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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095323/pattern-recognitions-receptors-in-immunodeficiency-disorders
#1
Esameil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Payam Tabarsi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Hamidreza Jamaati, Aliakbar Velayati
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation and response of the immune system. Initiation of the innate immune response starts with the recognition of microbial structures called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recognition of PAMPs is performed by germline-encoded receptors expressed mainly on immune cells termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and Nod-like receptors (NLRs)...
January 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093357/are-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-systems-setting-hypertension-on-fire
#2
REVIEW
Gisele F Bomfim, Fernanda Luciano Rodrigues, Fernando S Carneiro
Hypertension is the most common chronic cardiovascular disease and is associated with several pathological states, being an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Low-grade inflammation plays a key role in hypertension and the innate and adaptive immune systems seem to contribute to hypertension development and maintenance. Hypertension is associated with vascular inflammation, increased vascular cytokines levels and infiltration of immune cells in the vasculature, kidneys and heart. However, the mechanisms that trigger inflammation and immune system activation in hypertension are completely unknown...
January 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090671/lgp2-plays-an-essential-role-in-hcv-infection-induced-interferon-responses
#3
Lei Hei, Jin Zhong
: Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that detect non-self RNA and activate downstream interferon (IFN) signaling. One of the RLRs, Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) was originally thought to be a negative feedback regulator in RIG-I signaling pathway, but growing evidence indicates LGP2 is one co-factor of Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5) in MDA5-mediated IFN signaling activation...
January 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088582/ripk1-protects-hepatocytes-from-kupffer-cells-mediated-tnf-induced-apoptosis-in-mouse-models-of-pamp-induced-hepatitis
#4
Aveline Filliol, Claire Piquet-Pellorce, Céline Raguénès-Nicol, Sarah Dion, Muhammad Farooq, Catherine Lucas-Clerc, Peter Vandenabeele, Mathieu J M Bertrand, Jacques Le Seyec, Michel Samson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The severity of liver diseases is exacerbated by the death of hepatocytes, which can be induced by the sensing of Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) derived from the gut microbiota. The molecular mechanisms regulating these cell death pathways are poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the role of the Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 1 (RIPK1), a protein known to regulate cell fate decisions, in the death of hepatocytes using two in vivo models of PAMP-induced hepatitis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075229/altered-mitochondrial-dynamics-as-a-consequence-of-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-infection
#5
Forrest Keck, Taryn Brooks-Faulconer, Tyler Lark, Pavitra Ravishankar, Charles Bailey, Carolina Salvador-Morales, Aarthi Narayanan
Mitochondria are sentinel organelles that are impacted by various forms of cellular stress, including viral infections. While signaling events associated with mitochondria, including those activated by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), are widely studied, alterations in mitochondrial distribution and changes in mitochondrial dynamics are also beginning to be associated with cellular insult. Cells of neuronal origin have been demonstrated to display remarkable alterations in several instances, including neurodegenerative disorders...
January 11, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069432/microrna-expression-changes-after-lipopolysaccharide-treatment-in-gills-of-amphioxus-branchiostoma-belcheri
#6
Xin Liao, Liu Yang, Qilin Zhang, Junyuan Chen
Recently, amphioxus has served as a model for studying the origin and evolution of vertebrate immunity. However, little is known about how microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the immune defense in amphioxus. In this article, we identified the amphioxus miRNAs in the acute-phase response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We determined the time point for the peak of immune response in amphioxus after LPS challenge by evaluating the expression of Branchiostoma belcheri toll-like receptor 1, NF-κb (c-Rel), and big defensin which react with pathogen-associated molecular patterns(PAMPs)...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065920/pamps-prrs-effectors-and-r-genes-associated-with-citrus-pathogen-interactions
#7
REVIEW
Ronaldo J D Dalio, Diogo M Magalhães, Carolina M Rodrigues, Gabriella D Arena, Tiago S Oliveira, Reinaldo R Souza-Neto, Simone C Picchi, Paula M M Martins, Paulo J C Santos, Heros J Maximo, Inaiara S Pacheco, Alessandra A De Souza, Marcos A Machado
BACKGROUND: Recent application of molecular-based technologies has considerably advanced our understanding of complex processes in plant-pathogen interactions and their key components such as PAMPs, PRRs, effectors and R-genes. To develop novel control strategies for disease prevention in citrus, it is essential to expand and consolidate our knowledge of the molecular interaction of citrus plants with their pathogens. SCOPE: This review provides an overview of our understanding of citrus plant immunity, focusing on the molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions with viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes and vectors related to the following diseases: tristeza, psorosis, citrus variegated chlorosis, citrus canker, huanglongbing, brown spot, post-bloom, anthracnose, gummosis and citrus root rot...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060378/cd73-regulates-anti-inflammatory-signaling-between-apoptotic-cells-and-endotoxin-conditioned-tissue-macrophages
#8
Patrick S Murphy, Jing Wang, Samir P Bhagwat, Joshua C Munger, William J Janssen, Terry W Wright, Michael R Elliott
The phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) shifts macrophages to an anti-inflammatory state through a set of still poorly understood soluble and cell-bound signals. Apoptosis is a common feature of inflamed tissues, and efferocytosis by tissue macrophages is thought to promote the resolution of inflammation. However, it is not clear how the exposure of tissue macrophages to inflammatory cues (e.g., PAMPs, DAMPs) in the early stages of inflammation affects immune outcomes of macrophage-apoptotic cell interactions occurring at later stages of inflammation...
January 6, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056815/comparative-genomics-of-host-adaptive-traits-in-xanthomonas-translucens-pv-graminis
#9
Lena Hersemann, Daniel Wibberg, Jochen Blom, Alexander Goesmann, Franco Widmer, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter, Roland Kölliker
BACKGROUND: Xanthomonas translucens pathovars differ in their individual host ranges among Poaceae. As the causal agent of bacterial wilt in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), X. translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in temperate grassland regions. The genomes of six Xtg strains from Switzerland, Norway, and New Zealand were sequenced in order to gain insight into conserved genomic traits from organisms covering a wide geographical range...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055115/measurement-of-t-cell-telomere-length-using-amplified-signal-fish-staining-and-flow-cytometry
#10
Andrea L Henning, Danielle E Levitt, Jakob L Vingren, Brian K McFarlin
Exposure to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS), damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPS), and physiologically challenging stimuli either positively or negatively affect leukocyte maturity. Cellular maturity has implications for the effectiveness of host response to bacterial or viral infection and/or tissue injury. Thus, the ability to accurately assess cellular maturity and health is important to fully understand immune status and function. The most common technique for measuring cellular maturity is to measure telomere length; however, existing techniques are not optimized for single-cell measurements using flow cytometry...
January 5, 2017: Current Protocols in Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049380/evaluation-of-tlr9-expression-on-pbmcs-and-cpg-odn-tlr9-ligation-on-ifn-%C3%AE-production-in-sle-patients
#11
Sahar Mortezagholi, Zohreh Babaloo, Parisa Rahimzadeh, Haideh Namdari, Mojgan Ghaedi, Farhad Gharibdoost, Reza Mirzaei, Katayoon Bidad, Eisa Salehi
CONTEXT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by autoreactive antibodies. Recent findings revealed the importance of innate immune responses, especially Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the pathogenesis of SLE. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the level of TLR9 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed. The levels of produced IFN-α were also measured in supernatant of PBMCs from SLE patients and healthy controls after stimulation with CpG ODN2216 which is a plasmocytoid dendritic cell (pDC)-specific TLR9 ligand...
January 3, 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049142/danger-associated-molecular-patterns-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Carmen Venegas, Michael T Heneka
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and endogenous "danger" signals, known as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), released from cells alert the innate immune system and activate several signal transduction pathways through interactions with the highly conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Both PAMPs and DAMPs directly induce proinflammatory cascades and trigger the formation of the inflammasome, mediating the release of cytokines. Here, we highlight the role of DAMPs, including amyloid β (Aβ), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), the S100 family proteins, chromogranin A, and nucleic acids, in the innate-immune activation during the course of Alzheimer disease (AD), the most frequent neurodegenerative disorder...
January 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042081/two-short-peptidoglycan-recognition-proteins-from-crassostrea-gigas-with-similar-structure-exhibited-different-pamp-binding-activity
#13
Chuanyan Yang, Lingling Wang, Zhihao Jia, Qilin Yi, Qingsong Xu, Weilin Wang, Changhao Gong, Conghui Liu, Linsheng Song
Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) is an essential molecule in innate immunity for both invertebrates and vertebrates, owing to its prominent ability in specifically recognizing bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and eliminating the invading bacteria. In the present study, the full length cDNA of two PGRP genes, CgPGRPS2 and CgPGRPS4, were cloned from oyster Crassostrea gigas. Their amino acid sequences both contained one signal peptide, one typical PGRP/amidase domain with conserved catalytic residues responsible for amidase activity (55H, 90Y, 164H, 172C in CgPGRPS2, and 98H, 133Y, 207H, 215C in CgPGRPS4), and specific PGN recognition (84R, 85W, 104R, 109V in CgPGRPS2, and 127G, 128W, 147R, 152V in CgPGRPS4), and they shared 55...
December 30, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038935/defense-peptide-repertoire-of-stellaria-media-predicted-by-high-throughput-next-generation-sequencing
#14
Anna A Slavokhotova, Andrey A Shelenkov, Tatyana V Korostyleva, Eugene A Rogozhin, Nataliya V Melnikova, Anna V Kudryavtseva, Tatyana I Odintsova
Being perfectly adapted to diverse environments, chickweed (Stellaria media (L.) Vill), a ubiquitous garden weed, grows widely in Europe and North America. As opposed to the model plants, many weeds, and S. media in particular, have been poorly studied, although they are likely to contain promising components of immunity and novel resistance genes. In this study, for the first time RNA-seq analysis of healthy and infected with Fusarium oxysporum chickweed seedlings, as well as de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation, are presented...
December 27, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036046/herpesviruses-dutpases-a-new-family-of-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-pamp-proteins-with-implications-for-human-disease
#15
REVIEW
Marshall V Williams, Brandon Cox, Maria Eugenia Ariza
The human herpesviruses are ubiquitous viruses and have a prevalence of over 90% in the adult population. Following a primary infection they establish latency and can be reactivated over a person's lifetime. While it is well accepted that human herpesviruses are implicated in numerous diseases ranging from dermatological and autoimmune disease to cancer, the role of lytic proteins in the pathophysiology of herpesvirus-associated diseases remains largely understudies. Only recently have we begun to appreciate the importance of lytic proteins produced during reactivation of the virus, in particular the deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolases (dUTPase), as key modulators of the host innate and adaptive immune responses...
December 28, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025160/characterisation-of-arginase-paralogues-in-salmonids-and-their-modulation-by-immune-stimulation-infection
#16
Ottavia Benedicenti, Tiehui Wang, Eakapol Wangkahart, Douglas J Milne, Jason W Holland, Catherine Collins, Christopher J Secombes
In this study we show that four arginase isoforms (arg1a, arg1b, arg2a, arg2b) exist in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We have characterised these molecules in terms of a) sequence analysis, b) constitutive expression in different tissues, and modulated expression following c) stimulation of head kidney macrophages in vitro, or d) vaccination/infection with Yersinia ruckeri and e) parasite infection (AGD caused by Paramoeba perurans and PKD caused by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae)...
December 23, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024144/lack-of-broad-functional-differences-in-immunity-in-fully-vaccinated-versus-unvaccinated-children
#17
Ashley M Sherrid, Candice E Ruck, Darren Sutherland, Bing Cai, Tobias R Kollmann
BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised that with an increase in the number of vaccines administered early in life, immune development could be altered, leading to either increased or decreased immune reactivity. METHODS: We investigated the impact of vaccination on immune status, contrasting the immune response to general, non-antigen-specific stimuli in a cohort of entirely unvaccinated versus fully vaccinated children at 3-5 years of age. Innate immunity was assessed by quantifying bulk and cell-type-specific cytokine production in response to stimulation with pathogen associated microbial patterns (PAMPs)...
December 26, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984790/a-review-of-redox-signaling-and-the-control-of-map-kinase-pathway-in-plants
#18
REVIEW
Yukun Liu, Chengzhong He
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are evolutionarily conserved modules among eukaryotic species that range from yeast, plants, flies to mammals. In eukaryotic cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) has both physiological and toxic effects. Both MAPK cascades and ROS signaling are involved in plant response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. It has been observed that not only can ROS induce MAPK activation, but also that disturbing MAPK cascades can modulate ROS production and responses. This review will discuss the potential mechanisms by which ROS may activate and/or regulate MAPK cascades in plants...
December 9, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975786/antibacterial-effects-of-the-essential-oil-from-flower-buds-of-magnolia-biondii-pamp
#19
O Aldulaimi, W W Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965667/danger-signals-and-graft-versus-host-disease-current-understanding-and-future-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Tomomi Toubai, Nathan D Mathewson, John Magenau, Pavan Reddy
Graft-versus-host response after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents one of the most intense inflammatory responses observed in humans. Host conditioning facilitates engraftment of donor cells, but the tissue injury caused from it primes the critical first steps in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Tissue injuries release pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) through widespread stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by the release of danger stimuli, such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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