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Ingvill Stuvøy
In the last decade, transnational surrogacy has attracted world-wide attention for making babies and pregnancies exchangeable with money. Involuntarily childless couples and individuals travel abroad and pay to have the desired child and to become parents. Acknowledging the importance of asking into the consequences of this monetization of reproduction, the author takes issue with universalistic assumptions about money and markets, and their presumed universal effects on social relations. Instead, it is argued that we need to explore how money works, and, by extension, how transnational surrogacy works out and becomes viable to people as a way to become parents...
June 21, 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
Rhoune Ochako, Jerry Okal, Steven Kimetu, Ian Askew, Marleen Temmerman
BACKGROUND: Female Sex Workers (FSWs) are predisposed to a broad range of social, sexual and reproductive health problems such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV, unintended pregnancy, violence, sexual exploitation, stigma and discrimination. Female sex workers have unmet need for contraceptives and require comprehensive Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) prevention interventions. Existing programs pay little attention to the broad sexual and reproductive health and rights of these women and often focus on HIV and other STIs prevention, care and treatment while neglecting their reproductive health needs, including access to family planning methods...
June 20, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Kunbei Lai, Ying Li, Lijun Zhou, Xiaojin Zhong, Chuangxin Huang, Fabao Xu, Lin Lu, Jian Ge, Chenjin Jin
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is still under debate. Little knowledge is known about the treatment effect of "1+pro re nata(PRN)" treatment regimen for PCV. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of photodynamic therapy (PDT), intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IVR) and combination therapy under the "1 + PRN" treatment regimen for PCV. METHODS: Fifty-seven eyes of 57 patients completed the 12 months' follow-up in this prospective study...
June 20, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Sandra Diminic, Mary Bartram
OBJECTIVE: Provincial and territorial governments are considering how best to improve access to psychotherapy from the current patchwork of programmes. To achieve the best value for money, new funding needs to reach a wider population rather than simply replacing services funded through insurance benefits. We considered lessons for Canada from the relative uptake of private insurance and public funding for allied health psychotherapy in Australia. METHOD: We analysed published administrative claims data from 2003-2004 to 2014-2015 on Australian privately insured psychologist services, publicly insured psychotherapy under the 'Better Access' initiative, and public grant funding for psychotherapy through the 'Access to Allied Psychological Services' programme...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Keerthana Kesavarapu, Sirish K Palle, Molly Dugan, Shannon Antinerella, Shannon Luetkemeyer, Nitika Gupta
Peer group camping experiences have a positive influence on adolescents with chronic illnesses, but the data in solid organ transplant recipients are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of adolescent transplant attendees of an educational camp. A weekend camp, "I own it" was organized which provided educational training regarding career and health choices, money matters, and managing medications following which a knowledge assessment was performed. The ACLSA questionnaire was also administered...
June 19, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
E C Wilson, C Turner, S Arayasirikul, T Woods, T Nguyen, R Lin, K Franza, J Tryon, T Nemoto, M Iwamoto
Transwomen of color are disproportionately impacted by HIV and may have worse health outcomes than other populations. This analysis was conducted to examine structural factors associated with poor health outcomes among transwomen of color living with HIV in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 159). Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to determine if structural factors were associated with poor HIV-related health outcomes. A majority of participants were Black or African American (110/159, 69...
June 19, 2018: AIDS Care
Genevieve Kerkerian, Mary Kestler, Allison Carter, Lu Wang, Nadine Kronfli, Paul Sereda, Eric Roth, M-J Milloy, Neora Pick, Deborah Money, Kath Webster, Robert S Hogg, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Mona Loutfy, Angela Kaida
BACKGROUND: In North America, women have lower engagement across the HIV cascade of care compared with men. Among women living with HIV (WLWH) in Canada, we measured the prevalence and correlates of attrition across cascade stages overall, and by key sub-populations. METHODS: We analyzed baseline survey data regarding six nested stages of the HIV cascade among 1,424 WLWH enrolled in the Canadian HIV Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), including: linked to care, retained in care, initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART), current ART use, ART adherence (≥90%), and viral suppression (<50 copies/mL)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Tarundeep Singh, Nidhi Bhatnagar, Gopal Singh, Manmeet Kaur, Sukhvinder Kaur, Preeti Thaware, Rajesh Kumar
Objective: To determine pattern of health care utilization and extent of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure in rural areas of Punjab in India. Methods: Using multi stage sampling procedure, 660 participants were selected from 110 villages, out of all 22 districts; 440 participants had utilized outpatient care in past 15 days, and 220 had been hospitalized in past one year. Pretested semistructured questionnaires were used to enquire about household and healthcare expenditures...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Ariel Higgins-Steele, Jane Burke, Abo Ismael Foshanji, Farhad Farewar, Malalai Naziri, Sediq Seddiqi, Karen M Edmond
BACKGROUND: In the past fifteen years, Afghanistan has made substantial progress in extending primary health care. However, coverage of essential health interventions proven to improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes, particularly skilled birth attendance, remains unacceptably low. This is especially true for those in the poorest quintile of the population. This cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative study assessed barriers associated with care-seeking for institutional delivery among rural Afghan women in three provinces...
June 18, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Rosario Valdez Santiago, Luz Arenas Monreal, Anabel Rojas Carmona, Mario Sánchez Domínguez
BACKGROUND: Structural and gender violence in Mexico take on various forms, obstetric violence among them. The objective of our study consisted in analyzing experiences of structural and gender discrimination against women during childbirth care at two public hospitals in Mexico. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional mixed methods study including a survey of closed questions administered to all women who received health care for vaginal or cesarean childbirth at two public hospitals from May 7 to June 7, 2012 (N = 512)...
June 18, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Derick Akompab Akoku, Mbah Abena Tihnje, Thomas Achombwom Vukugah, Elvis Enowbeyang Tarkang, Robinson Enow Mbu
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, risky sexual behaviour, alcohol use and transactional sex among female bar workers in Yaounde, Cameroon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a representative sample of 410 female bar workers, recruited through a modified version of venue-based cluster sampling technique from May to June 2017. Transactional sex was defined as having received money/gifts in exchange for sex with any sexual partner in the past 12 months...
2018: PloS One
Jean J Schensul, Kim E Radda, Candace Corbeil
This paper explores the behaviours and meanings associated with intimacy and sexuality among older adults with diverse partners living in subsidised senior housing. It utilises survey and qualitative data from a mixed methods of ageing/HIV exposure to illustrate gendered views on sexual and intimate behaviours, and attitudes towards transactional/commercial sex. Data suggest that women were cautious about engaging in intimate relationships, while men sought them and the companionship they provided to address loneliness...
June 18, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Mohammad Siahpush, Paraskevi A Farazi, Shannon I Maloney, Danae Dinkel, Minh N Nguyen, Gopal K Singh
OBJECTIVES: To examine (1) the association between household socioeconomic status (SES) and whether a household spends money on cigarettes and (2) socioeconomic variations in proportion of total household expenditure spent on cigarettes among smoking households. METHODS: We pooled data from six consecutive years, 2010-2015, of the Consumer Expenditure Interview Survey. The interviews involved a structured questionnaire about household income, demographics and expenditures including expenditure on cigarettes...
June 15, 2018: BMJ Open
Elisabeth Lång, Paul Nystedt
We analyze the earnings penalty of smoking among Swedish twins in two social contexts: the 1970s, when smoking was common and widely accepted and when there were relatively few tobacco laws aiming to reduce smoking; and the 2000s, when smoking had become more expensive, stigmatizing and less common, and when tobacco laws and regulations had intensified. The results show that the short-term earnings penalty of smoking was much higher in the 21st century than in the 1970s for men. For women, smokers had on average higher annual earnings compared to nonsmokers in the 1970s, but lower annual earnings in the 2000s...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
Nigel Hawkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Michael Auer, Mark D Griffiths
Providing personalized feedback about the amount of money that gamblers have actually spent may-in some cases-result in cognitive dissonance due to the mismatch between what gamblers actually spent and what they thought they had spent. In the present study, the participant sample ( N  = 11,829) was drawn from a Norwegian population that had played at least one game for money in the past six months on the Norsk Tipping online gambling website. Players were told that they could retrieve personalized information about the amount of money they had lost over the previous 6-month period...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Rujuta A Katkar, Robert M Taft, Gerald T Grant
Three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered images allow 3D insight into the anatomy, facilitating surgical treatment planning and teaching. 3D printing, additive manufacturing, and rapid prototyping techniques are being used with satisfactory accuracy, mostly for diagnosis and surgical planning, followed by direct manufacture of implantable devices. The major limitation is the time and money spent generating 3D objects. Printer type, material, and build thickness are known to influence the accuracy of printed models...
July 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
Bernhard Durner, Thomas Ehmann, Frank-Michael Matysik
The adaption of an parallel-path poly(tetrafluoroethylene)(PTFE) ICP-nebulizer to an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was realized. This was done by substituting the originally installed concentric glass nebulizer of the ELSD. The performance of both nebulizers was compared regarding nebulizer temperature, evaporator temperature, flow rate of nebulizing gas and flow rate of mobile phase of different solvents using caffeine and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as analytes. Both nebulizers showed similar performances but for the parallel-path PTFE nebulizer the performance was considerably better at low LC flow rates and the nebulizer lifetime was substantially increased...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Sebastian Olikira Baine, Alex Kakama, Moses Mugume
BACKGROUND: Kisiizi Hospital Health Insurance scheme started in 1996 to; improve access to health services, and provide a stable source of funding and reduce bad debts to Kisiizi hospital. Objectives of this study were; to describe Kisiizi Hospital Health Insurance scheme and to document lessons learned and implications for universal health coverage. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data from different sources were triangulated and thematically analysed...
June 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Thirunavukkarasu Prasanna, Kathiresan Jeyashree, Palanivel Chinnakali, Yogesh Bahurupi, Kavita Vasudevan, Mrinalini Das
BACKGROUND: The average expenditure incurred by patients in low- and middle-income countries towards diagnosis and treatment of TB ranges from $55 to $8198. This out-of-pocket expenditure leads to impoverishment of households. One of the three main targets of the End TB Strategy (2016-2035) is that no TB-affected household suffers catastrophic costs due to TB. Study setting was free care under national tuberculosis program (NTP), Puducherry district, India. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were among the newly diagnosed and previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients, to (a) estimate patient costs during diagnosis and intensive phase of treatment, (b) determine the proportion of households experiencing catastrophic costs, and (c) explore coping strategies...
2018: Global Health Action
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