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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330316/phytotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-perspective-of-two-selected-nanoparticles-in-brassica-juncea
#1
Sunita Rao, Gyan Singh Shekhawat
This study elaborates the consequences of oxidative stress caused by copper oxide (CuO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) in Brassica juncea. Effect of these two NPs on plant physiology, reactive oxygen scavenging enzyme system (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase), proline content and lipid peroxidation has been estimated in leaves as well as root tissues. Bioaccumulation of NPs has also been evaluated in the current study and the interrelated cascade of the enzymatic system with H2O2 production was identified...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330310/diversity-and-bioactive-potentials-of-culturable-heterotrophic-bacteria-from-the-surficial-sediments-of-the-arabian-sea
#2
Abdulaziz Anas, Charulatha Nilayangod, C Jasmin, Saradavey Vinothkumar, P S Parameswaran, Shanta Nair
Marine sediments accommodate plethora of diverse microorganisms with varying ecological functions. In the present study, we isolated bacteria from surficial sediments of south east Arabian Sea (AS) and evaluated their bioactive potentials. A total of 131 isolates belonging to the phylum: γ-Proteobacteria (63%), Bacillales (34%) and Micrococcaceae (3%) were isolated. Among these, about 40% of the isolates showed the presence of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes such as PKS or NRPS or both. Organic extracts of nearly 50% of these organisms were cytotoxic to human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and were bactericidal to human pathogens, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330281/evaluation-of-bioactive-secondary-metabolites-from-endophytic-fungus-pestalotiopsis-neglecta-bab-5510-isolated-from-leaves-of-cupressus-torulosa-d-don
#3
Deeksha Sharma, Avijit Pramanik, Pavan Kumar Agrawal
Six endophytic fungi were isolated from Cupressus torulosa D.Don and identified phenotypically and genotypically. The fungal cultures were further grown and the culture was extracted by two organic solvents methanol and ethyl acetate. The screening was carried out using the agar well diffusion method against human pathogen such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Isolated strain of Pestalotiopsis sp. was showing prominent antibacterial activity. The crude methanol and ethyl acetate extract of Pestalotiopsis sp...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330275/phytochemicals-of-moringa-oleifera-a-review-of-their-nutritional-therapeutic-and-industrial-significance
#4
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Iyyakkannu Sivanesan, Young-Soo Keum
Moringa oleifera Lam., also known as the 'drumstick tree,' is recognized as a vibrant and affordable source of phytochemicals, having potential applications in medicines, functional food preparations, water purification, and biodiesel production. The multiple biological activities including antiproliferation, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiatherosclerotic, oxidative DNA damage protective, antiperoxidative, cardioprotective, as well as folk medicinal uses of M. oleifera (MO) are attributed to the presence of functional bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, phytosterols, natural sugars, vitamins, minerals, and organic acids...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330259/identification-of-endophytic-bacillus-mojavensis-with-highly-specialized-broad-spectrum-antibacterial-activity
#5
B Jasim, S Sreelakshmi, Jyothis Mathew, E K Radhakrishnan
Biosynthetic adaptation of endophytic bacteria to chemically support host plant is very remarkable. Hence these organisms from medicinal plants are considered as highly valuable sources for natural products with diverse bioactivity. Their metabolite diversity and biosynthetic versatility have been increasingly explored for drug discovery. In this study, an endophytic Bacillus mojavensis with broad spectrum antibacterial properties has been analyzed for the chemical basis of its activity. By LC-MS/MS the organism was identified to have the biosynthetic ability to produce lipopeptides surfactin and fengycin...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330255/ascorbyl-palmitate-synthesis-in-an-organic-solvent-system-using-a-celite-immobilized-commercial-lipase-lipolase-100l
#6
Shivika Sharma, Kriti Kanwar, Shamsher S Kanwar
Ascorbyl palmitate was synthesized using a Celite-immobilized commercial lipase (Lipolase 100L) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as an organic solvent system. Lipase immobilized by surface adsorption onto Celite 545 matrix and subsequently exposed to 1 % glutaraldehyde showed 75 % binding of protein. The Celite-bound lipase was optimally active at 75 °C and pH 8.5 under shaking and showed maximum hydrolytic activity toward p-NPP as a substrate. The bound lipase was found to be stimulated only in the presence of Al(3+) and EDTA...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330252/organic-solvent-tolerant-metallo-protease-of-novel-isolate-serratia-marcescens-ppb-26-production-and-characterization
#7
Shikha Thakur, Nirmal Kant Sharma, Neerja Thakur, Savitri, Tek Chand Bhalla
Proteases are a class of enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of peptide bonds of proteins. In this study, 221 proteolytic bacterial isolates were obtained by enrichment culture method from soils of various regions of Himachal Pradesh, India. From these a hyper producer of protease was screened and identified by morphological and physiological testing and by 16S rDNA sequence as Serratia marcescens PPB-26. Statistical optimization of physiochemical parameters enhanced the protease production by 75 %. Protease of S...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330245/co-metabolism-of-thiocyanate-and-free-cyanide-by-exiguobacterium-acetylicum-and-bacillus-marisflavi-under-alkaline-conditions
#8
Lukhanyo Mekuto, Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Maxwell Mewa Ngongang, John Baptist Mudumbi, Enoch A Akinpelu
The continuous discharge of cyanide-containing effluents to the environment has necessitated for the development of environmentally benign treatment processes that would result in complete detoxification of the cyanide-containing wastewaters, without producing additional environmental toxicants. Since biological detoxification of hazardous chemical compounds has been renowned for its robustness and environmental-friendliness, the ability of the Exiguobacterium acetylicum (GenBank accession number KT282229) and Bacillus marisflavi (GenBank accession number KR016603) to co-metabolise thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and free cyanide (CN(-)) under alkaline conditions was evaluated...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330240/a-novel-cyclodextrin-glucanotransferase-from-an-alkaliphile-microbacterium-terrae-knr-9-purification-and-properties
#9
Kiransinh N Rajput, Kamlesh C Patel, Ujjval B Trivedi
Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC. 2.1.1.19) produced using new alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 has been purified to homogeneity in a single step by the starch adsorption method. The specific activity of the purified CGTase was 45 U/mg compared to crude 0.9 U/mg. This resulted in a 50-fold purification of the enzyme with 33 % yield. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was found to be 27.72 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Non-denaturing gel electrophoresis and activity staining confirmed the presence of CGTase in crude and the ammonium sulfate precipitate fraction...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330234/optimization-of-cellulase-production-by-penicillium-sp
#10
H N Prasanna, G Ramanjaneyulu, B Rajasekhar Reddy
The production of cellulolytic enzymes (β-exoglucanase, β-endoglucanase and β-glucosidase) by Penicillium sp. on three different media in liquid shake culture conditions was compared. The organism exhibited relatively highest activity of endoglucanase among three enzymes measured at 7-day interval during the course of its growth on Czapek-Dox medium supplemented with 0.5 % (w/v) cellulose. Cellulose at 0.5 %, lactose at 0.5 %, sawdust at 0.5 %, yeast extract at 0.2 % as a nitrogen source, pH 5.0 and 30 °C temperature were found to be optimal for growth and cellulase production by Penicillium sp...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330231/prevalence-of-toxigenic-fungi-in-common-medicinal-herbs-and-spices-in-india
#11
Visenuo Aiko, Alka Mehta
Mycotoxins are unavoidable contaminants of food grains, feeds, medicinal herbs, and spices, posing as health threat to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to screen medicinal herbs and spices for fungi and mycotoxin contamination and evaluate their safety. Sixty-three samples were examined for fungal contamination and fungal load determined using standard microbiological method. Aflatoxin and citrinin were detected using thin layer chromatography and high-performance chromatography technique...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330229/production-purification-and-characterization-of-halophilic-organic-solvent-tolerant-protease-from-marine-crustacean-shell-wastes-and-its-efficacy-on-deproteinization
#12
Thirumalai Maruthiah, Beena Somanath, Jebamonydhas Vijila Jasmin, Grasian Immanuel, Arunachalam Palavesam
The quantum of marine fish wastes produced by fish processing industries has necessitated to search new methods for its disposal. Hence, this study is focused on production and purification of halophilic organic solvent tolerant protease (HOSP) from marine Alcaligenes faecalis APCMST-MKW6 using marine shell wastes as substrate. The candidate bacterium was isolated from the marine sediment of Manakudi coast and identified as A. faecalis APCMST-MKW6. The purified protease showed 16.39-fold purity, 70.34 U/mg specific activity with 21...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330224/transcriptome-wide-mining-suggests-conglomerate-of-genes-associated-with-tuberous-root-growth-and-development-in-aconitum-heterophyllum-wall
#13
Nikhil Malhotra, Hemant Sood, Rajinder Singh Chauhan
Tuberous roots of Aconitum heterophyllum constitute storage organ for secondary metabolites, however, molecular components contributing to their formation are not known. The transcriptomes of A. heterophyllum were analyzed to identify possible genes associated with tuberous root development by taking clues from genes implicated in other plant species. Out of 18 genes, eight genes encoding GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPase), SHAGGY, Expansin, RING-box protein 1 (RBX1), SRF receptor kinase (SRF), β-amylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and Auxin responsive factor 2 (ARF2) showed higher transcript abundance in roots (13-171 folds) compared to shoots...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330222/bacterial-xylanases-biology-to-biotechnology
#14
REVIEW
Hillol Chakdar, Murugan Kumar, Kuppusamy Pandiyan, Arjun Singh, Karthikeyan Nanjappan, Prem Lal Kashyap, Alok Kumar Srivastava
In this review, a comprehensive discussion exclusively on bacterial xylanases; their gene organization; different factors and conditions affecting enzyme yield and activity; and their commercial application have been deliberated in the light of recent research findings and extensive information mining. Improved understanding of biological properties and genetics of bacterial xylanase will enable exploitation of these enzymes for many more ingenious biotechnological and industrial applications.
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330207/a-pmoa-based-study-reveals-dominance-of-yet-uncultured-type-i-methanotrophs-in-rhizospheres-of-an-organically-fertilized-rice-field-in-india
#15
Pranitha S Pandit, Dilip R Ranade, Prashant K Dhakephalkar, Monali C Rahalkar
Rice fields are one of the important sources of anthropogenic methane. Methanotrophs can oxidize up to 30 % of the produced methane and thus have a pivotal environmental role in methane mitigation. India occupies the largest region under rice cultivation; however, most of the studies done on methanotrophic communities have focused on the Northern region. We studied methanotrophic community of a flooded, organically fertilized rice field using pmoA clone library approach. Organic rice fields impose a more serious threat as they produce more methane...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330202/impact-of-various-media-and-organic-carbon-sources-on-biofuel-production-potential-from-chlorella-spp
#16
Amit Kumar Sharma, Pradeepta Kumar Sahoo, Shailey Singhal, Alok Patel
In this study, five Chlorella species (Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella minutissima, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Chlorella sp.1 and Chlorella sp.2) were grown in various nutrient medium including BG-11, BBM, Fog's medium and M4N medium for the evolution of biomass and lipid production potential. Among the tested medium, BG-11 was found most economical and efficient medium for all Chlorella species. To see the impact of organic carbon sources on lipid production potential, all microalgae species were also cultured in selected medium (BG-11) with different organic carbon sources like glucose, glycerol, sodium acetate, and sucrose under mixotrophic condition...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330190/phyto-synthesis-and-structural-characterization-of-catalytically-active-gold-nanoparticles-biosynthesized-using-delonix-regia-leaf-extract
#17
Preeti Dauthal, Mausumi Mukhopadhyay
Biological methods of nanoparticles synthesis are ecologically sound and sustainable alternative to the conventional methods. On the basis of aforesaid premise, the present study deals with the optimization and fabrication of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using easily available bio-resource, Delonix regia leaf extract. The use of practically nontoxic natural extracts and water allows the synthesis pathways presented to be considered as ''green'' and so permitting the synthesized Au-NPs to be used in sensitive areas, such as bioremediation...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330188/purification-and-characterization-of-a-surfactant-compatible-lipase-from-aspergillus-tamarii-jgif06-exhibiting-energy-efficient-removal-of-oil-stains-from-polycotton-fabric
#18
Arijit Das, Srividya Shivakumar, Sourav Bhattacharya, Sujina Shakya, S S Swathi
An extracellular lipase with 23,666.66 U/ml/min activity was produced by Aspergillus tamarii JGIF06 under submerged fermentation in mineral salt medium containing coconut oil (2.5 % v/v), tryptone (2 % w/v) and ammonium chloride (2 % w/v), with initial pH of 5 ± 0.2, incubated at 25 °C for 7 days on a rotary shaker at 120 rpm. A 7.9-fold increase in lipase-specific activity was recorded after purification by DEAE Sepharose ion exchange and Sephadex G200 column chromatography. The apparent molecular mass of this enzyme was revealed as 50 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330150/phylogenetic-relationships-of-fluorescent-pseudomonads-deduced-from-the-sequence-analysis-of-16s-rrna-pseudomonas-specific-and-rpod-genes
#19
Asmita Rajwar, Manvika Sahgal
Phylogenetic relationship of 22 FLPs was revealed on the basis of polymorphism in three genes namely 16S rDNA, Pseudomonas-specific and rpoD gene regions. The primers for 16S rDNA, Pseudomonas-specific region and rpoD gene region were amplifying a region of 1492, 990 and 760 bp, respectively, from all the isolates investigated. The RFLP analysis of the PCR products resulted in a classification of these fluorescent pseudomonads which was best answered by rpoD-based RFLP analysis. The 22 FLPs were placed in two major clusters and seven subclusters suggesting that these were genotypically heterogenous and might belong to several species within Pseudomonas sensu stricto...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330142/an-overview-of-physico-chemical-mechanisms-of-biogas-production-by-microbial-communities-a-step-towards-sustainable-waste-management
#20
REVIEW
Ramansu Goswami, Pritam Chattopadhyay, Arunima Shome, Sambhu Nath Banerjee, Amit Kumar Chakraborty, Anil K Mathew, Shibani Chaudhury
Biogas is a combination of methane, CO2, nitrogen, H2S and traces of few other gases. Almost any organic waste can be biologically transformed into biogas and other energy-rich organic compounds through the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus helping in sustainable waste management. Although microbes are involved in each step of AD, knowledge about those microbial consortia is limited due to the lack of phylogenetic and metabolic data of predominantly unculturable microorganisms. However, culture-independent methods like PCR-based ribotyping has been successfully employed to get information about the microbial consortia involved in AD...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
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