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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323874/c-type-allatostatins-mimic-stress-related-effects-of-alarm-pheromone-on-honey-bee-learning-and-memory-recall
#1
Elodie Urlacher, Jean-Marc Devaud, Alison R Mercer
As honey bee populations worldwide are declining there is an urgent need for a deeper understanding of stress reactivity in these important insects. Our data indicate that stress responses in bees (Apis mellifera L.) may be mediated by neuropeptides identified, on the basis of sequence similarities, as allatostatins (ASTA, ASTC and ASTCC). Effects of allatostatin injection are compared with stress-related changes in learning performance induced by the honeybee alarm pheromone, isopentylacetate (IPA). We find that bees can exhibit two markedly different responses to IPA, with opposing effects on learning behaviour and memory generalisation, and that strikingly similar responses can be elicited by allatostatins, in particular ASTCC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319155/relationships-between-abiotic-environment-plant-functional-traits-and-animal-body-size-at-mount-kilimanjaro-tanzania
#2
David Schellenberger Costa, Alice Classen, Stefan Ferger, Maria Helbig-Bonitz, Marcell Peters, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Michael Kleyer
The effect-response framework states that plant functional traits link the abiotic environment to ecosystem functioning. One ecosystem property is the body size of the animals living in the system, which is assumed to depend on temperature or resource availability, among others. For primary consumers, resource availability may directly be related to plant traits, while for secondary consumers the relationship is indirect. We used plant traits to describe resource availability along an elevational gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316136/is-floral-morphology-a-good-predictor-of-floral-visitors-to-antirrhineae-snapdragons-and-relatives
#3
Beatriz Guzmán, José María Gómez, Pablo Vargas
The association between plants and flower visitors has been historically proposed as a main factor driving the evolutionary change of both flower and pollinator phenotypes. The considerable diversity in floral morphology within the tribe Antirrhineae has been traditionally related to pollinator types. We used empirical data on the flower visitors from 59 Antirrhineae taxa from the literature and our own field surveys, which provide an opportunity to test whether flower phenotypes are reliable predictors of visitors and pollinator niches (i...
March 17, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315980/an-overview-of-cytogenetics-of-the-tribe-meliponini-hymenoptera-apidae
#4
REVIEW
Mara Garcia Tavares, Denilce Meneses Lopes, L A O Campos
The present study provides a comprehensive review of cytogenetic data on Meliponini and their chromosomal evolution. The compiled data show that only 104 species of stingless bees, representing 32 of the 54 living genera have been studied cytogenetically and that among these species, it is possible to recognize three main groups with n = 9, 15 and 17, respectively. The first group comprises the species of the genus Melipona, whereas karyotypes with n = 15 and n = 17 have been detected in species from different genera...
March 18, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315331/sublethal-doses-of-neonicotinoid-imidacloprid-can-interact-with-honey-bee-chemosensory-protein-1-csp1-and-inhibit-its-function
#5
Hongliang Li, Jing Tan, Xinmi Song, Fan Wu, Mingzhu Tang, Qiyun Hua, Huoqing Zheng, Fuliang Hu
As a frequently used neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid can impair the chemoreceptive behavior of honey bees even at sublethal doses, while the physiochemical mechanism has not been further revealed. Here, multiple fluorescence spectra, thermodynamic method, and molecular docking were used to study the interaction and the functional inhibition of imidacloprid to the recombinant CSP1 protein in Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity (λem = 332 nm) of CSP1 could be significantly quenched by imidacloprid in a dynamic mode...
March 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314998/multispectral-images-of-flowers-reveal-the-adaptive-significance-of-using-long-wavelength-sensitive-receptors-for-edge-detection-in-bees
#6
Vera Vasas, Daniel Hanley, Peter G Kevan, Lars Chittka
Many pollinating insects acquire their entire nutrition from visiting flowers, and they must therefore be efficient both at detecting flowers and at recognizing familiar rewarding flower types. A crucial first step in recognition is the identification of edges and the segmentation of the visual field into areas that belong together. Honeybees and bumblebees acquire visual information through three types of photoreceptors; however, they only use a single receptor type-the one sensitive to longer wavelengths-for edge detection and movement detection...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314750/octopamine-and-tyramine-modulate-the-thermoregulatory-fanning-response-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-l
#7
Chelsea N Cook, Colin S Brent, Michael D Breed
Biogenic amines regulate the proximate mechanisms underlying most behavior, including those that contribute to the overall success of complex societies. For honey bees, one critical set of behaviors contributing to the welfare of a colony is involved with nest thermoregulation. Worker honeybees cool the colony by performing a fanning behavior, the expression of which is largely influenced by response thresholds modulated by the social environment. Here, we examined how changes in biogenic amines affect this group-performed thermoregulatory fanning behavior in honeybees...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302185/in-vitro-ruminal-fermentation-characteristics-and-utilisable-cp-supply-of-sainfoin-and-birdsfoot-trefoil-silages-and-their-mixtures-with-other-legumes
#8
A Grosse Brinkhaus, U Wyss, Y Arrigo, M Girard, G Bee, J O Zeitz, M Kreuzer, F Dohme-Meier
The extensive protein degradation occurring during ensiling decreases the nutritive value of silages, but this might be counteracted by tannins. Therefore, silages from two legume species containing condensed tannins (CT) - sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (two cultivars: birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Bull (BTB) and birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Polom) - were compared for their in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics. The effect of combining them with two CT-free legume silages (lucerne (LU) and red clover (RC)) was also determined...
April 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299419/insights-into-the-role-of-age-and-social-interactions-on-the-sexual-attractiveness-of-queens-in-an-eusocial-bee-melipona-flavolineata-apidae-meliponini
#9
Jamille Costa Veiga, Cristiano Menezes, Felipe Andrés León Contrera
The attraction of sexual partners is a vital necessity among insects, and it involves conflict of interests and complex communication systems among male and female. In this study, we investigated the developing of sexual attractiveness in virgin queens (i.e., gynes) of Melipona flavolineata, an eusocial stingless bee. We followed the development of sexual attractiveness in 64 gynes, belonging to seven age classes (0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 18 days post-emergence), and we also evaluated the effect of different social interactions (such as competition between queens and interactions with workers) on the development of attractiveness in other 60 gynes...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297945/multifractality-in-individual-honeybee-behavior-hints-at-colony-specific-social-cascades-reanalysis-of-radio-frequency-identification-data-from-five-different-colonies
#10
Nicole S Carver, Damian G Kelty-Stephen
Honeybees (Apis mellifera) exhibit complex coordination and interaction across multiple behaviors such as swarming. This coordination among honeybees in the same colony is remarkably similar to the concept of informational cascades. The multifractal geometry of cascades suggests that multifractal measures of individual honeybee activity might carry signatures of these colony-wide coordinations. The present work reanalyzes time stamps of entrances to and exits from the hive captured by radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensors reading RFID tags on individual bees...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294146/resisting-majesty-apis-cerana-has-lower-antennal-sensitivity-and-decreased-attraction-to-queen-mandibular-pheromone-than-apis-mellifera
#11
Shihao Dong, Ping Wen, Qi Zhang, Xinyu Li, Ken Tan, James Nieh
In highly social bees, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) is vital for colony life. Both Apis cerana (Ac) and Apis mellifera (Am) share an evolutionarily conserved set of QMP compounds: (E)-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA), (E)-9-hydroxydec-2-enoic acid (9-HDA), (E)-10-hydroxy-dec-2-enoic acid (10-HDA), 10-hydroxy-decanoic acid (10-HDAA), and methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB) found at similar levels. However, evidence suggests there may be species-specific sensitivity differences to QMP compounds because Ac workers have higher levels of ovarian activation than Am workers...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292003/arabidopsis-map3k16-and-other-salt-inducible-map3ks-regulate-aba-response-redundantly
#12
Seo-Wha Choi, Seul-Bee Lee, Yeon-Ju Na, Sun-Geum Jeung, Soo Young Kim
In the Arabidopsis genome, approximately 80 MAP3Ks (mitogen- activated protein kinase kinase kinases) have been identified. However, only a few of them have been characterized, and the functions of most MAP3Ks are largely unknown. In this paper, we report the function of MAP3K16 and several other MAP3Ks, MAP3K14/15/17/18, whose expression is salt-inducible. We prepared MAP3K16 overexpression (OX) lines and analyzed their phenotypes. The result showed that the transgenic plants were ABA-insensitive during seed germination and cotyledon greening stage but their root growth was ABA-hypersensitive...
March 14, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291965/stingless-bee-honey-the-natural-wound-healer-a-review
#13
Mohd Azri Abd Jalil, Abdul Razak Kasmuri, Hazrina Hadi
BACKGROUND: The stingless bee is a natural type of bee that exists in almost every continent. The honey produced by this bee has been widely used across time and space. The distinctive feature of this honey is that it is stored naturally in the pot (cerumen), thus contributing to its beneficial properties, especially in the wound healing process. METHODS: In this article, several studies on stingless bee honey that pointed out the numerous therapeutic profiles of this honey in terms of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, as well as moisturizing properties are reviewed...
March 15, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291793/antibiotic-exposure-perturbs-the-gut-microbiota-and-elevates-mortality-in-honeybees
#14
Kasie Raymann, Zack Shaffer, Nancy A Moran
Gut microbiomes play crucial roles in animal health, and shifts in the gut microbial community structure can have detrimental impacts on hosts. Studies with vertebrate models and human subjects suggest that antibiotic treatments greatly perturb the native gut community, thereby facilitating proliferation of pathogens. In fact, persistent infections following antibiotic treatment are a major medical issue. In apiculture, antibiotics are frequently used to prevent bacterial infections of larval bees, but the impact of antibiotic-induced dysbiosis (microbial imbalance) on bee health and susceptibility to disease has not been fully elucidated...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289772/firewalls-in-bee-nests-survival-value-of-propolis-walls-of-wild-cape-honeybee-apis-mellifera-capensis
#15
Geoff Tribe, Jürgen Tautz, Karin Sternberg, Jenny Cullinan
The Cape bee is endemic to the winter rainfall region of South Africa where fires are an integral part of the ecology of the fynbos (heathland) vegetation. Of the 37 wild nests in pristine Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos in the Cape Point section of Table Mountain National Park that have been analyzed so far, only 22 could be accessed sufficiently to determine the existence of a propolis wall of which 68% had propolis walls which entirely enclosed their openings. The analysis of the 37 wild nests revealed that 78% occurred under boulders or in clefts within rocks, 11% in the ground, 8% in tree cavities, and 3% within shrubs...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288817/animal-venoms-as-a-source-of-natural-antimicrobials-an-overview
#16
REVIEW
Ramar Perumal Samy, Bradley G Stiles, Octavio L Franco, Gautam Sethi, Lina Hk Lim
Hospitals are breeding grounds for many life-threatening bacteria worldwide. Clinically associated gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus/methicillin-resistant S. aureus and many others increase the risk of severe mortality and morbidity. The failure of antibiotics to kill various pathogens due to bacterial resistance highlights the urgent need to develop novel, potent, and less toxic agents from natural sources against various infectious agents. Currently, several promising classes of natural molecules from snake (terrestrial and sea), scorpion, spider, honey bee and wasp venoms hold promise as rich sources of chemotherapeutics against infectious pathogens...
March 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288794/stress-mediated-allee-effects-can-cause-the-sudden-collapse-of-honey-bee-colonies
#17
Ross D Booton, Yoh Iwasa, James A R Marshall, Dylan Z Childs
The recent rapid decline in global honey bee populations could have significant implications for ecological systems, economics and food security. No single cause of honey bee collapse has yet to be identified, although pesticides, mites and other pathogens have all been shown to have a sublethal effect. We present a model of a functioning bee hive and introduce external stress to investigate the impact on the regulatory processes of recruitment to the forager class, social inhibition and the laying rate of the queen...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287445/bee-an-object-oriented-agent-based-simulator-for-honey-bee-colonies
#18
Matthew Betti, Josh LeClair, Lindi M Wahl, Mair Zamir
We present a model and associated simulation package (www.beeplusplus.ca) to capture the natural dynamics of a honey bee colony in a spatially-explicit landscape, with temporally-variable, weather-dependent parameters. The simulation tracks bees of different ages and castes, food stores within the colony, pollen and nectar sources and the spatial position of individual foragers outside the hive. We track explicitly the intake of pesticides in individual bees and their ability to metabolize these toxins, such that the impact of sub-lethal doses of pesticides can be explored...
March 10, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286711/taxonomic-and-functional-trait-diversity-of-wild-bees-in-different-urban-settings
#19
Étienne Normandin, Nicolas J Vereecken, Christopher M Buddle, Valérie Fournier
Urbanization is one of the major anthropogenic processes contributing to local habitat loss and extirpation of numerous species, including wild bees, the most widespread pollinators. Little is known about the mechanisms through which urbanization impacts wild bee communities, or the types of urban green spaces that best promote their conservation in cities. The main objective of this study was to describe and compare wild bee community diversity, structure, and dynamics in two Canadian cities, Montreal and Quebec City...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285617/effects-of-bee-propolis-supplementation-on-glycemic-control-lipid-profile-and-insulin-resistance-indices-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#20
Nazli Samadi, Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi, Masoud Rahmanian, Mohsen Askarishahi
BACKGROUND: Propolis, a natural resinous substance made by bees from material extracted from plants, flowers and bee's wax, has shown great therapeutic effects and been widely used in food and drug industries. Recently, some researchers have studied the effect of this substance in the treatment of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this trial was to determine the effect of bee propolis on glycemic control, serum lipid profile and insulin resistance indices in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
March 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
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