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Yan Ling Liu, Yu Li, Ya Rong Zhang, Xing Cheng Huang, Wen An Zhang, Tai Ming Jiang
A long-term fertilization field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizer on maize relative yield, yield-increasing effect and the changes of nutrients in yellow soil in Guizhou Province. Five fertilizer combinations were evaluated, including balanced fertilization (NPK) and nutrient deficiency treatments (N, NK, NP, and PK). The maize relative yield, contribution efficiency of N, P, K fertilizer application, sustainability index of soil N, P, K nutrients, and other indicators were measured...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yan Feng Wang, Bo Xiao, Bing Wang, Shuang Ma, Xiao-Meng Yao
The 30-year-old biological soil crusts dominated by mosses (hereafter moss crusts) and corresponding uncrusted soil (hereafter no crust) were sampled on loess soil and aeolian soil at 0-12 cm depth on the Loess Plateau of China. Afterwards, the hydrolase activities of the samples were measured, and their correlations with soil physicochemical properties were analyzed. Compared with no crust, the activities of urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, and protease of the moss crusts were 2.4, 7.6, 20.7, 2.4 times higher on loess soil, respectively; while they were 3...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Hui Feng Wu, Li Juan Song, Feng Du, Wen Fang Hao
Focused on different rehabilitation ages grassland in Wuqi County in loess hilly region, the present study aimed to explore niche characteristics of populations and their influence factors. The results showed that the dominant species were Artemisia sacrorum, A. leucophylla, A. scoparia, Lespedeza daurica and Poa sphondylodes, and the dominant species varied along with the rehabilitation age. The niche breadth of dominant populations increased with increasing rehabilitation age from 5 to 10 years, indicating enhanced adaptability to the environment...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Dan Liu, Xia Zhang, Jun Li, Xu-Dong Wang
An eight-year field experiment of straw returning was conducted on dark loessial soil in Weibei Highland to investigate the effects of tillage patterns on soil aggregate, soil organic carbon (SOC), corn yield and soil water use efficiency (WUE). There were six tillage patterns, including conventional tillage (CT/CT), no-tillage (NT/NT), subsoiling tillage (ST/ST), no-tillage/subsoiling tillage (NT/ST), conventional tillage/no-tillage (CT/NT) and conventional tillage/subsoiling tillage (CT/ST). The results showed that compared with CT/CT, the patterns of NT/NT, ST/ST and the rotational tillage patterns (NT/ST, CT/NT and CT/ST) decreased the mean mass diameter of soil mechanical stable aggregate...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Wei Qin Yin, Hao Qi Jing, Ya Bo Wang, Si Yu Wei, Yue Sun, Sheng Sen Wang, Xuai Zhi Wang
The elevated concentration of tropospheric ozone (O3 ) is an important global climate change driver, with adverse impacts on soil ecological environment and crop growth. In this study, a pot experiment was carried out in an open top chamber (OTC), to investigate the effects of elevated ozone concentration on soil enzyme activities (catalase, polyphenol oxidase, dehydrogenase and invertase), organic acids contents (oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid) at different growth stages (tillering, jointing, heading and ripening stages) of wheat, and combined with the rhizospheric soil physicochemical properties and plant root characteristics to analyze the underlying reasons...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Dai Jing Zhang, Yan Yan Zhang, Yan Jie Wang, Qian Qing Chen, Hui Li Yang, Jian Hui Ma, Chun Xi Li
With the aim to optimize the structural characteristics of wheat canopy by improving topsoil structure, we examined the effects of three different tillage treatments, deep tillage (DT), shallow tillage (ST), no-tillage (NT) alone, and with application of organic fertilizer, DTF, STF and NTF, on the soil structure and wheat canopy characteristics for five years. Under the same tillage treatment, application of organic fertilizer decreased soil bulk density, the content of soil aggregates with diameter > 5 mm, the mean mass diameter (MWD), and geometric mean diameter (GMD) values of the soil aggregates with diameter >0...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xue Jiao Zheng, Zhen Wen Yu, Yong Li Zhang, Yu Shi
With the large-spike wheat cultivar Shannong 23 as test material,a field experiment was conducted by increasing the relative soil moisture content to 70% and 65% at jointing and anthesis stages. Four nitrogen levels,0 (N0 ), 180 (N1 ), 240 (N2 ) and 300 kg·hm-2 (N3 ), were designed to examine the effects of nitrogen application rates on the interception of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and dry matter distribution of wheat at different canopy layers. The results showed that the total stem number of wheat population at anthesis stage, the leaf area index at 10, 20 and 30 days after anthesis, PAR capture ratio at upper and middle layers and total PAR capture ratio in wheat canopy on day 20 after anthesis of treatment N2 were significantly higher than those in the treatments of both N0 and N1 ...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ling Peng, Jing Jing Liu, Fen Wang, Shun Feng Ge, Yuan Mao Jiang
To explore the effects of different nitrate nitrogen levels (N0 , N1 , N2 , N3 and N4 were equivalent to 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 mmol·L-1 15 NO3 - -N, respectively) on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics and 15 N absorption, utilization and distribution, Malus hupehensis seedlings were grown in cultural liquid Hoagland by using the 15 N-labeled tracer method. The results showed that the leaf chlorophyll content, leaf area and dry mass in different organs were the highest in N2 treatment. With the increase of 15 NO3 - -N application rates, the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn )significantly increased but tended to decease when the 15 NO3 - -N concentration exceeded N2 treatment...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Lu Yao Wang, Fang Mei Jin, Yi Jing Jin, Jia Qing Xui, Wen Wen, Jian Hua Chen, Duo Ye
Oxalis articulata, an alien clonal plant species, is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental species, and has escaped and became naturalized. Belowground storage in tubers of O. articulata may play a key role for the potential invasion. In this study, we investigated the responses of its clonal resource storage strategy to mowing, aiming to uncover the mechanism underlying their invasion from a perspective of clonal storage. We examined the changes of biomass in different organs, biomass allocation, and several functional traits of roots, tubers and leaves in O...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Shuang Liu, Xin Yu Zhang, Yang Yang, Yu Qian Tang, Zhong Qiang Wang
We examined the effects of temperature on SOC mineralization rate (Cmin ) and enzyme kinetic parameters in soils of two different latitudinal forests, i.e., broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain at higher latitude and evergreen broad-leaved forest in Dinghu Mountain at lower latitude. The results showed that the soil Cmin increased with temperature, and the Cmin and Q10(Cmin ) of the Changbai Mountain forest soil were higher than those of the Dinghu Mountain forest soil. The maximal rates of velocity (Vmax ) and the half-saturation constant (Km ) of the Changbai Mountain forest soil were higher relative to the Dinghu Mountain soil for both soil β-glucosidase (βG) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), but being opposite for catalytic efficiency (Vmax /Km )...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xiao Fang Du, Ying Bin Li, Fang Liu, Xiao Lin Su, Qi Li
Soil micro-food web, as a part of the detritus food webs, directly or indirectly participates in nutrient cycling by feeding on substrate and microorganisms and consequently influences the functions of terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we reviewed the research progress of soil micro-food web in recent years by focusing on its composition, structure and ecological function in soil ecosystem. The important roles of soil micro-food web in driving carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformation, organic matter decomposition and plant growth were reviewed through the description of energy channel and trophic cascade effects of soil micro-food web...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ying Chen, Yu Xue Liu, Chong Jun Chen, Hao Hao Lyu, Yu Ying Wa, Li Li He, Sheng Mao Yang
In recent years, studies on carbon sequestration of biochar in soil has been in spotlight owing to the specific characteristics of biochar such as strong carbon stability and well developed pore structure. However, whether biochar will ultimately increase soil carbon storage or promote soil carbon emissions when applied into the soil? This question remains controversial in current academic circles. Further research is required on priming effect of biochar on mineralization of native soil organic carbon and its mechanisms...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yun Kai Li, Xiao di Gao, Lin Yu Wang, Lin Fang
As the apex predators of the open ocean ecosystems, pelagic sharks play important roles in stabilizing the marine food web through top-down control. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool to investigate the feeding ecology. The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios can be used to trace food source and evaluate the trophic position of marine organisms. In this study, the isotope values of 130 pelagic sharks from 8 species in Central Eastern Pacific were analyzed and their trophic position and niche were calculated to compare the intra/inter-specific resource partitioning in the Central Eastern Pacific ecosystem...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Zi Hao Wu, Yan Fang Liu, Yi Yun Chen, Long Guo, Qing Hu Jiang, Shao Chen Wang
Soil organic carbon pool is an important component of terrestrial carbon pool. Soil organic carbon pool and its dynamic change have important influence on carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystem. Soil organic carbon density (SOCD) is an important parameter of soil carbon storage, and it is also an important index to evaluate farmland soil quality. Accurate prediction of regional organic carbon density spatial distribution is of great significance to the development of precision agriculture. A total of 242 farmland soil samples collected from the Jianghan Plain were used to explore the effects of land use types on the spatial distribution of SOCD in plain areas...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Qing Li Gong, Bing Nian Zhai, Wei Zheng, Jie Liu, Zhao Xia Zheng, Zhi Yuan Zhao, Zi Yan Li, Zhao Hui Wang
The split-plot design was adopted in this experiment, with main treatments of grass cover and control and sub-treatments included four fertilization regimes: no fertilization, CK; manure, M; N,P and K fertilizer, NPK; and NPK fertilizer combined with manure, MNPK. Microplate fluorimetry was used to study the effects of grass cover combined with different fertilization regimes on the enzyme activities in apple orchard. The results showed that after mowing the grass (the residues were left on the soil surface as mulch), the soil water content, available P, nitrite nitrogen and the activities of βX, NAG, βG, CBH were increased compared to the control, with no significant differences for total nitrogen, soil organic carbon, and AKP activity...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xiang Zeng Xu, Jin Yan Zhang, Guang Hui Zhang, Guang Qiang Long, Sheng Chao Yang, Zhong Jian Chen, Fu Gang Wei, Jun Wen Chen
To explore the effects of light intensity on photosynthetic characteristics and light adaptation of the shade-demanding species Panax notoginseng, the responses of photosynthesis to photosynthetic photon flux density, CO2 and sunflecks in the two-year-old Panax notoginseng were investigated under different levels of light intensity (29.8%, 9.6%, 5.0%, 1.4% and 0.2% of full sunlight). Meanwhile, chlorophyll a fluorescence parameter and light energy partitioning were also recorded and calculated in the responsive process...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xi Hong, Ju Sheng Gao, Zun Zhang Luo, Xi Bai Zeng, Ling Yu Bai, Zhi Yong Luo, Ping Yi, Shu Ping Chen
The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance was studied and the eco-economic benefits of N and P were evaluated for the paddy field in a red soil area, under the fertilization treatments of no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic fertilizer (M), and chemical fertilizers combined with organic fertilizers (NPKM, NPM, NKM), based on the long-term experiment started in 1982, to optimize fertilizer application and reduce N and P losses. The results indicated that the slight N surplus (27.10 kg·hm-2 ) and P deficit (-6...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Zhen Wu, Yu Bing Dong, Zheng Qin Xiong
To evaluate the long-term effects of biochar amendment on greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs), a field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of 3-year field-aged biochar (B3 ) and fresh biochar (B0 ) on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) in a typical rice-wheat rotation system. Four treatments were established as control without nitrogen fertilizer (CK), urea without biochar (N), urea with fresh biochar amended in 2015 (NB0 ), and urea with 3-year field-aged biochar amended in 2012 (NB3 )...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yi Feng Wang, Ru Lin Qi, Ya Jun Yang, Yang Yang, Wei Dong Song, Wan Yi Mao
The paper studied the effects of altitude on reproductive characteristics in 12 populations of Saussurea przewalskii at the eastern Qinhai-Tibetan Plateau, China. The results showed that the size, reproductive organ biomass, vegetative organ biomass, capitulum number, and seed number of individual plant decreased with the increasing altitude, and the capitulum mass and hundred-grain mass increased continuously. S. przewalskii could ensure its reproduction by reducing plant body size to decrease resource consumption, and increasing the allocation of limit resources to flower biomass...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Suzanne M Peyer, Natacha Kremer, Margaret J McFall-Ngai
The cathepsin L gene of the host squid, Euprymna scolopes, is upregulated during the first hours of colonization by the symbiont Vibrio fischeri. At this time, the symbiotic organ begins cell death-mediated morphogenesis in tissues functional only at the onset of symbiosis. The goal of this study was to determine whether Cathepsin L, a cysteine protease associated with apoptosis in other animals, plays a critical role in symbiont-induced cell death in the host squid. Sequence analysis and biochemical characterization demonstrated that the protein has key residues and domains essential for Cathepsin L function and that it is active within the pH range typical of these proteases...
April 24, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
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