbabaie
Aim: Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae is the etiological agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most virulent bacterial disease of honey bee brood worldwide. In many countries, AFB is a notifiable disease since it is highly contagious, in most cases incurable, and able to kill affected colonies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of P. larvae subsp . larvae in Kurdistan province apiaries by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 samples were randomly purchased from apiaries in Kurdistan, Iran...
March 2018: Veterinary World
Chuan-Jie Zhang, Min-Jung Yook, Hae-Rim Park, Soo-Hyun Lim, Jin-Won Kim, Jong-Seok Song, Gyoungju Nah, Hae-Ryong Song, Beom-Ho Jo, Kyung Hee Roh, Suhyoung Park, Young-Seok Jang, Ill-Sup Noua, Do-Soon Kim
Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) from genetically modified (GM) Brassica napus to its wild relatives by wind and insects is a major ecological concern in agricultural ecosystems. This study conducted is to estimate maximum potential gene flow and differentiate between wind- and bee-mediated gene flows from herbicide resistant (HR) B. napus to its closely-related male sterile (MS) relatives, B. napus, B. juncea and Raphanus sativus. Various markers, including pods formation in MS plants, herbicide resistance, and SSR markers, were used to identify the hybrids...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Immacolata Iovinella, Alison McAfee, Guido Mastrobuoni, Stefan Kempa, Leonard J Foster, Paolo Pelosi, Francesca Romana Dani
We have performed a proteomic analysis on chemosensory organs of Varroa destructor, the honey bee mite, in order to identify putative soluble carriers for pheromones and other olfactory cues emitted by the host. In particular, we have analysed forelegs, mouthparts (palps, chelicera and hypostome) and the second pair of legs (as control tissue) in reproductive and phoretic stages of the Varroa life cycle. We identified 958 Varroa proteins, most of them common to the different organs and stages. Sequence analysis shows that four proteins can be assigned to the odorant-binding protein (OBP)-like class, which bear some similarity to insect OBPs, but so far have only been reported in some Chelicerata...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Mabrouka Bouacha, Hayette Ayed, Nedjoud Grara
Medicinal benefits of honey bee have been recognized in the medical community since ancient times as a remedy for many diseases and infections. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, isolated from urinary tract infections of pregnant women, to six honey samples collected from different localities in the east of Algeria. The evaluation of the antibacterial activity was performed by the well method followed by the broth dilution method using two-fold dilutions of each honey sample ranging from 2...
April 13, 2018: Scientia Pharmaceutica
Boxin Guan, Changsheng Zhang, Yuhai Zhao
Protein–ligand docking is a process of searching for the optimal binding conformation between the receptor and the ligand. Automated docking plays an important role in drug design, and an efficient search algorithm is needed to tackle the docking problem. To tackle the protein–ligand docking problem more efficiently, An ABC_DE_based hybrid algorithm (ADHDOCK), integrating artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm and differential evolution (DE) algorithm, is proposed in the article. ADHDOCK applies an adaptive population partition (APP) mechanism to reasonably allocate the computational resources of the population in each iteration process, which helps the novel method make better use of the advantages of ABC and DE...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Javier E Moreno, Guillermo Moreno-Piovano, Raquel L Chan
The bHLH family is composed by canonical and non-canonical transcription factors (TFs) that differ in the presence or absence of their DNA-binding domain, respectively. Since both types of bHLH proteins are able to dimerize, their relative abundance impacts their biological activity. Among this TF family BEE and IBH are canonical and non-canonical bHLHs, respectively and previous reports indicated that BEE2 and IBH1 dimerize. Wondering whether BEE TFs participate in the abiotic stress response and how the dimerization with IBH1 could regulate their role in Arabidopsis, double bee1/bee2 and triple bee1/bee2/bee3 mutants were tested under salinity and drought stresses...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Quinn S McFrederick, Hoang Q Vuong, Jason A Rothman
Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore forming bacteria have been isolated from flowers and the guts of adult wild bees in the families Megachilidae and Halictidae. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these bacteria belong to the genus Lactobacillus, and are most closely related to the honey-bee associated bacteria Lactobacillus kunkeei (97.0 % sequence similarity) and Lactobacillus apinorum (97.0 % sequence similarity). Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes and six single-copy protein coding genes, in situ and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization, and fatty-acid profiling differentiates the newly isolated bacteria as three novel Lactobacillus species: Lactobacillus micheneri sp...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Deborah H L Ng, Kalisvar Marimuthu, Jia Jun Lee, Wei Xin Khong, Oon Tek Ng, Wei Zhang, Bee Fong Poh, Pooja Rao, Maya Devi Rajinder Raj, Brenda Ang, Partha Pratim De
Background: In May 2015, we noticed an increase in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU). To investigate this, we studied the extent of environmental contamination and subsequent onward clonal transmission of CRAB. Methods: We conducted a one-day point prevalence screening (PPS) of the patients and environment in the MICU. We screened patients using endotracheal tube aspirates and swabs from nares, axillae, groin, rectum, wounds, and exit sites of drains...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Bee Ling Tan, Mohd Esa Norhaizan, Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew
There are different types of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress sources that trigger inflammation. Much information indicates that high intakes of macronutrients can promote oxidative stress and subsequently contribute to inflammation via nuclear factor-kappa B- (NF- κ B-) mediated cell signaling pathways. Dietary carbohydrates, animal-based proteins, and fats are important to highlight here because they may contribute to the long-term consequences of nutritionally mediated inflammation. Oxidative stress is a central player of metabolic ailments associated with high-carbohydrate and animal-based protein diets and excessive fat consumption...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
David Baracchi, Elisa Rigosi, Gabriela de Brito Sanchez, Martin Giurfa
Lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain that affects perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes. It is now acknowledged that left-right laterality is widespread across vertebrates and even some invertebrates such as fruit flies and bees. Honeybees, which learn to associate an odorant (the conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution (the unconditioned stimulus, US), recall this association better when trained using their right antenna than they do when using their left antenna. Correspondingly, olfactory sensilla are more abundant on the right antenna and odor encoding by projection neurons of the right antennal lobe results in better odor differentiation than those of the left one...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Callum D Martin, Michelle T Fountain, Mark J F Brown
Parasites can induce behavioural changes in their host organisms. Several parasite species are known to infect bumblebees, an important group of pollinators. Task allocation within bumblebee colonies can also cause differences in behaviour. Thus, task allocation may lead to context-dependent impacts of parasites on host behaviour. This study uses Bombus terrestris and its gut trypanosome Crithidia bombi, to investigate the effects of parasitism, task allocation (foraging or nest-work) and their interactions, on olfactory learning...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carolina Mengoni Goñalons, Walter M Farina
Neonicotinoids are the most widespread insecticides in agriculture, preferred for their low toxicity to mammals and their systemic nature. Nevertheless, there have been increasing concerns regarding their impact on non-target organisms. Glyphosate is also widely used in crops and, therefore, traces of this pesticide are likely to be found together with neonicotinoids. Although glyphosate is considered a herbicide, adverse effects have been found on animal species, including honey bees. Apis mellifera is one of the most important pollinators in agroecosystems and is exposed to both these pesticides...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Fabio Fernando Flores, Norma Inés Hilgert, Liliana Concepción Lupo
BACKGROUND: The order Hymenoptera comprises melliferous insects (bees, wasps and bumblebees); among them, stingless bees comprise a diverse group of eusocial insects present in tropical and subtropical areas. Of a total of approximately 500 species, 400 are found in the Neotropics. On the continent of America, before the introduction of Apis mellifera, these insects represented the main source of honey and wax. In Argentina, ethnobiological investigations had been carried out on this group of insects, principally in the Atlantic Forest and Chaco regions...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Ivana Klaric, Mirela Pavic, Ivan Miskulin, Valerija Blazicevic, Albina Dumic, Maja Miskulin
One of the major problems in intensive breeding of chickens is liver damage. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of dietary supplementation with propolis and bee pollen on liver pathology in broiler chickens. The study was conducted on 200 Ross 308 chickens equally distributed by sex that were divided into five groups. Throughout the whole study, the control group of chickens was fed with a basal diet, while the experimental groups of chickens were fed with the same diet further supplemented with propolis and bee pollen, each supplement given separately or in combination in a certain proportion...
April 9, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Thomas Carle, Rio Horiwaki, Anya Hurlbert, Yoshifumi Yamawaki
Animals learn to associate sensory cues with the palatability of food in order to avoid bitterness in food (a common sign of toxicity). Associations are important for active foraging predators to avoid unpalatable prey and to invest energy in searching for palatable prey only. However, it has been suggested that sit-and-wait predators might rely on the opportunity that palatable prey approach them by chance: the most efficient strategy could be to catch every available prey and then decide whether to ingest them or not...
2018: Journal of Insect Behavior
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