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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434203/topiramate-monotherapy-for-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang, Yu-Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Topiramate is a newer broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug (AED). Some studies have shown the benefits of topiramate monotherapy in the treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). However, there are no current systematic reviews to determine the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate monotherapy in people with JME. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 12, 2015. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate monotherapy in the treatment of JME...
April 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434191/the-effect-of-parotid-gland-sparing-imrt-on-salivary-composition-flow-rate-and-xerostomia-measures
#2
Thomas M Richards, Tara Hurley, Lorna Grove, Kevin J Harrington, Guy H Carpenter, Gordon B Proctor, Christopher M Nutting
OBJECTIVES: To describe parotid gland (PG) saliva organic and inorganic composition and flow rate changes, after curative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC) and analyse the relationship between PG saliva analytes and xerostomia measures. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-six patients recruited to five prospective phase 2 or 3 trials which assessed toxicity and efficacy of IMRT by HNC subsite, provided longitudinal PG salivas. Salivary flow rate, subjective and objective xerostomia measures were prospectively collected and salivas tested for inorganic and organic analytes...
April 23, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434181/management-options-for-biochemically-recurrent-prostate-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Farhad Fakhrejahani, Ravi A Madan, William L Dahut
Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor malignancy in men worldwide. Treatment with surgery and radiation can be curative in organ-confined disease. Unfortunately, about one third of men develop biochemically recurrent disease based only on rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the absence of visible disease on conventional imaging. For these patients with biochemical recurrent prostate cancer, there is no uniform guideline for subsequent management. Based on available data, it seems prudent that biochemical recurrent prostate cancer should initially be evaluated for salvage radiation or prostatectomy, with curative intent...
May 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434147/increasing-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Hua Li, Yangbing Zhao
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a promising cancer treatment that has recently been undergoing rapid development. However, there are still some major challenges, including precise tumor targeting to avoid off-target or "on-target/off-tumor" toxicity, adequate T cell infiltration and migration to solid tumors and T cell proliferation and persistence across the physical and biochemical barriers of solid tumors. In this review, we focus on the primary challenges and strategies to design safe and effective CAR T cells, including using novel cutting-edge technologies for CAR and vector designs to increase both the safety and efficacy, further T cell modification to overcome the tumor-associated immune suppression, and using gene editing technologies to generate universal CAR T cells...
April 22, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434139/neurological-manifestations-of-atypical-celiac-disease-in-childhood
#5
Çiğdem Genç Sel, Erhan Aksoy, Ayşe Aksoy, Deniz Yüksel, Ferda Özbay
Various typical and atypical neurological manifestations can be seen as the initial symptoms of celiac disease (CD). We suggest that gluten toxicity is the most suspicious triggering risk factor for probable pathophysiological pathways of neurological involvement in atypical CD. The medical charts of 117 patients diagnosed with atypical CD were retrieved from a tertiary center in Ankara, Turkey. Eight patients reported as having neurologic manifestations as initiating symptoms were evaluated in detail. The initial neurological manifestations of CD in our study included atypical absence, which was reported first in this study, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, severe axial hypotonia and down phenotype, multifocal leukoencephalopathy, mild optic neuritis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and short duration headaches...
April 22, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434110/the-risk-of-radiation-necrosis-following-stereotactic-radiosurgery-with-concurrent-systemic-therapies
#6
Joseph M Kim, Jacob A Miller, Rupesh Kotecha, Roy Xiao, Aditya Juloori, Matthew C Ward, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, Alireza M Mohammadi, David M Peereboom, Erin S Murphy, John H Suh, Gene H Barnett, Michael A Vogelbaum, Lilyana Angelov, Glen H Stevens, Samuel T Chao
To investigate late toxicity among patients with newly-diagnosed brain metastases undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with concurrent systemic therapies with or without whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Patients with newly-diagnosed brain metastasis who underwent SRS at a single tertiary-care institution from 1997 to 2015 were eligible for inclusion. The class and timing of all systemic therapies were collected for each patient. The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of radiographic radiation necrosis (RN)...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434097/impact-of-a-complementary-integrative-medicine-program-on-the-need-for-supportive-cancer-care-related-medications
#7
Ilanit Shalom-Sharabi, Noah Samuels, Efraim Lev, Ofer Lavie, Lital Keinan-Boker, Elad Schiff, Eran Ben-Arye
OBJECTIVE: Despite the growing evidence supporting the use of complementary/integrative medicine (CIM) in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced toxicities, little is known on CIM impact of these therapies regarding the use of medications for supportive cancer care. In this study, we examined the impact of CIM on the need for supportive cancer care-related medications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with breast or gynecological cancer referred to and attending an integrative physician (IP) consultation for gastrointestinal (GI) concerns were designated as the treatment group; those not attending as controls...
April 22, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434066/toxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-three-antimicrobials-commonly-used-in-veterinary-medicine
#8
Anahí Magdaleno, Sofía Carusso, Juan Moretton
The toxicity of chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and enrofloxacin (ENF) was tested on two green algal species: the international standard Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the native Argentine species Ankistrodesmus fusiformis. All three antibiotics inhibited the algal growth. The most sensitive species was P. subcapitata, for which the EC50 for CTC, OTC and ENF were 1.19 ± 0.53, 0.92 ± 0.30 and 5.18 ± 3.80 mg L(-1), respectively. The EC50 for A. fusiformis, were 3.23 ± 0...
April 22, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434047/late-renal-toxicity-of-treatment-for-childhood-malignancy-risk-factors-long-term-outcomes-and-surveillance
#9
Roderick Skinner
Chronic glomerular and tubular nephrotoxicity is reported in 20-50% and 20-25%, respectively, of children and adolescents treated with ifosfamide and 60-80% and 10-30%, respectively, of those given cisplatin. Up to 20% of children display evidence of chronic glomerular damage after unilateral nephrectomy for a renal tumour. Overall, childhood cancer survivors have a ninefold higher risk of developing renal failure compared with their siblings. Such chronic nephrotoxicity may have multiple causes, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy exposure to kidneys, renal surgery, supportive care drugs and tumour-related factors...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434032/diabetes-bone-and-glucose-lowering-agents-basic-biology
#10
REVIEW
Beata Lecka-Czernik
Skeletal fragility often accompanies diabetes and does not appear to correlate with low bone mass or trauma severity in individuals with diabetes. Instead (and in contrast to those with osteoporotic bone disease), bone remodelling and bone turnover are compromised in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, contributing to defective bone material quality. This review is one of a pair discussing the relationship between diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents; an accompanying review is provided in this issue of Diabetologia by Ann Schwartz (DOI: 10...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434003/cytotoxic-effects-of-transthyretin-aggregates-in-an-epidermoid-cell-line
#11
Vai Hong Fong, Amandio Vieira
OBJECTIVE: Skin amyloid deposits can occur as part of systemic amyloidoses including those involving misfolded- aggregated transthyretins (agTTR). Pathological effects of agTTR on the skin are not well understood. The main objective of the current study was to examine the toxicity of agTTR upon a human keratinocyte cell line. METHODS: Cells were analyzed for indicators of oxidative stress after treatment with normal soluble TTR or the same pre-aggregation concentration of agTTR...
April 22, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433979/lethal-high-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-adem-triggered-by-toxic-effect-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-black-mamba
#12
Kiran Samra, Ian S Boon, Gregory Packer, Saiju Jacob
A previously well 25-year-old man presented with agitation, double incontinence and left-sided incoordination. His symptoms started after smoking a synthetic cannabinoid (black mamba) 5 days earlier. Over 48 hours, he developed aphasia, generalised hypertonia, hyper-reflexia and dense left hemiparesis. This progressed to profuse diaphoresis, fever, tachycardia, hypertension and a possible seizure necessitating admission to the intensive care unit. CT head and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were unremarkable...
April 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433944/evaluation-of-vaccinal-effectiveness-of-preparations-containing-membrane-antigens-of-leishmania-l-amazonensis-in-experimental-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-model
#13
João G Ribeiro, Amália S Ferreira, Sharon R A Macedo, Norton R D L P Rossi, Mayara C P da Silva, Rosane N M Guerra, Neuza B de Barros, Roberto Nicolete
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is considered a neglected disease, for which an effective vaccine or an efficient diagnosis is not yet available and whose chemotherapeutic arsenal is threatened by the emergence of resistance by etiological agents such as Leishmania amazonensis. ATL is endemic in poor countries and has a high incidence in Brazil. Vaccines developed from native parasite fractions have led to the identification of defined antigenic subunits and the development of vaccine adjuvant technology...
April 20, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433937/perturbation-effect-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-quantum-dots-rgoqds-on-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-pathway-in-zebrafish
#14
Jing-Hui Zhang, Tai Sun, Aping Niu, Yu-Mei Tang, Shun Deng, Wei Luo, Qun Xu, Dapeng Wei, De-Sheng Pei
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been widely used in enormous fields, however, the inherent molecular mechanism of GQDs for potential risks in biological system is still elusive to date. In this study, the outstanding reduced graphene quantum dots (rGOQDs) with the QY as high as 24.62% were successfully synthesized by the improved Hummers method and DMF hydrothermal treatment approach. The rGOQDs were N-doped photoluminescent nanomaterials with functional groups on the surface. The fluorescent bio-imaging was performed by exposing zebrafish in different concentrations of the as-prepared rGOQDs, and the distribution of rGOQDs was successfully observed...
April 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433934/amino-acid-functionalized-gadofullerene-nanoparticles-with-superior-antitumor-activity-via-destruction-of-tumor-vasculature-in%C3%A2-vivo
#15
Yue Zhou, Ruijun Deng, Mingming Zhen, Jie Li, Mirong Guan, Wang Jia, Xue Li, Ying Zhang, Tong Yu, Toujun Zou, Zhigao Lu, Jun Guo, Lei Sun, Chunying Shu, Chunru Wang
Researchers have been puzzled of the therapy of malignant tumors and the current therapeutic strategies are always accompanied by toxicity or side effects. Developing efficient nanodrugs could reduce the dosage and greatly improve the therapeutic effects in cancer treatments. Here we initially reported a novel kind of gadofullerene nanoparticles functionalized with amino acid (β-alanine), which exhibited a superior antitumor activity in hepatoma H22 models via a novel therapeutic mechanism. The involvement of β-alanine improved the tumor inhibition rate up to 76...
April 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433929/pollution-characteristics-and-human-health-risks-of-potentially-eco-toxic-elements-ptes-in-road-dust-from-metropolitan-area-of-hefei-china
#16
Muhammad Ubaid Ali, Guijian Liu, Balal Yousaf, Qumber Abbas, Habib Ullah, Mehr Ahmed Mujtaba Munir, Biao Fu
This study aims to investigate the pollution characteristics of road dust and their associated health risks of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) to humans using array-based risk assessment models described by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in a metropolitan area of Hefei, China. Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) was used to describe pollution characteristics of roadside dust in urban, periurban and industrial areas. Results indicate that industrial roadside dust was contaminated with Fe, Ni, Cu, Ti, V, Pb, Ba, Sb, Cr, Sn, Pb, As and Ga showing Igeo value (log2 (x)) between Igeo class 3 to 4...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433920/proteomic-analysis-of-sockeye-salmon-serum-as-a-tool-for-biomarker-discovery-and-new-insight-into-the-sublethal-toxicity-of-diluted-bitumen
#17
Sarah L Alderman, Laura A Dindia, Christopher J Kennedy, Anthony P Farrell, Todd E Gillis
Pipelines carrying diluted bitumen (dilbit) from Canada's oil sands traverse North America, including the freshwater habitat of Pacific salmon, posing a risk of environmental release and aquatic exposure. Swimming performance is impacted in juvenile sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) exposed to dilbit; therefore biomarkers of dilbit exposure will be valuable for monitoring at-risk salmon stocks. This study characterized changes in the serum proteome of sockeye exposed to a sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentration of dilbit using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), and included a range of experimental conditions to permit identification of biomarkers that are robust across time (1 and 4wk) and exercise level (at rest and following a swim test)...
April 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433904/biodegradation-of-naproxen-by-freshwater-algae-cymbella-sp-and-scenedesmus-quadricauda-and-the-comparative-toxicity
#18
Tengda Ding, Kunde Lin, Bo Yang, Mengting Yang, Juying Li, Wenying Li, Jay Gan
Naproxen is one of the most prevalent pharmaceuticals and of great environment concern. Information about bioremediation of naproxen by algae remains limited and no study has been reported on the degradation mechanism and the toxicity of NPX on algae. In this study, both Cymbella sp. and Scenedesmus quadricauda showed complete growth inhibition (100%) at 100mgL(-1) within 24h. Biochemical characteristics including chlorophyll a, carotenoid contents and enzyme activities for these two microalgae were affected by NPX at relatively high concentrations after 4d of exposure...
April 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433833/in-vitro-antitumor-activity-metal-uptake-and-reactivity-with-ascorbic-acid-and-bsa-of-some-gold-iii-complexes-with-n-n-ethylenediamine-bidentate-ester-ligands
#19
Nebojša Pantelić, Bojana B Zmejkovski, Branka Kolundžija, Marija Đorđić Crnogorac, Jelena M Vujić, Biljana Dojčinović, Srećko R Trifunović, Tatjana P Stanojković, Tibor J Sabo, Goran N Kaluđerović
Four novel gold(III) complexes of general formulae [AuCl2{(S,S)-R2eddl}]PF6 (R2eddl=O,O'-dialkyl-(S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(4-methyl)pentanoate, R=n-Pr, n-Bu, n-Pe, i-Bu; 1-4, respectively), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV/Vis, IR, and NMR spectroscopy, as well as high resolution mass spectrometry. Density functional theory calculations pointed out that (R,R)-N,N'-configuration diastereoisomers were energetically the most favorable. Duo to high cytotoxic activity complex 3 was chosen for stability study in DMSO, no decomposition occurs within 24h, and for the reaction with ascorbic acid in which was reduced immediately...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433809/biocorona-formation-on-gold-nanoparticles-modulates-human-proximal-tubule-kidney-cell-uptake-cytotoxicity-and-gene-expression
#20
M T Ortega, J E Riviere, K Choi, N A Monteiro-Riviere
Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) adsorb macromolecules to form a protein corona (PC) after systemic delivery, to which the kidney as the primary excretory organ is constantly exposed. The role of the PC on AuNP cell uptake and toxicity was investigated in vitro in human proximal tubule cells (HPTC) using 40 and 80nm branched polyethylenimine (BPEI), lipoic acid (LA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated AuNP with or without (bare) PCs composed of human plasma (HP) or human serum albumin (HSA) for 0.25 to 24h. Time-dependent intracellular uptake, assessed by ICP-MS showed PC modulated cell uptake and cytotoxicity; with bare 40nm BPEI-AuNP showing the greatest responses...
April 19, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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