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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923264/nationwide-access-to-an-internet-based-contingency-management-intervention-to-promote-smoking-cessation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Jesse Dallery, Bethany R Raiff, Sunny Jung Kim, Lisa A Marsch, Maxine Stitzer, Michael J Grabinski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Contingency management (CM) is one of the most effective behavioral interventions to promote drug abstinence, but availability of this treatment is limited. We evaluated the efficacy and acceptability of Internet-based CM relative to an Internet-based monitoring and goal setting control group in a nationwide sample of cigarette smokers. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial with 3- and 6-month follow ups. SETTING: USA. PARTICIPANTS: Smokers (n = 94) from 26 states were enrolled (mean age 36, 56% female)...
December 6, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923155/user-preferences-and-willingness-to-pay-for-safe-drinking-water-experimental-evidence-from-rural-tanzania
#2
Zachary Burt, Robert M Njee, Yolanda Mbatia, Veritas Msimbe, Joe Brown, Thomas F Clasen, Hamisi M Malebo, Isha Ray
Almost half of all deaths from drinking microbiologically unsafe water occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems, when consistently used, can provide safer drinking water and improve health. Social marketing to increase adoption and use of HWTS depends both on the prices of and preferences for these systems. This study included 556 households from rural Tanzania across two low-income districts with low-quality water sources. Over 9 months in 2012 and 2013, we experimentally evaluated consumer preferences for six "low-cost" HWTS options, including boiling, through an ordinal ranking protocol...
November 25, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923015/project-shikamana-baseline-findings-from-a-community-empowerment-based-combination-hiv-prevention-trial-among-female-sex-workers-in-iringa-tanzania
#3
Deanna Kerrigan, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Sarah Beckham, Ard Mwampashi, Catherine Shembilu, Andrea Mantsios, Anna Leddy, Wendy Davis, Noya Galai
BACKGROUND: Community empowerment approaches have been found to be effective in responding to HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in South Asia and Latin America. To date, limited rigorous evaluations of these approaches have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A phase II community randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Iringa, Tanzania, to evaluate the effectiveness of a community empowerment-based combination HIV prevention model (Project Shikamana) among a stratified sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected FSWs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922178/lessons-from-the-homeless-civil-and-uncivil-interactions-with-nurses-self-care-behaviors-and-barriers-to-care
#4
Wendy M Woith, Cindy Kerber, Kim S Astroth, Sheryl H Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Civility, rooted in social justice, is a fundamental value of nursing. Homeless people are particularly at risk for experiencing uncivil behavior from nurses. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore homeless people's perceptions of their interactions with nurses. METHOD: In this descriptive, qualitative study, we interviewed 15 homeless adults who described their experiences with nurses. The interview guide, developed by the researchers, consisted of open-ended questions and probes...
December 6, 2016: Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920322/patients-who-choose-primary-care-physicians-based-on-low-office-visit-price-can-realize-broader-savings
#5
Ateev Mehrotra, Peter J Huckfeldt, Amelia M Haviland, Laura Gascue, Neeraj Sood
Price transparency initiatives encourage patients to save money by choosing physicians with a relatively low price per office visit. Given that the price of such visits represents a small fraction of total spending, the extent of the savings from choosing such physicians has not been clear. Using a national sample of commercial claims data, we compared the care received by patients of high- and low-price primary care physicians. The median price for an established patient's office visit was $60 among low-price physicians and $86 among high-price physicians (price was calculated as reimbursement plus out-of-pocket spending)...
December 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920317/contrary-to-popular-belief-medicaid-hospital-admissions-are-often-profitable-because-of-additional-medicare-payments
#6
Jeffrey Stensland, Zachary R Gaumer, Mark E Miller
It is generally believed that most hospitals lose money on Medicaid admissions. The data suggest otherwise. Medicaid admissions are often profitable for hospitals because of payments from both the Medicaid program and the Medicare program, including payments for uncompensated care and from the Medicare disproportionate-share hospital program. On average, adding a single Medicaid patient day in fiscal year 2017 will increase most hospitals' Medicare payments by more than $300. When added to Medicaid payments, these payments often cause Medicaid patients to be profitable for hospitals...
December 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920311/school-based-dental-sealant-programs-prevent-cavities-and-are-cost-effective
#7
Susan Griffin, Shillpa Naavaal, Christina Scherrer, Paul M Griffin, Kate Harris, Sajal Chattopadhyay
Untreated cavities can have far-reaching negative consequences for people's ability to eat, speak, and learn. By adolescence, 27 percent of low-income children in the United States will have untreated cavities. School-based sealant programs typically provide dental sealants (a protective coating that adheres to the surface of molars) at little or no cost to students attending schools in areas with low socioeconomic status. These programs have been shown to increase the number of students receiving sealants and to prevent cavities...
December 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919779/funding-for-tuberculosis-research-an-urgent-crisis-of-political-will-human-rights-and-global-solidarity
#8
Mike Frick
Tuberculosis (TB) killed more people in 2015 than any other single infectious agent, but funding for research to develop better prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods for TB declined to its lowest level in seven years. TB research and development (R&D) is woefully underfunded, a situation best viewed as a crisis of political will and a failure on the part of governments to see unmet innovation needs in the TB response as a human rights issue requiring immediate action. Over 60 percent of available money for TB R&D comes from public sources, and 65% of public money comes from a single country: the United States...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918573/benchmarking-the-cost-per-person-of-mass-treatment-for-selected-neglected-tropical-diseases-an-approach-based-on-literature-review-and-meta-regression-with-web-based-software-application
#9
Christopher Fitzpatrick, Fiona M Fleming, Matthew Madin-Warburton, Timm Schneider, Filip Meheus, Kingsley Asiedu, Anthony W Solomon, Antonio Montresor, Gautam Biswas
BACKGROUND: Advocacy around mass treatment for the elimination of selected Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) has typically put the cost per person treated at less than US$ 0.50. Whilst useful for advocacy, the focus on a single number misrepresents the complexity of delivering "free" donated medicines to about a billion people across the world. We perform a literature review and meta-regression of the cost per person per round of mass treatment against NTDs. We develop a web-based software application (https://healthy...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918253/placental-growth-factor-alone-or-in-combination-with-soluble-fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1-as-an-aid-to-the-assessment-of-women-with-suspected-pre-eclampsia-systematic-review-and-economic-analysis
#10
Geoff K Frampton, Jeremy Jones, Micah Rose, Liz Payne
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia (PE) prediction based on blood pressure, presence of protein in the urine, symptoms and laboratory test abnormalities can result in false-positive diagnoses. This may lead to unnecessary antenatal admissions and preterm delivery. Blood tests that measure placental growth factor (PlGF) or the ratio of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) to PlGF could aid prediction of PE if either were added to routine clinical assessment or used as a replacement for proteinuria testing...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917036/challenging-perceptions-about-oncology-product-pricing-in-breast-and-colorectal-cancer
#11
Anthony Barron, Tim Wilsdon
Although significant progress has been made in the past decade in the treatment of both common and rare cancers, there has been significant concerns about the cost, and especially the value, of certain new oncology drugs. These concerns touch upon a number of issues regarding the price of these medicines, the value they deliver and the ability of healthcare systems to fund them. This paper looks at these perceptions and the extent to which they apply across different oncology products. Whilst it is acknowledged there is evidence that the launch price of pharmaceutical treatments for some forms of cancer has been rising in recent years, this is not uniformly the case; we find evidence to the contrary for some forms of cancer...
2016: Pharmaceutical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916411/beyond-expectations-post-implementation-data-shows-rotavirus-vaccination-is-likely-cost-saving-in-australia
#12
J F Reyes, J G Wood, P Beutels, K Macartney, P McIntyre, R Menzies, N Mealing, A T Newall
BACKGROUND: Universal vaccination against rotavirus was included in the funded Australian National Immunisation Program in July 2007. Predictive cost-effectiveness models assessed the program before introduction. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective economic evaluation of the Australian rotavirus program using national level post-implementation data on vaccine uptake, before-after measures of program impact and published estimates of excess intussusception cases...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916279/insights-from-preclinical-choice-models-on-treating-drug-addiction
#13
REVIEW
Matthew L Banks, S Stevens Negus
Substance-use disorders are a global public health problem that arises from behavioral misallocation between drug use and more adaptive behaviors maintained by nondrug alternatives (e.g., food or money). Preclinical drug self-administration procedures that incorporate a concurrently available nondrug reinforcer (e.g., food) provide translationally relevant and distinct dependent measures of behavioral allocation (i.e., to assess the relative reinforcing efficacy of the drug) and behavioral rate (i.e., to assess motor competence)...
December 1, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913712/money-now-money-later-linking-time-discounting-and-criminal-convictions-in-the-cambridge-study-in-delinquent-development
#14
Alex R Piquero, David P Farrington, Wesley G Jennings
Two prominent criminological theories offer time discounting, or the preference for an immediate reward over a later one, as a central part of understanding involvement in criminal activity. Yet, there exist only a few studies investigating this issue, and they are limited in a few respects. The current study extends prior work in this area by using multiple measures of time discounting collected at three different periods of the life course to examine the link to criminal offending into late middle adulthood in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913580/responding-to-challenges-for-people-with-psychotic-illness-updated-evidence-from-the-survey-of-high-impact-psychosis
#15
REVIEW
Vera A Morgan, Anna Waterreus, Vaughan Carr, David Castle, Martin Cohen, Carol Harvey, Cherrie Galletly, Andrew Mackinnon, Patrick McGorry, John J McGrath, Amanda L Neil, Suzy Saw, Johanna C Badcock, Debra L Foley, Geoff Waghorn, Sarah Coker, Assen Jablensky
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to summarise recent findings from the 2010 Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) and examine their implications for future policy and planning to improve mental health, physical health and other circumstances of people with a psychotic disorder. METHODS: Survey of High Impact Psychosis collected nationally representative data on 1825 people with psychotic illness. Over 60 papers have been published covering key challenges reported by participants: financial problems, loneliness and social isolation, unemployment, poor physical health, uncontrolled symptoms of mental illness, and lack of stable, suitable housing...
December 1, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909486/misleading-advertising-by-attorneys-concerning-noacs-is-adversely-costly-to-our-patients-and-our-society
#16
EDITORIAL
James A, Reiffel M D
Over the past five years, "ambulance-chasing" attorneys have aggressively advertised for patients who have bled on a new oral anticoagulant (NOAC) or their family members. It is an infrequent day when American consumers do not see a TV advertisement saying something like: "Have you or a loved-one had a serious bleeding event while taking [fill in the NOAC]? If so, you may be entitled to monetary compensation. Call XXX, attorneys at law, and we will get you the money you deserve."
February 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906166/which-brca-genetic-testing-programs-are-ready-for-implementation-in-health-care-a-systematic-review-of-economic-evaluations
#17
Elvira D'Andrea, Carolina Marzuillo, Corrado De Vito, Marco Di Marco, Erica Pitini, Maria Rosaria Vacchio, Paolo Villari
PURPOSE: There is considerable evidence regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of BRCA genetic testing programs, but whether they represent good use of financial resources is not clear. Therefore, we aimed to identify the main health-care programs for BRCA testing and to evaluate their cost-effectiveness. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of full economic evaluations of health-care programs involving BRCA testing. RESULTS: Nine economic evaluations were included, and four main categories of BRCA testing programs were identified: (i) population-based genetic screening of individuals without cancer, either comprehensive or targeted based on ancestry; (ii) family history (FH)-based genetic screening, i...
December 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903935/impairment-of-decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-neuroeconomic-approach
#18
Maria Sepúlveda, Begoña Fernández-Diez, Elena H Martínez-Lapiscina, Sara Llufriu, Nuria Sola-Valls, Irati Zubizarreta, Yolanda Blanco, Albert Saiz, Dino Levy, Paul Glimcher, Pablo Villoslada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the decision-making impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and how they relate to other cognitive domains. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 84 patients with MS, and 21 matched healthy controls using four tasks taken from behavioral economics: (1) risk preferences, (2) choice consistency, (3) delay of gratification, and (4) rate of learning. All tasks were conducted using real-world reward outcomes (food or money) in different real-life conditions...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900159/can-t-play-won-t-play-longitudinal-changes-in-perceived-barriers-to-participation-in-sports-clubs-across-the-child-adolescent-transition
#19
Laura Basterfield, Lauren Gardner, Jessica K Reilly, Mark S Pearce, Kathryn N Parkinson, Ashley J Adamson, John J Reilly, Stewart A Vella
BACKGROUND: Participation in sports is associated with numerous physical and psychosocial health benefits, however, participation declines with age, and knowledge of perceived barriers to participation in children is lacking. This longitudinal study of children and adolescents aimed to use the ecological model of physical activity to assess changes in barriers to participation in sports clubs to identify age-specific and weight-specific targets for intervention. METHODS: Longitudinal study-Perceived barriers to sports participation were collected from a birth cohort, the Gateshead Millennium Study (n>500) at ages 9 and 12 years...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899732/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-science-a-dialectic-of-scientific-fame
#20
Gregory J Feist
In this article, I argue that scientific fame and impact exists on a continuum from the mundane to the transformative/revolutionary. Ideally, one achieves fame and impact in science by synthesizing two extreme career prototypes: intrinsic and extrinsic research. The former is guided by interest, curiosity, passion, gut, and intuition for important untapped topics. The latter is guided by money, grants, and/or what is being published in top-tier journals. Assessment of fame and impact in science ultimately rests on productivity (publication) and some variation of its impact (citations)...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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