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Multiple Sclerosis Brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396703/characteristics-and-incidence-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-older-adults-using-home-care-in-ontario-from-2003-2013
#1
Connor McGuire, Vicki L Kristman, Lynn Martin, Michel Bédard
OBJECTIVES: Describe the characteristics and determine the annual cumulative incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older adults receiving home care in Ontario from 2003 to 2013. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of longitudinal data from the Ontario Association of Community Care Access Centers (N = 554,313). TBI, demographic variables, depression, neurological conditions, and recent falls were measured from the Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care...
March 2017: Canadian Geriatrics Journal: CGJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385180/the-role-of-exosomes-in-cns-inflammation-and-their-involvement-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Igor Selmaj, Marcin P Mycko, Cedric S Raine, Krzysztof W Selmaj
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a putative autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which autoreactive immune cells recognizing myelin antigens lead to demyelination and axonal injury. Mechanisms relevant to the pathogenesis of MS have not been fully elucidated, particularly those underlying initiation of immune system dysfunction. For example, it is not known how reactivity against CNS components is generated within the peripheral immune system. In this review, we propose that a significant contribution to the immunoregulatory events may derive from a cell-to-cell communication system involving the production, secretion and transfer of extracellular vesicles known as exosomes...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376127/the-doc-screen-feasible-and-valid-screening-for-depression-obstructive-sleep-apnea-osa-and-cognitive-impairment-in-stroke-prevention-clinics
#3
Richard H Swartz, Megan L Cayley, Krista L Lanctôt, Brian J Murray, Ashley Cohen, Kevin E Thorpe, Michelle N Sicard, Karen Lien, Demetrios J Sahlas, Nathan Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment ("DOC") are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool ("DOC" screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371088/cerebral-gray-matter-atrophy-is-associated-with-the-csf-igg-index-in-african-american-with-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad, Omar Khan, Bruce A C Cree, Fen Bao, Christina Caon, Imad Zak, Sara Razmjou, Alexandros Tselis, Scott Millis, Evanthia Bernitsas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: African American (AA) patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been reported to have a more aggressive disease course compared to their white counterparts. We explored the relation of gray matter (GM) volume, a marker of tissue injury, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG index in both AA and white MS patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 150 self-identified AA and 150 white patients with MS who underwent magnetic resonance imaging scan of brain and CSF sampling...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369944/increasing-acetyl-coa-metabolism-attenuates-injury-and-alters-spinal-cord-lipid-content-in-mice-subjected-to-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#5
Amber C Chevalier, Thad A Rosenberger
Acetate supplementation increases brain acetyl-CoA metabolism, alters histone and non-histone protein acetylation, increases brain energy reserves, and is anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective in rat models of neuroinflammation and neuroborreliosis. To determine the impact acetate supplementation has on a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we quantified the effect treatment had on injury progression, spinal cord lipid content, phospholipase levels, and myelin structure in mice subjected to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344072/osteopontin-metallothionein-i-ii-interactions-in-experimental-autoimmunune-encephalomyelitis
#6
Hrvoje Jakovac, Tanja Grubić Kezele, Sandra Šućurović, Biserka Mulac-Jeričević, Biserka Radošević-Stašić
Osteopontin (OPN), an extracellular matrix (ECM) glyco-phosphoprotein, plays an important role in autoimmune-mediated demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). As an integrin and CD44 binding protein it participates in bidirectional communication between the ECM and target cells and affects transduction pathways that maintain neuronal and immune cell homeostasis. Its biological activity is also heavily influenced by microenvironment, which stimulates the cleavage of OPN and changes its functions...
March 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332093/pathogenic-implications-of-distinct-patterns-of-iron-and-zinc-in-chronic-ms-lesions
#7
Bogdan F Popescu, Josa M Frischer, Samuel M Webb, Mylyne Tham, Reginald C Adiele, Christopher A Robinson, Patrick D Fitz-Gibbon, Stephen D Weigand, Imke Metz, Susan Nehzati, Graham N George, Ingrid J Pickering, Wolfgang Brück, Simon Hametner, Hans Lassmann, Joseph E Parisi, Guo Yong, Claudia F Lucchinetti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which oligodendrocytes, the CNS cells that stain most robustly for iron and myelin are the targets of injury. Metals are essential for normal CNS functioning, and metal imbalances have been linked to demyelination and neurodegeneration. Using a multidisciplinary approach involving synchrotron techniques, iron histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, we compared the distribution and quantification of iron and zinc in MS lesions to the surrounding normal appearing and periplaque white matter, and assessed the involvement of these metals in MS lesion pathogenesis...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317272/roles-of-ng2-glia-in-ischemic-stroke
#8
REVIEW
Fei-Er Song, Jia-Lv Huang, Si-Han Lin, Shuo Wang, Guo-Fen Ma, Xiao-Ping Tong
Recent studies have shown that a widely distributed class of glial cells, termed NG2-glia, engages in rapid signaling with surrounding neurons through direct synaptic contacts in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). This unique glial cell group has a typical function of proliferating and differentiating into oligodendrocytes during early development of the brain, which is crucial to axon myelin formation. Therefore, NG2-glia are also called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). In vitro and in vivo studies reveal that NG2-glia expressing receptors and ion channels demonstrate functional significance for rapid signaling with neuronal synapses and modulation of neuronal activities in both physiological and pathological conditions...
March 19, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303450/dr%C3%AE-1-mog-35-55-treatment-reduces-lesion-volumes-and-improves-neurological-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Liu Yang, Zhijia Liu, Honglei Ren, Lei Zhang, Siman Gao, Li Ren, Zhi Chai, Roberto Meza-Romero, Gil Benedek, Arthur A Vandenbark, Halina Offner, Minshu Li
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in severe neurological impairments without effective treatments. Inflammation appears to be an important contributor to key pathogenic events such as secondary brain injury following TBI and therefore serves as a promising target for novel therapies. We have recently demonstrated the ability of a molecular construct comprised of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRα1 domain linked covalently to mouse (m)MOG-35-55 peptide (DRα1-MOG-35-55 construct) to reduce CNS inflammation and tissue injury in animal models of multiple sclerosis and ischemic stroke...
March 16, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302163/matrix-metalloproteinase-activity-stimulates-n-cadherin-shedding-and-the-soluble-n-cadherin-ectodomain-promotes-classical-microglial-activation
#10
Katherine Conant, Stefano Daniele, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Tsion Abdi, Amanda Edwards, Arek Szklarczyk, India Olchefske, David Ottenheimer, Kathleen Maguire-Zeiss
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes that are typically released from intracellular stores to act on specific extracellular substrates. MMP expression and activity can be increased in a neuronal activity-dependent manner, and further increased in response to tissue injury. MMP substrates include cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that are abundantly expressed in the brain and well positioned for membrane proximal cleavage. Importantly, CAM integrity is important to synaptic structure and axon-myelin interactions, and shed ectodomains may themselves influence cellular function...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274814/the-role-of-aquaporin-4-in-synaptic-plasticity-memory-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Jacqueline A Hubbard, Jenny I Szu, Devin K Binder
Since the discovery of aquaporins, it has become clear that the various mammalian aquaporins play critical physiological roles in water and ion balance in multiple tissues. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the principal aquaporin expressed in the central nervous system (CNS, brain and spinal cord), has been shown to mediate CNS water homeostasis. In this review, we summarize new and exciting studies indicating that AQP4 also plays critical and unanticipated roles in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Next, we consider the role of AQP4 in Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), epilepsy, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and stroke...
March 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273763/the-influence-of-posterior-visual-pathway-damage-on-visual-information-processing-speed-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Iñigo Gabilondo, Oiane Rilo, Natalia Ojeda, Javier Pena, Ainara Gómez-Gastiasoro, Mar Mendibe Bilbao, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Alberto Cabrera, Ibai Diez, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
BACKGROUND: The injury of visual pathway and abnormalities of visual processing speed (VPS) are frequent in MS, but their association remains unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of posterior visual pathway structural and functional integrity on VPS of MS patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 30 MS patients and 28 controls, evaluating the association of a VPS tests composite (Salthouse Perceptual Comparison test, Trail Making Test A and Symbol Digit Modalities Test) with 3T MRI visual cortex thickness, optic radiations (OR) diffusion tensor imaging indexes, and medial visual component (MVC) functional connectivity (FC) (MVC-MVC FC (iFC) and MVC-brain FC (eFC)) by linear regression, removing the effect of premorbid IQ, fatigue, and depression...
November 1, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272763/when-are-metabolic-ratios-superior-to-absolute-quantification-a-statistical-analysis
#13
Sarah E Hoch, Ivan I Kirov, Assaf Tal
Metabolite levels measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are often expressed as ratios rather than absolute concentrations. However, the inter-subject variability of the denominator metabolite can introduce uncertainty into a metabolite ratio. In a clinical setting, there are no guidelines on whether ratios or absolute quantification should be used for a more accurate classification of normal versus abnormal results based on their statistical properties. In a research setting, the choice of one over the other can have significant implications on sample size, which must be factored in at the study design stage...
March 8, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262404/breakthroughs-in-the-spasticity-management-are-non-pharmacological-treatments-the-future
#14
REVIEW
Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Carmela Casella, Antonio Buda, Aurelio Crespantini, Bruno Porcari, Luigi Carioti, Luana Billeri, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
The present paper aims at providing an objective narrative review of the existing non-pharmacological treatments for spasticity. Whereas pharmacologic and conventional physiotherapy approaches result well effective in managing spasticity due to stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy and incomplete spinal cord injury, the real usefulness of the non-pharmacological ones is still debated. We performed a narrative literature review of the contribution of non-pharmacological treatments to spasticity management, focusing on the role of non-invasive neurostimulation protocols (NINM)...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252608/-clinical-guidelines-for-the-use-of-dimethyl-fumarate-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#15
V M Alifirova, A N Boiko, Ya V Vlasov, M V Davydovskaya, M N Zakharova, N A Malkova, E V Popova, S A Sivertseva, N N Spirin, N V Khachanova, Т Е Shmidt
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, in which autoimmune inflammation and oxidative stress play essential pathogenetic roles. Activation and infiltration of immune cells in brain tissues, lipid peroxidation products, mitochondrial dysfunction, defective antioxidant protection, and many other pathological factors result in demyelination, axonal injury and death, and apoptosis of oligodendrocytes and neurons, all of which causes constant progression of the disease...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251686/e6020-a-synthetic-tlr4-agonist-accelerates-myelin-debris-clearance-schwann-cell-infiltration-and-remyelination-in-the-rat-spinal-cord
#16
Jamie S Church, Lindsay M Milich, Jessica K Lerch, Phillip G Popovich, Dana M McTigue
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are present throughout the adult brain and spinal cord and can replace oligodendrocytes lost to injury, aging, or disease. Their differentiation, however, is inhibited by myelin debris, making clearance of this debris an important step for cellular repair following demyelination. In models of peripheral nerve injury, TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes macrophage phagocytosis of debris. Here we tested whether the novel synthetic TLR4 agonist E6020, a Lipid A mimetic, promotes myelin debris clearance and remyelination in spinal cord white matter following lysolecithin-induced demyelination...
March 2, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218343/immediate-affective-responses-of-gait-training-in-neurological-rehabilitation-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#17
Martin Niedermeier, Larissa Ledochowski, Andreas Mayr, Leopold Saltuari, Martin Kopp
OBJECTIVE: To examine the immediate effects of physical therapy and robotic-assisted gait training on affective responses of gait training in neurological rehabilitation. DESIGN: Randomized crossover trial with blinded observers. PATIENTS: Sixteen patients with neurological disorders (stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis). METHODS: All patients underwent 2 single treatment sessions: physical therapy and robotic-assisted gait training...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213892/opportunities-for-repurposing-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-parp-inhibitors-for-the-therapy-of-non-oncological-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Nathan A Berger, Valerie C Besson, A Hamid Boulares, Alexander Bürkle, Alberto Chiarugi, Robert S Clark, Nicola J Curtin, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Ted M Dawson, Valina L Dawson, György Haskó, Lucas Liaudet, Flavio Moroni, Pál Pacher, Peter Radermacher, Andrew L Salzman, Solomon H Snyder, Francisco Garcia Soriano, Robert P Strosznajder, Balázs Sümegi, Raymond A Swanson, Csaba Szabo
The recent clinical availability of the PARP inhibitor Lynparza (olaparib) opens the door for potential therapeutic repurposing for non-oncological indications. Considering (a) the preclinical efficacy data with PARP inhibitors in non-oncological diseases and (b) the risk-benefit ratio of treating patients with a compound that inhibits an enzyme that has physiological roles in the regulation of DNA repair, indications where (a) the severity of the disease is high, (b) the available therapeutic options are limited, and (c) the duration of PARP inhibitor administration could be short, provide first-line options for therapeutic repurposing...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198092/the-burden-of-neurological-disease-in-the-united-states-a-summary-report-and-call-to-action
#19
EDITORIAL
Clifton L Gooch, Etienne Pracht, Amy R Borenstein
The United States carries a substantial fiscal burden resulting from the nearly 100 million Americans with neurological disease. The combined annual costs of Alzheimer's and other dementias, low back pain, stroke, traumatic brain injury, migraine, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury and Parkinson's disease totals nearly 800 billion dollars and is rapidly rising due to the aging of the U.S. POPULATION: We provide a summary overview of the substantial current and future economic impact of neurological disease, and provide an action plan for reducing this burden through neurological research and enhanced clinical management of neurological disorders in the United States...
February 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160128/blockade-of-the-kinin-b1-receptor-affects-the-cytokine-chemokine-profile-in-rat-brain-subjected-to-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#20
Karolina Podsiadło, Grzegorz Sulkowski, Beata Dąbrowska-Bouta, Lidia Strużyńska
Kinins are bioactive peptides which provide multiple functions, including critical regulation of the inflammatory response. Released during tissue injury, kinins potentiate the inflammation which represents a hallmark of numerous neurological disorders, including those of autoimmune origin such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present work, we assess the expression of B1 receptor (B1R) in rat brain during the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) which is an animal model of MS. We apply pharmacological inhibition to investigate the role of this receptor in the development of neurological deficits and in shaping the cytokine/chemokine profile during the course of the disease...
February 3, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
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