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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679811/hepatitis-c-care-continuum-and-associated-barriers-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-chennai-india
#1
Eshan U Patel, Sunil S Solomon, Allison M Mcfall, Aylur K Srikrishnan, Amrose Pradeep, Paneerselvam Nandagopal, Oliver Laeyendecker, Aaron A R Tobian, David L Thomas, Mark S Sulkowski, M Suresh Kumar, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding barriers to hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment among people who inject drugs (PWID) in low-resource settings, particularly in the era of direct-acting antiviral therapies. METHODS: Between March, 2015-August, 2016, a cross-sectional survey was administered to community-based PWID in Chennai, India to examine the HCV care continuum and associated barriers. Adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance...
April 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679810/the-cost-effectiveness-of-seven-behavioural-interventions-to-prevent-drug-misuse-in-vulnerable-populations
#2
Becky Pennington, Brendan Collins, Simon Leigh, Antony P Martin, Lesley Owen, Alastair Fischer, Harry Sumnall, Geoff Bates
BACKGROUND: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) developed a guideline on drug misuse prevention in vulnerable populations. Part of the guideline development process involved evaluating cost-effectiveness and determining which interventions represented good value for money. METHODS: Economic models were developed for seven interventions which aimed to prevent drug use in vulnerable populations. The models compared the costs (to the health and crime sectors) and health benefits (in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)) of each intervention and its comparator...
April 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679642/an-investigation-of-the-probability-of-reciprocation-in-a-risk-reduction-model-of-sharing
#3
Stephanie Jimenez, Cynthia Pietras
A laboratory study investigated whether reductions in the probability of reciprocation would influence sharing in situations of shortfall risk. Choice in twelve adults was evaluated against the predictions of a risk-reduction model of sharing derived from a risk-sensitive foraging theory (the energy-budget rule). Participants responded on a computer task to earn hypothetical money which could be later exchanged for real money. If participants selected the sharing option, their earnings were pooled and split with a (fictitious) partner...
April 18, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679333/a-mixed-methods-study-to-examine-the-role-of-psychosocial-stress-and-air-pollution-on-hypertension-in-mexican-origin-hispanics
#4
Amal Rammah, Kristina Walker Whitworth, Inkyu Han, Wenyaw Chan, Maria D Jimenez, Sara S Strom, Melissa L Bondy, Elaine Symanski
PURPOSE: Independent and combined effects of air pollution and psychosocial stressors on hypertension, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, among Hispanics are not well studied. METHODS: We administered a pilot-tested questionnaire on individual- and neighborhood-level psychosocial stressors, developed with community input, to nearly 2500 individuals from the MD Anderson Cancer Center cohort of Mexican-Americans. We used data from local air quality monitors to estimate individual exposures to ozone (O3 ) and fine particulate matter (PM2...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678119/exchange-sex-among-people-receiving-medical-care-for-hiv-in-the-united-states-medical-monitoring-project-2009-2013
#5
Oluwatosin Olaiya, Lina Nerlander, Christine L Mattson, Linda Beer
Many studies of persons who exchange sex for money or drugs have focused on their HIV acquisition risk, and are often limited to select populations and/or geographical locations. National estimates of exchange sex among people living with HIV (PLWH) who are in medical care, and its correlates, are lacking. To address these gaps, we analyzed data from the Medical Monitoring Project, a surveillance system that produces nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical characteristics of PLWH receiving medical care in the United States, to estimate the weighted prevalence of exchange sex overall, and by selected socio-demographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics...
April 20, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677680/transcriptomic-identification-of-salt-related-genes-and-de-novo-assembly-in-common-buckwheat-f-esculentum
#6
Qi-Huan Lu, Ya-Qi Wang, Jin-Nan Song, Hong-Bing Yang
Common buckwheat (F. esculentum), annually herbaceous crop, is prevalent in people's daily life with the increasing development of economics. Compared with wheat, it is highly praised with high content of rutin and flavonoid. Common buckwheat is recognized as healthy food with good taste, and the product price of which such as noodles, flour, bread and so on are higher than wheat, and the seeds of which are bigger than that of tartary buckwheat, so if common buckwheat are planted more widely, people will spend less money on this healthy and delicious food...
April 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674946/betting-forex-trading-and-fantasy-gaming-sponsorships-a-responsible-marketing-inquiry-into-the-gamblification-of-english-football
#7
Hibai Lopez-Gonzalez, Mark D Griffiths
Environmental stimuli in the form of marketing inducements to gamble money on sports have increased in recent years. The purpose of the present paper is to tackle the extended definition of the gamblification of sport using sponsorship and partnership deals of gambling, forex trading, and fantasy gaming as a proxy for assessing its environmental impact. Using data about sponsorship deals from English Football Premier League, the paper builds on the evidence of English football's gamblification process to discuss the impact that the volume, penetration, and marketing strategies of sports betting might have on public health and well-being...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674222/anti-smoking-policy-in-russia-relevant-factors-and-program-planning
#8
Tatiana Kossova, Elena Kossova, Maria Sheluntcova
In this paper, we consider anti-smoking policy in Russia and the socioeconomic factors that influence an individual's decision to smoke. Among various factors, we investigate the individual time preferences of Russians. To estimate individual time preferences, we use an experiment in which survey respondents are given hypothetical money prizes. We find that being middle-aged, being unmarried and having parents who smoke are positively correlated with both men and women's likelihood of taking up smoking in Russia...
April 10, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673692/cost-effectiveness-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-compared-to-transfusion-chelation-for-treatment-of-thalassemia-major
#9
M Joseph John, Gaurav Jyani, Aikaj Jindal, Ranjeet Singh Mashon, Amrith Mathew, Shruti Kakkar, Pankaj Bahuguna, Shankar Prinja
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) is the only cure for thalassaemia major (TM) which inflicts a significant one-time cost. Hence, it is important to explore the cost-effectiveness of HSCT versus lifelong regular transfusion chelation (TC) therapy. This study was undertaken to estimate incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained with the intervention group HSCT, and the comparator group TC, in TM patients. A combination of decision tree and Markov model was used for analysis. Hospital database, supplemented with review of published literature were used to derive input parameters for the model...
April 16, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672141/health-care-utilization-and-expenditures-of-homeless-family-members-before-and-after-emergency-housing
#10
Robin E Clark, Linda Weinreb, Julie M Flahive, Robert W Seifert
OBJECTIVES: To describe longitudinal health service utilization and expenditures for homeless family members before and after entering an emergency shelter. METHODS: We linked Massachusetts emergency housing assistance data with Medicaid claims between July 2008 and June 2015, constructing episodes of health care 12 months before and 12 months after families entered a shelter. We modeled emergency department visits, hospital admissions, and expenditures over the 24-month period separately for children and adults...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672092/from-meaning-to-money-translating-injury-into-dollars
#11
Valerie P Hans, Rebecca K Helm, Valerie F Reyna
Legal systems often require the translation of qualitative assessments into quantitative judgments, yet the qualitative-to-quantitative conversion is a challenging, understudied process. We conducted an experimental test of predictions from a new theory of juror damage award decision making, examining how 154 lay people engaged in the translation process in recommending money damages for pain and suffering in a personal injury tort case. The experiment varied the presence, size, and meaningfulness of an anchor number to determine how these factors influenced monetary award judgments, perceived difficulty, and subjective meaningfulness of awards...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671729/plastic-surgery-overseas-how-much-should-a-physician-risk-in-the-pursuit-of-higher-quality-continuity-of-care
#12
Scott Schweikart
In this article I discuss medical tourism, whereby patients go overseas for plastic surgery treatment in order to save money. However, if malpractice occurs abroad, there are several barriers that make it difficult for patients to recover damages. I explain these legal barriers and then discuss the possible causes of action patients can have over their "domestic physician" (their personal physician who might have referred surgery abroad or who gives postoperative follow-up care) and how these causes of action can create avenues of legal recovery not otherwise available...
April 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671393/predicting-and-understanding-comprehensive-drug-drug-interactions-via-semi-nonnegative-matrix-factorization
#13
Hui Yu, Kui-Tao Mao, Jian-Yu Shi, Hua Huang, Zhi Chen, Kai Dong, Siu-Ming Yiu
BACKGROUND: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) always cause unexpected and even adverse drug reactions. It is important to identify DDIs before drugs are used in the market. However, preclinical identification of DDIs requires much money and time. Computational approaches have exhibited their abilities to predict potential DDIs on a large scale by utilizing pre-market drug properties (e.g. chemical structure). Nevertheless, none of them can predict two comprehensive types of DDIs, including enhancive and degressive DDIs, which increases and decreases the behaviors of the interacting drugs respectively...
April 11, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670195/information-of-complex-systems-and-applications-in-agent-based-modeling
#14
Lei Bao, Joseph C Fritchman
Information about a system's internal interactions is important to modeling the system's dynamics. This study examines the finer categories of the information definition and explores the features of a type of local information that describes the internal interactions of a system. Based on the results, a dual-space agent and information modeling framework (AIM) is developed by explicitly distinguishing an information space from the material space. The two spaces can evolve both independently and interactively...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669552/developing-accurate-prediction-systems-for-the-terrestrial-environment
#15
David B Lindenmayer
In recent decades, meteorologists have made remarkable progress in predicting the weather, thereby saving lives and considerable sums of money. However, we are way behind when it comes to predicting the effects of environmental change on ecosystems, even when we are ourselves the agent of such change. Given the substantial environmental problems facing our living planet, and the need to tackle these in an ecologically responsible and cost-effective way, we should aspire to develop terrestrial environmental prediction systems that reach the levels of accuracy and precision which characterize weather prediction systems...
April 18, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666455/projected-effectiveness-and-added-value-of-hiv-vaccination-campaigns-in-south-africa-a-modeling-study
#16
Simon de Montigny, Blythe J S Adamson, Benoît R Mâsse, Louis P Garrison, James G Kublin, Peter B Gilbert, Dobromir T Dimitrov
Promising multi-dose HIV vaccine regimens are being tested in trials in South Africa. We estimated the potential epidemiological and economic impact of HIV vaccine campaigns compared to continuous vaccination, assuming that vaccine efficacy is transient and dependent on immune response. We used a dynamic economic mathematical model of HIV transmission calibrated to 2012 epidemiological data to simulate vaccination with anticipated antiretroviral treatment scale-up in South Africa. We estimate that biennial vaccination with a 70% efficacious vaccine reaching 20% of the sexually active population could prevent 480,000-650,000 HIV infections (13...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665560/are-online-poker-problem-gamblers-sensation-seekers
#17
Céline Bonnaire
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between sensation seeking and online poker gambling in a community sample of adult online poker players, when controlling for age, gender, anxiety and depression. In total, 288 online poker gamblers were recruited. Sociodemographic data, gambling behavior (CPGI), sensation seeking (SSS), depression and anxiety (HADS) were evaluated. Problem online poker gamblers have higher sensation seeking scores (total, thrill and adventure, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility subscores) and depression scores than non-problem online poker gamblers...
March 31, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664969/putting-a-premium-on-altruism-a-social-discounting-experiment-with-south-african-university-students
#18
Frederik Booysen, Sevias Guvuriro, Alistair Munro, Tshepo Moloi, Celeste Campher
This paper reports on a social discounting experiment conducted with university students in South Africa. In line with other social discounting task experiments, participants identify target individuals at different degrees of intimacy in their social network and then make 10 choices involving sums of money for themselves or their targets. For an altruism premium to exist, senders' donations to recipients should be positive, statistically and economically significant, and independent of relationship closeness...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660668/supercritical-fluid-chromatography-applied-to-the-highly-selective-isolation-of-urinary-steroid-hormones-prior-to-gc-ms-analysis
#19
Mickael Doué, Caroline West, Emmanuelle Bichon, Bruno Le Bizec, Eric Lesellier
To assess the presence of prohibited anabolic substances used to promote growth in livestock, calf urine is the most relevant matrix. However, the sample preparation methods (required to remove unwanted matrix components and fractionate isobaric species that may be unresolved by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry GC/MS) are long and complex. In this context, semi-preparative supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was considered to possibly simplify the sample preparation in reducing the number of procedures...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659715/the-cost-effectiveness-of-follow-up-strategies-after-cancer-treatment-a-systematic-literature-review
#20
M Barbieri, G Richardson, S Paisley
Introduction: The cost of treatment and follow-up of cancer patients in the UK is substantial. In a budget-constrained system such as the NHS, it is necessary to consider the cost-effectiveness of the range of management strategies at different points on cancer patients' care pathways to ensure that they provide adequate value for money. Sources of data: We conducted a systematic literature review to explore the cost-effectiveness of follow-up strategies of patients previously treated for cancer with the aim of informing UK policy...
April 12, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
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