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Klebsiella pneumoniae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910828/biofilm-prevention-of-gram-negative-bacterial-pathogens-involved-in-periprosthetic-infection-by-antibiotic-loaded-calcium-sulfate-beads-in-vitro
#1
Robert P Howlin, Christopher Winnard, Connor J Frapwell, Jeremy S Webb, John J Cooper, Sean S Aiken, Paul Stoodley
Biofilm formation represents a key stage in the pathogenesis of prosthetic infections (PIs). More tolerant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts, biofilm bacteria are difficult to eradicate using conventional therapeutic regimes. A common approach in PI management is the adjunctive use of localised antibiotics in addition to systemic administration in an attempt to protect the implant from colonisation by infiltrating bacteria. This study evaluates the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of antibiotic-loaded dissolvable calcium sulphate, previously shown to be effective against key gram-positive pathogens, against gram-negative species important in the establishment of chronic infection in PIs...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909821/previous-bloodstream-infections-due-to-other-pathogens-as-predictors-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bacteraemia-in-colonized-patients-results-from-a-retrospective-multicentre-study
#2
D R Giacobbe, V Del Bono, P Bruzzi, S Corcione, M Giannella, A Marchese, L Magnasco, A E Maraolo, N Pagani, C Saffioti, S Ambretti, C S Cardellino, E Coppo, F G De Rosa, P Viale, C Viscoli
INTRODUCTION: the purpose of this retrospective multicenter study was to assess whether the risk of developing bloodstream infections (BSI) due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in colonized patients is influenced by the occurrence of BSI due to other pathogens. METHODS: from January 2012 to March 2014, all patients with at least one rectal swab positive for CRKP and at least 30 days of previous hospital stay were included in the study. The primary outcome measure was CRKP BSI, defined as a time-to-event endpoint...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909624/for-reliable-urine-cultures-in-the-detection-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infection-do-we-use-urine-specimens-obtained-with-urethral-catheter-or-a-nephrostomy-tube
#3
Gülay Dede, Özcan Deveci, Onur Dede, Mazhar Utanğac, Mansur Dağgulli, Necmettin Penbegül, Namık Kemal Hatipoğlu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the results of urine cultures obtained either from urethral, and percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) catheters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 328 consecutive patients that underwent PCN at our institution with complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) between July 2010 and April 2015. Results of urine cultures obtained from the urethral and nephrostomy catheters were compared. RESULTS: This study included 152 male and 176 female patients...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906145/nitrobacter-sp-extract-mediated-biosynthesis-of-ag2o-nps-with-excellent-antioxidant-and-antibacterial-potential-for-biomedical-application
#4
Gopalu Karunakaran, Matheswaran Jagathambal, Alexander Gusev, Nguyen Van Minh, Evgeny Kolesnikov, Arup Ratan Mandal, Denis Kuznetsov
In this study, extracellular extract of plant growth promoting bacterium, Nitrobacter sp. is used for the bioconversion of AgNO3 (silver nitrate) into Ag2O (silver oxide nanoparticles). It is an easy, ecofriendly and single step method for Ag2O NPs synthesis. The bio-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using different techniques. UV-Vis results showed the maximum absorbance around 450 nm. XRD result shows the particles to have faced centered cubic (fcc) crystalline nature. FTIR analysis reveals the functional groups that are involved in bioconversion such as C-N, N-H and C=O...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906139/myxobacteria-mediated-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-impregnation-in-wrapping-paper-used-for-enhancing-shelf-life-of-apples
#5
Swati Bhople, Swapnil Gaikwad, Swapna Deshmukh, Shital Bonde, Aniket Gade, Sanjib Sen, Anna Brezinska, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai
The authors report Myxobacteria virescens (M. virescens) mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and its efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-33591), Salmonella typhi (ATCC-51812), Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC-14948), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC-4030) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-4673). The organism exhibiting resistance to various antibiotics showed remarkable sensitivity, when used in combination of antibiotics and AgNPs. Antimicrobial property of AgNPs is playing a significant role in medicine and food storage...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906136/rapid-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-by-pseudomonas-stutzeri-isolated-from-textile-soil-under-optimised-conditions-and-evaluation-of-their-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxicity-properties
#6
Nishant Rajora, Sanket Kaushik, Anupam Jyoti, Shanker L Kothari
Present study utilised textile soil isolated bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri to synthesise extracellular silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under optimised conditions. The synthesised AgNPs were characterised using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optimisation showed AgNPs synthesis within 8 h using 2mM Ag nitrate at pH9, temperature 80°C and maximum absorbance toward 400 nm. TEM analysis revealed spherical shape AgNPs and reduction in size upto 8 nm was observed under optimised conditions...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905092/broad-spectrum-of-antimicrobial-properties-of-commercial-wines-from-different-vitis-vinifera-l-varieties
#7
Aleksandra Radovanović, Biljana Arsić, Vladimir Radovanović, Branimir Jovančičević, Vesna Nikolić
Fifteen commercial wines produced from international and autochthonic varieties of Vitis vinifera L. cultivation of different Balkan winegrowing subregions were studied for their antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive (Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria inocua, Sarcina lutea and Micrococcus flavus) and six Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. The concentrations and types of phenolic compounds responsible for antibacterial activity in wines were investigated by HPLC and spectroscopic methods...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904627/antimicrobial-effects-of-chlorhexidine-matrica-drop-mouthwash-chamomile-extract-and-normal-saline-on-hospitalized-patients-with-endotracheal-tubes
#8
Maryam Azimi, Leila Jouybari, Shahram Moghadam, Ezatolah Ghaemi, Naser Behnampoor, Akram Sanagoo, Moslem Hesam
BACKGROUND: The functions and use of mouthwashes are variable depending on their type. Oral care in patients with endotracheal tubes is important to prevent side effects such as pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine, drop of Matrica mouthwash (chamomile extract), and normal saline on hospitalized patients with endotracheal tube in an intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this clinical trial, 39 patients admitted to the ICU were selected by convenience sampling, were matched based on age and sex, and randomly assigned to three groups (chlorhexidine, Matrica, saline)...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903240/central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-children-s-university-hospital-a-prospective-study
#9
Elisabetta Venturini, Carlotta Montagnani, Alessandra Benni, Sabrina Becciani, Klaus Peter Biermann, Salvatore De Masi, Elena Chiappini, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli
BACKGROUND: The central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are the most common healthcare-associated infections in childhood. Despite the international data available on healthcare-associated infections in selected groups of patients, there is a lack of large and good quality studies. The present survey is the first prospective study monitoring for 6 months the occurrence of central-line associated bloodstream infections in all departments of an Italian tertiary care children's university hospital...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903130/risk-factors-and-mortality-in-the-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-case-control-study
#10
Fethiye Akgul, Ilkay Bozkurt, Mustafa Sunbul, Saban Esen, Hakan Leblebicioglu
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has been known as a nosocomial pathogen, both for the last 10 years in Turkey and for 20 years worldwide. Due to limited treatment options and high mortality rates, despite improvements in the field of medicine at the present time, CRKP is still a big threat for public health. This study was carried out between the dates of January 2010 and September 2014. Patients ≥18 who were hospitalized for at least 72 h and who also had CRKP growth were included in the study as a case group...
December 1, 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902404/ultrastructural-changes-caused-by-polymyxin-b-and-meropenem-in-multiresistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carrying-blakpc-2-gene
#11
Alexsandra Scavuzzi, Luiz Carlos Alves, Dyana Leal Veras, Fábio André Brayner, Ana Catarina de Souza Lopes
The ultrastructural alterations caused by polymyxin B, meropenem and by the association between polymyxin B and meropenem were investigated in 2 multiresistant isolates of K. pneumoniae (K3-A2 and K12-A2) carriers of blaKPC-2, coming from infection and colonization in patients of a public hospital in Recife, Brazil. The ultrastructural changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy and scanning. The susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobials was tested by the disk diffusion method and microdilution in broth...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902401/involvement-of-camp-receptor-protein-in-biofilm-formation-fimbria-production-capsular-polysaccharide-biosynthesis-and-lethality-in-mouse-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-serotype-k1-causing-pyogenic-liver-abscess
#12
Qin Ou, Jinming Fan, Dejian Duan, Xu Li, Jie Wang, Dongsheng Zhou, Huiying Yang, Bei Li
The global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP) has been shown to be required for the full virulence and/ or for the expression of virulence determinants in a wide set of bacterial pathogens. In this work, the crp mutant as well as the complemented mutant was constructed from a wild-type Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotype K1 strain causing the primary pyogenic liver abscess. The phenotypes of wild-type strain, crp mutant, and complemented mutant were characterized systematically. It was disclosed that K...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902381/detection-of-escherichia-coli-st131-complex-st705-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st15-among-fecal-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-betalactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#13
Esther Rios, Maria Carmen López, Iciar Rodríguez-Avial, Esther Culebras, Juan Jose Picazo
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenemases-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in non-selected hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients from the same geographic area of Madrid. Among the 501 patients enrolled, 43 (8.6%) carried ESBL-E and 8 (1.6%) patients exhibited CPE. The main intestinal colonizer among ESBL-E was CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli isolates in both settings (community and hospital)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900513/synthesis-and-antimicrobial-evaluation-of-ester-linked-1-4-disubstituted-1-2-3-triazoles-with-a-furyl-thienyl-moiety
#14
C P Kaushik, Raj Luxmi, Dharmendra Singh, Ashwani Kumar
Twenty ester-linked 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles having a furyl/thienyl moiety have been synthesized from heteroaryl prop-2-yn-1-yl carboxylate and aromatic azides via a Cu(I) catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR, [Formula: see text]H NMR, [Formula: see text]C NMR spectroscopy and HRMS. Synthesized triazoles were tested in vitro for antimicrobial evaluation against Gram-negative bacteria-Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae; Gram-positive bacteria-Staphylococcus aureus and two fungal strains-Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger, reflecting moderate to good activity...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898030/assessment-of-the-activity-of-tigecycline-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-organisms-collected-from-italy-between-2012-and-2014-as-part-of-the-tigecycline-evaluation-and-surveillance-trial-t-e-s-t
#15
Stefania Stefani, Michael J Dowzicky
As part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T) we report the in vitro activity of tigecycline and its comparators against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms collected from Italian centers between 2012 and 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined according to the broth microdilution methodology of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antimicrobial resistance was determined using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing interpretive criteria...
November 26, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897435/-evaluation-of-an-immunochromatographic-test-for-the-detection-of-oxa-48-carbapenemase
#16
C Mediavilla-Gradolph, R Sáinz-Rodriguez, M Valverde-Troya, I de Toro-Peinado, M P Bermudez-Ruíz, B Palop-Borrás
OBJECTIVE: Detection and differentiation of various types of carbapenemases is crucial to their control and dissemination. OXA-48 is the most common carbapenemase in Spain and in our environment. The aim of this study is the evaluation of a new immunochromatographic test OXA-48 Card letitest (Coris, BioConcept Belgium) to detect this carbapenemase from solid media. METHODS: During the last year 151 strains of carbapenemase producing bacteria have been isolated, of which 136 were OXA-48 (126 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 5 Escherichia coli, 4 Enterobacter cloacae), and 15 producing other carbapenemases ...
November 25, 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897220/impact-of-the-microbial-derived-short-chain-fatty-acid-propionate-on-host-susceptibility-to-bacterial-and-fungal-infections-in-vivo
#17
Eleonora Ciarlo, Tytti Heinonen, Jacobus Herderschee, Craig Fenwick, Matteo Mombelli, Didier Le Roy, Thierry Roger
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by intestinal microbes mediate anti-inflammatory effects, but whether they impact on antimicrobial host defenses remains largely unknown. This is of particular concern in light of the attractiveness of developing SCFA-mediated therapies and considering that SCFAs work as inhibitors of histone deacetylases which are known to interfere with host defenses. Here we show that propionate, one of the main SCFAs, dampens the response of innate immune cells to microbial stimulation, inhibiting cytokine and NO production by mouse or human monocytes/macrophages, splenocytes, whole blood and, less efficiently, dendritic cells...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895637/high-prevalence-of-esbl-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-causing-community-onset-infections-in-china
#18
Jing Zhang, Kai Zhou, Beiwen Zheng, Lina Zhao, Ping Shen, Jinru Ji, Zeqing Wei, Lanjuan Li, Jianying Zhou, Yonghong Xiao
The aim of this work was to investigate the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp) causing community-onset infections. K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from 31 Chinese secondary hospitals between August 2010 and 2011. Genes encoding ESBL and AmpC beta-lactamases were detected by PCR. The isolates were assigned to sequence types (STs) using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Eleven ESBL-Kp strains were selected for whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for investigating the genetic environment and plasmids encoding ESBL genes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895516/a-prospective-observational-study-comparing-the-pk-pd-relationships-of-generic-meropenem-mercide-%C3%A2-to-the-innovator-brand-in-critically-ill-patients
#19
Mervyn Mer, Jacques Rene Snyman, Constance Elizabeth Jansen van Rensburg, Jacob John van Tonder, Ilze Laurens
INTRODUCTION: Clinicians' skepticism, fueled by evidence of inferiority of some multisource generic antimicrobial products, results in the underutilization of more cost-effective generics, especially in critically ill patients. The aim of this observational study was to demonstrate equivalence between the generic or comparator brand of meropenem (Mercide(®)) and the leading innovator brand (Meronem(®)) by means of an ex vivo technique whereby antimicrobial activity is used to estimate plasma concentration of the active moiety...
2016: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895127/the-pathogenic-potential-of-proteus-mirabilis-is-enhanced-by-other-uropathogens-during-polymicrobial-urinary-tract-infection
#20
Chelsie E Armbruster, Sara N Smith, Alexandra O Johnson, Valerie DeOrnellas, Kathryn A Eaton, Alejandra Yep, Lona Mody, Weisheng Wu, Harry L T Mobley
Urinary catheter use is prevalent in health care settings, and polymicrobial colonization by urease-positive organisms, such as Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii, commonly occurs with long-term catheterization. We previously demonstrated that coinfection with P. mirabilis and P. stuartii increased overall urease activity in vitro and disease severity in a model of urinary tract infection (UTI). In this study, we expanded these findings to a murine model of catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI), delineated the contribution of enhanced urease activity to coinfection pathogenesis, and screened for enhanced urease activity with other common CAUTI pathogens...
November 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
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