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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205292/verticillium-dahliae-manipulates-plant-immunity-by-glycoside-hydrolase-12-proteins-in-conjuction-with-carbohydrate-binding-module-1
#1
Yue-Jing Gui, Jie-Yin Chen, Dan-Dan Zhang, Nan-Yang Li, Ting-Gang Li, Wen-Qi Zhang, Xin-Yan Wang, Dylan P G Short, Lei Li, Wei Guo, Zhi-Qiang Kong, Yu-Ming Bao, Krishna V Subbarao, Xiao-Feng Dai
Glycoside hydrolase 12 (GH12) proteins act as virulence factors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in oomycetes. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of fungal GH12 proteins have not been characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that two of the six GH12 proteins produced by the fungus Verticillium dahliae Vd991, VdEG1 and VdEG3 acted as PAMPs to trigger cell death and PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) independent of their enzymatic activity in Nicotiana benthamiana. A 63-amino-acid peptide of VdEG3 was sufficient for cell death-inducing activity, but this was not the case for the corresponding peptide of VdEG1...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199170/antibody-repertoire-development-in-swine
#2
J E Butler, Nancy Wertz, Marek Sinkora
We describe the domestication of the species, explore its value to agriculture and bioscience, and compare its immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to those of other vertebrates. For encyclopedic information, we cite earlier reviews and chapters. We provide current gene maps for the heavy and light chain loci and describe their polygeny and polymorphy. B-cell and antibody repertoire development is a major focus, and we present findings that challenge several mouse-centric paradigms. We focus special attention on the role of ileal Peyer's patches, the largest secondary lymphoid tissues in newborn piglets and a feature of all artiodactyls...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192255/molecular-characterization-of-a-fish-specific-toll-like-receptor-22-tlr22-gene-from-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l-evolutionary-relationship-and-induced-expression-upon-immune-stimulants
#3
Hua Li, Guiwen Yang, Fei Ma, Ting Li, Huiting Yang, Jan H W M Rombout, Liguo An
In the host innate immune system, various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize conserved pathogens-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and represent an efficient first line of defense against invading pathogens. TLR22 is one of the fish-specific Toll-like receptors (TLRs), identified in a variety of fish species. In this study, we report the cloning and identification of a TLR22 cDNA from the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The full-length CcTLR22 cDNA was 3301 bp long, including a 32 bp 5`-untranslated region (UTR), an open reading frame (ORF) of 2838 bp and a 432 bp 3'-UTR...
February 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178282/trypanosoma-cruzi-high-mobility-group-b-tchmgb-can-act-as-an-inflammatory-mediator-on-mammalian-cells
#4
Pamela Cribb, Virginia Perdomo, Victoria L Alonso, Romina Manarin, Jorge Barrios-Payan, Brenda Marquina-Castillo, Luis Tavernelli, Rogelio Hernández-Pando
BACKGROUND: High Mobility Group B (HMGB) proteins are nuclear architectural factors involved in chromatin remodeling and important nuclear events. HMGBs also play key roles outside the cell acting as alarmins or Damage-associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs). In response to a danger signal these proteins act as immune mediators in the extracellular milieu. Moreover, these molecules play a central role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and both infectious and sterile inflammatory chronic diseases...
February 8, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165358/extending-immunological-profiling-in-the-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-by-enriched-cdna-library-analysis-microarray-design-and-initial-studies-upon-the-inflammatory-response-to-pamps
#5
Sebastian Boltaña, Barbara Castellana, Giles Goetz, Lluis Tort, Mariana Teles, Victor Mulero, Beatriz Novoa, Antonio Figueras, Frederick W Goetz, Cristian Gallardo-Escarate, Josep V Planas, Simon Mackenzie
This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ) to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST) from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163301/homeostasis-altering-molecular-processes-as-mechanisms-of-inflammasome-activation
#6
REVIEW
Adrian Liston, Seth L Masters
The innate immune system uses a distinct set of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate downstream inflammatory cascades. This recognition system is in stark contrast to the adaptive immune system, which relies on highly variable, randomly generated antigen receptors. A key limitation of the innate immune system's reliance on fixed PRRs is its inflexibility in responding to rapidly evolving pathogens. Recent advances in our understanding of inflammasome activation suggest that the innate immune system also has sophisticated mechanisms for responding to pathogens for which there is no fixed PRR...
February 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159693/a-molluscan-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-is-involved-in-host-response-to-immune-challenges-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-in%C3%A2-vitro
#7
Fufa Qu, Zhiming Xiang, Jun Li, Shu Xiao, Fan Mao, Yanping Qin, Yingli Zhou, Haitao Ma, Ziniu Yu
Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) are a group of highly conserved serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that function as important signaling intermediates in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities, including proliferation, inflammation and cytokine production. However, little is known about the roles of this kinase in mollusk immunity. In this study, we identified a molluscan ERK homolog (ChERK) in the Hong Kong oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) and investigated its biological functions...
January 31, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158203/silymarin-suppresses-basal-and-stimulus-induced-activation-exhaustion-differentiation-and-inflammatory-markers-in-primary-human-immune-cells
#8
Erica S Lovelace, Nicholas J Maurice, Hannah W Miller, Chloe K Slichter, Robert Harrington, Amalia Magaret, Martin Prlic, Stephen De Rosa, Stephen J Polyak
Silymarin (SM), and its flavonolignan components, alter cellular metabolism and inhibit inflammatory status in human liver and T cell lines. In this study, we hypothesized that SM suppresses both acute and chronic immune activation (CIA), including in the context of HIV infection. SM treatment suppressed the expression of T cell activation and exhaustion markers on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from chronically-infected, HIV-positive subjects. SM also showed a trend towards modifying CD4+ T cell memory subsets from HIV+ subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140444/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-contributes-to-host-protection-during-sporothrix-schenckii-infection
#9
Amanda Costa Gonçalves, Lucas Souza Ferreira, Francine Alessandra Manente, Carolina Maria Quinello Gomes de Faria, Marisa Campos Polesi, Cleverton Roberto de Andrade, Dario Simões Zamboni, Iracilda Zeppone Carlos
Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by fungi from the Sporothrix schenckii species complex, whose prototypical member is Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize and respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and shape the following adaptive immune response. A family of PRRs most frequently associated with fungal recognition is the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR). After PAMP recognition, NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) binds to apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and caspase-1 to form the NLRP3 inflammasome...
January 31, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138020/the-type-ii-secretion-system-of-legionella-pneumophila-dampens-the-myd88-and-tlr2-signaling-pathway-in-infected-human-macrophages
#10
Celeste A Mallama, Kessler McCoy-Simandle, Nicholas P Cianciotto
Previously, we reported that mutants of L. pneumophila lacking a type II secretion (T2S) system elicit higher levels of cytokines (e.g., IL-6) following infection of U937 cells, a human macrophage-like cell line. We now show that this effect of T2S is also manifest upon infection of human THP-1 cell macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes but does not occur during infection of murine macrophages. Supporting the hypothesis that T2S acts to dampen the triggering of an innate immune response, we observed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathways are more highly stimulated upon infection with the T2S mutant compared to wild-type...
January 30, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134283/a-robust-highly-stretchable-supramolecular-polymer-conductive-hydrogel-with-self-healability-and-thermo-processability
#11
Qian Wu, Junjie Wei, Bing Xu, Xinhua Liu, Hongbo Wang, Wei Wang, Qigang Wang, Wenguang Liu
Dual amide hydrogen bond crosslinked and strengthened high strength supramolecular polymer conductive hydrogels were fabricated by simply in situ doping poly (N-acryloyl glycinamide-co-2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic) (PNAGA-PAMPS) hydrogels with PEDOT/PSS. The nonswellable conductive hydrogels in PBS demonstrated high mechanical performances-0.22-0.58 MPa tensile strength, 1.02-7.62 MPa compressive strength, and 817-1709% breaking strain. The doping of PEDOT/PSS could significantly improve the specific conductivities of the hydrogels...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126263/treponema-pallidum-flagellins-elicit-proinflammatory-cytokines-from-human-monocytes-via-tlr5-signaling-pathway
#12
Man Xu, Yafeng Xie, Chuanhao Jiang, Yongjian Xiao, Xingxing Kuang, Yating Wen, Yuan Tan, Manyi Tan, Feijun Zhao, Tiebing Zeng, Yimou Wu
The tissue damage caused by syphilis infection may be associated with inflammation. However, the virulence factors of Treponema pallidum are still unclear, nor are the molecular mechanisms for leading to the productions of proinflammatory cytokines. Flagellin, a classic pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), is a potent immunogen that induces inflammation. In the present study, we have demonstrated that stimulations of human monocytes with Treponema pallidum FlaB1, FlaB2, and FlaB3 result in the up regulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8...
January 21, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115502/a-sampling-and-metagenomic-sequencing-based-methodology-for-monitoring-antimicrobial-resistance-in-swine-herds
#13
Patrick Munk, Vibe Dalhoff Andersen, Leonardo de Knegt, Marie Stengaard Jensen, Berith Elkær Knudsen, Oksana Lukjancenko, Hanne Mordhorst, Julie Clasen, Yvonne Agersø, Anders Folkesson, Sünje Johanna Pamp, Håkan Vigre, Frank Møller Aarestrup
OBJECTIVES: Reliable methods for monitoring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and other reservoirs are essential to understand the trends, transmission and importance of agricultural resistance. Quantification of AMR is mostly done using culture-based techniques, but metagenomic read mapping shows promise for quantitative resistance monitoring. METHODS: We evaluated the ability of: (i) MIC determination for Escherichia coli; (ii) cfu counting of E. coli; (iii) cfu counting of aerobic bacteria; and (iv) metagenomic shotgun sequencing to predict expected tetracycline resistance based on known antimicrobial consumption in 10 Danish integrated slaughter pig herds...
February 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115287/microbial-recognition-and-danger-signals-in-sepsis-and-trauma
#14
REVIEW
Steven L Raymond, David C Holden, Juan C Mira, Julie A Stortz, Tyler J Loftus, Alicia M Mohr, Lyle L Moldawer, Frederick A Moore, Shawn D Larson, Philip A Efron
Early host recognition of microbial invasion or damaged host tissues provides an effective warning system by which protective immune and inflammatory processes are initiated. Host tissues responsible for continuous sampling of their local environment employ cell surface and cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that provide redundant and overlapping identification of both microbial and host alarmins. Microbial products containing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), as well as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) serve as principle ligands for recognition by these PRRs...
January 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111288/oscerk1-mediated-chitin-perception-and-immune-signaling-requires-receptor-like-cytoplasmic-kinase-185-to-activate-a-mapk-cascade-in-rice
#15
Chao Wang, Gang Wang, Chi Zhang, Pinkuan Zhu, Huiling Dai, Nan Yu, Zuhua He, Ling Xu, Ertao Wang
Conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as chitin, are perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) located at the host cell surface and trigger rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, which is required for plant resistance to pathogens. However, the direct link from PAMP perception to MAPK activation in plants is elusive. Here, we found that the PRR-associated receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase Oryza sativa RLCK185 transmits immune signaling from the PAMP receptor OsCERK1 to a MAPK signaling cascade through interaction with a MAPK kinase kinase, OsMAPKKKε, which is the initial kinase of the MAPK cascade...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109007/retinoic-acid-inducible-gene-i-rig-i-like-receptors-rlrs-in-fish-current-knowledge-and-future-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Shan Nan Chen, Peng Fei Zou, Pin Nie
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are found conservatively present in teleost fish. All three members, RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2 together with the downstream molecules such as MITA, TRAF3 and TBK1 have been identified in a range of fish species. However, it is a bit unexpected that RIG-I has not been reported in fish of Acanthopterygii, and it would be important to clarify the presence and role of RIG-I gene in a broad range of taxa in Teleostei. RLRs in fish can be induced in vivo and in vitro by viral pathogens as well as synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), poly(I:C), leading to the production of type I IFNs and the expression of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs)...
January 20, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108375/the-role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-lung-sarcoidosis
#17
Esmaeil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Atefhe Abedini, Arda Kiani, Mehdi Kazempour-Dizaji, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. Infection, genetic factors, autoimmunity and an aberrant innate immune system have been explored as potential causes of sarcoidosis. The etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown, and it is thought that it might be caused by an infectious agent in a genetically predisposed, susceptible host. Inflammation results from recognition of evolutionarily conserved structures of pathogens (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) and/or from reaction to tissue damage associated patterns (DAMPs) through recognition by a limited number of germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)...
January 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095323/pattern-recognitions-receptors-in-immunodeficiency-disorders
#18
Esameil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Payam Tabarsi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Hamidreza Jamaati, Aliakbar Velayati
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation and response of the immune system. Initiation of the innate immune response starts with the recognition of microbial structures called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recognition of PAMPs is performed by germline-encoded receptors expressed mainly on immune cells termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and Nod-like receptors (NLRs)...
January 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093357/are-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-systems-setting-hypertension-on-fire
#19
REVIEW
Gisele F Bomfim, Fernanda Luciano Rodrigues, Fernando S Carneiro
Hypertension is the most common chronic cardiovascular disease and is associated with several pathological states, being an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Low-grade inflammation plays a key role in hypertension and the innate and adaptive immune systems seem to contribute to hypertension development and maintenance. Hypertension is associated with vascular inflammation, increased vascular cytokines levels and infiltration of immune cells in the vasculature, kidneys and heart. However, the mechanisms that trigger inflammation and immune system activation in hypertension are completely unknown...
January 16, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090671/lgp2-plays-an-essential-role-in-hcv-infection-induced-interferon-responses
#20
Lei Hei, Jin Zhong
: Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that detect non-self RNA and activate downstream interferon (IFN) signaling. One of the RLRs, Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) was originally thought to be a negative feedback regulator in RIG-I signaling pathway, but growing evidence indicates LGP2 is one co-factor of Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5) in MDA5-mediated IFN signaling activation...
January 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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