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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901331/clinical-indices-and-biomarkers-for-perioperative-cardiac-risk-stratification-an-update
#1
Radmilo J Janković, Danica Z Marković, Dušan T Sokolović, Ivana Zdravković, Massimiliano Sorbello
European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/ European Society of Anesthesiology (ESA) highlighted that anesthesiologist has a leading role in perioperative cardiovascular assessment and management in the year of 2014. During cardiovascular assessment one can rely on cooperation of multi-disciplinary specialists like: other anesthesiologists, cardiologists and surgeons. For the purpose of precise systematization and decision making the Lee score or NSQUIP database can be used besides the traditionally used ASA score...
November 30, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900049/toll-like-receptors-and-cutaneous-melanoma
#2
Ilaria Coati, Serena Miotto, Irene Zanetti, Mauro Alaibac
Innate immune cells recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Previous studies have demonstrated that PRRs also recognize endogenous molecules, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are derived from damaged cells. PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), scavenger receptors, C-type lectin receptors and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors. To date, 10 TLRs have been identified in humans and each receptor responds to a different ligand...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889532/characterisation-of-zbtb46-and-dc-script-znf366-in-rainbow-trout-transcription-factors-potentially-involved-in-dendritic-cell-maturation-and-activation-in-fish
#3
Jun Wang, Tiehui Wang, Ottavia Benedicenti, Catherine Collins, Kaiyu Wang, Christopher J Secombes, Jun Zou
ZBTB46 and DC-SCRIPT/ZNF366 are two zinc finger transcription factors that play important roles in regulating differentiation of dendritic cells in mammals. In this study, the ZBTB46 and DC-SCRIPT/ZNF366 homologues were identified in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and their expression analysed in vivo and in vitro. As transcription factors, they are well conserved in sequence, genomic organisation and gene synteny. Their expression was differentially modulated by bacterial and viral PAMPs in the monocyte/macrophage like cell line RTS-11, in primary head kidney (HK) macrophages, and in HK macrophages cultured with IL-4/13A...
November 23, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888386/innate-recognition-of-microbial-derived-signals-in-immunity-and-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Yue Zhang, Chunli Liang
Microbes generate a vast array of different types of conserved structural components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which can be recognized by cells of the innate immune system. This recognition of "nonself" signatures occurs through host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), suggesting that microbial-derived signals are good targets for innate immunity to discriminate between self- and nonself. Such PAMP-PRR interactions trigger multiple but distinct downstream signaling cascades, subsequently leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and interferons that tailor immune responses to particular microbes...
November 23, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885703/immunological-tolerance-part-i-of-a-report-of-a-workshop-on-foundational-concepts-of-immune-regulation
#5
Colin C Anderson, Peter Bretscher, Alexandre Corthay, Zlatko Dembic, Calliopi Havele, Zoltan A Nagy, Inger Øynebråten
This report, the first of two, arose from a one-week workshop directed at discussing concepts of immune regulation, and focuses on immunological tolerance. We first outline the major ideas we thought sufficiently plausible to provide a context for discussing more controversial issues around tolerance. We then report on our discussion of different experiments that appear paradoxical in terms of the different, contemporary models of CD4 T cell inactivation/activation, and how such observations might be resolved in terms of insights provided by these contemporary models...
November 25, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871901/the-immunomodulation-of-a-maternal-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-tctp-in-zhikong-scallop-chlamys-farreri
#6
Zhihao Jia, Mengqiang Wang, Feng Yue, Xiudan Wang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is initially described as a highly conserved protein implicated in cell growth, and it is subsequently confirmed to play important roles in mediating the innate immune response, especially the inflammatory. In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequence of a TCTP from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri (designed as CfTCTP) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique based on the expression sequence tag (EST) analysis. It was of 1230 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 543 bp encoding a polypeptide of 180 amino acids...
November 18, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871149/pstha5a23-a-candidate-effector-from-the-obligate-biotrophic-pathogen-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici-is-involved-in-plant-defense-suppression-and-rust-pathogenicity
#7
Yulin Cheng, Kuan Wu, Juanni Yao, Shumin Li, Xiaojie Wang, Lili Huang, Zhensheng Kang
During the infection of host plants, pathogens can deliver virulence-associated "effector" proteins to promote plant susceptibility. However, little is known about effector function in the obligate biotrophic pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) that is an important fungal pathogen in wheat production worldwide. Here, we report our findings on an in planta highly induced candidate effector from Pst, PSTha5a23. The PSTha5a23 gene is unique to Pst and shows a low level of intra-species polymorphism...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859049/lps-primed-heterotolerant-dendritic-cells-suppress-experimental-autoimmune-uveoretintitis-by-multiple-mechanisms
#8
Izabela P Klaska, Elizabeth Muckersie, Cristina Martin-Granados, Maria Christofi, John V Forrester
Exposure of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) to high dose ultrapure lipopolysaccharide for 24 hours (h) (LPS-primed BMDC) enhances their potency in preventing inter-photoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP): complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). LPS-primed BMDC are refractory to further exposure to LPS (= endotoxin tolerance, ET), evidenced here by decreased phosphorylation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) as well as impaired nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and IRF3, resulting in reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12 and interferon beta (IFN-β) secretion...
November 15, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851904/role-of-pathogen-associated-molecular-patterns-pamps-in-immune-responses-to-fungal-infections
#9
Mehdi Taghavi, Alireza Khosravi, Esmaeil Mortaz, Donya Nikaein, Seyyed Shamsadin Athari
Recent years have seen the rise of invasive fungal infections, which are mostly due to the increase in patients. Three major opportunistic fungal species in human are Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans that pose the biggest concern for these immunocompromised patients' mortality. The growing occurrence of opportunistic fungal infections has sparked the interest to understand defense mechanisms against pathogenic fungi. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as a part of innate immune system, play an important role for recognizing the invading microorganisms and initiating sufficient immune responses...
November 13, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837097/cml8-an-arabidopsis-calmodulin-like-protein-plays-a-role-in-pseudomonas-syringae-plant-immunity
#10
Xiaoyang Zhu, Eugénie Robe, Lucile Jomat, Didier Aldon, Christian Mazars, Jean-Philippe Galaud
Calcium is a universal second messenger involved in various cellular processes including plant development and stress responses. Its conversion into biological responses requires the presence of calcium sensor relays such as calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs). While the role of CaM is well described, CML functions remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis CML8 expression is strongly and transiently induced by Pseudomonas syringae and reverse genetic approaches indicated that the over-expression of CML8 confers on plants a better resistance to pathogenic bacteria compared to wild type, knock-down and knock-out lines indicating that CML8 participates as a positive regulator in plant immunity...
November 10, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832948/up-regulated-of-mir-8159-5p-and-mir-217-5p-by-lps-stimulation-negatively-co-regulate-tlr1-in-miiuy-croaker
#11
Qing Chu, Yuena Sun, Dekun Bi, Junxia Cui, Tianjun Xu
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of pattern-recognition receptors which play vital roles in ligand recognition and activation of the innate immune response. As an important member of TLRs family, TLR1 is mainly responsible for PAMPs from bacteria and play a pivotal role in sensing microbial products. Recent studies revealed that TLR1 could perceive LPS stimulation and transfer signals to activate the NF-κB pathway, whereas ligands and signaling pathway of TLR1 are still unclear in fish. Growing evidence has shown that miRNAs (microRNAs) play as negative regulators in controlling the diverse of biophysical and biochemical processes at the post-transcriptional level...
November 7, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825479/xopn-t3ss-effector-of-xanthomonas-axonopodis-pv-punicae-localizes-to-the-plasma-membrane-and-modulates-ros-accumulation-events-during-blight-pathogenesis-in-pomegranate
#12
Rishikesh Kumar, Madhvi Soni, Kalyan K Mondal
Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae (Xap) is a major disease of pomegranate. Xap secretes effector proteins via type III secretion system (T3SS) to suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered plant immunity (PTI). Previously we reported that XopN, a conserved effector of Xap, modulate in planta bacterial growth, and blight disease. In continuation to that here we report the deletion of XopN from Xap caused higher accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H2O2 and O2(-)...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824278/modulation-of-porcine-intestinal-epitheliocytes-immunetranscriptome-response-by-lactobacillus-jensenii-tl2937
#13
H Kobayashi, L Albarracin, N Sato, P Kanmani, A K M H Kober, W Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Y Suda, T Nochi, H Aso, S Makino, H Kano, S Ohkawara, T Saito, J Villena, H Kitazawa
In order to evaluate probiotic strains applicable for the beneficial immunomodulation of the porcine gut (immunobiotics), we previously developed a porcine intestinal epitheliocyte cell line (PIE cells). Here, transcriptomic studies using PIE cells were performed considering that this information would be valuable for understanding the mechanisms involved in the protective activity of the immunobiotic strain Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 against intestinal inflammatory damage in pigs. In addition, those studies would provide criteria for selecting biomarkers for the screening of new immunobiotic strains...
November 8, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822556/impact-of-sample-type-and-dna-isolation-procedure-on-genomic-inference-of-microbiome-composition
#14
Berith E Knudsen, Lasse Bergmark, Patrick Munk, Oksana Lukjancenko, Anders Priemé, Frank M Aarestrup, Sünje J Pamp
Explorations of complex microbiomes using genomics greatly enhance our understanding about their diversity, biogeography, and function. The isolation of DNA from microbiome specimens is a key prerequisite for such examinations, but challenges remain in obtaining sufficient DNA quantities required for certain sequencing approaches, achieving accurate genomic inference of microbiome composition, and facilitating comparability of findings across specimen types and sequencing projects. These aspects are particularly relevant for the genomics-based global surveillance of infectious agents and antimicrobial resistance from different reservoirs...
September 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818661/the-role-of-purine-metabolites-as-damps-in-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#15
REVIEW
Petya Apostolova, Robert Zeiser
Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) causes high mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. An early event in the classical pathogenesis of acute GvHD is tissue damage caused by the conditioning treatment or infection that consecutively leads to translocation of bacterial products [pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)] into blood or lymphoid tissue, as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), mostly intracellular components that act as pro-inflammatory agents, once they are released into the extracellular space...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816791/porphyromonas-gingivalis-stimulated-macrophage-subsets-exhibit-differential-induction-and-responsiveness-to-interleukin-10
#16
Andrew D Foey, Neama Habil, Khalid Al-Shaghdali, StJohn Crean
OBJECTIVES: Oral mucosal macrophages (Mϕs) determine immune responses; maintaining tolerance whilst retaining the capacity to activate defences against pathogens. Mϕ responses are determined by two distinct subsets; pro-inflammatory M1- and anti-inflammatory/regulatory M2-Mϕs. Tolerance induction is driven by M2 Mϕs, whereas M1-like Mϕs predominate in inflammation, such as that exhibited in chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG) periodontal infection. Mϕ responses can be suppressed to benefit either the host or the pathogen...
October 29, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815870/analysis-of-human-and-mouse-neutrophil-phagocytosis-by-flow-cytometry
#17
Noah Fine, Oriyah Barzilay, Michael Glogauer
Neutrophils are primary phagocytes that recognize their targets through surface chemistry, either through Pattern Recognition Receptor (PPR) interaction with Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) or through immunoglobulin (Ig) or complement mediated recognition. Opsonization can be important for target recognition, and phagocytosis by neutrophils in whole blood can be greatly enhanced due to the presence of blood serum components and platelets. Powerful and sensitive flow cytometry based methods are presented to measure phagocytosis by human blood neutrophils and mouse peritoneal neutrophils...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812183/imprime-pgg-mediated-anti-cancer-immune-activation-requires-immune-complex-formation
#18
Anissa S H Chan, Adria Bykowski Jonas, Xiaohong Qiu, Nadine R Ottoson, Richard M Walsh, Keith B Gorden, Ben Harrison, Peter J Maimonis, Steven M Leonardo, Kathleen E Ertelt, Michael E Danielson, Kyle S Michel, Mariana Nelson, Jeremy R Graff, Myra L Patchen, Nandita Bose
Imprime PGG (Imprime), an intravenously-administered, soluble β-glucan, has shown compelling efficacy in multiple phase 2 clinical trials with tumor targeting or anti-angiogenic antibodies. Mechanistically, Imprime acts as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) directly activating innate immune effector cells, triggering a coordinated anti-cancer immune response. Herein, using whole blood from healthy human subjects, we show that Imprime-induced anti-cancer functionality is dependent on immune complex formation with naturally-occurring, anti-β glucan antibodies (ABA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805901/ring-finger-e3-ligase-ppp1r11-regulates-tlr2-signaling-and-innate-immunity
#19
Alison C McKelvey, Travis B Lear, Sarah R Dunn, John Evankovich, James D Londino, Joseph S Bednash, Yingze Zhang, Bryan J McVerry, Yuan Liu, Bill B Chen
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes many types of PAMPs that originate from gram-positive bacteria. Here we describe a novel mechanism regulating TLR2 protein expression and subsequent cytokine release through the ubiquitination and degradation of the receptor in response to ligand stimulation. We show a new mechanism in which an uncharacterized RING finger E3 ligase, PPP1R11, directly ubiquitinates TLR2 both in vitro and in vivo, which leads to TLR2 degradation and disruption of the signaling cascade...
November 2, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805556/-innate-receptors-and-il-17-in-the-immune-response-against-human-pathogenic-fungi
#20
REVIEW
Marìa Soledad Miro, Cecilia Vigezzi, Emilse Rodriguez, Paula Alejandra Icely, Juan Pablo Caeiro, Fernando Riera, Diana Teresa Masih, Claudia Elena Sotomayor
In recent years, the rise of human fungal infections has been associated to lack of early diagnosis, uneffective antifungal therapies and vaccines. Disturbance in immune homeostasis, which can be caused by medical interventions and immunosuppression nduced by disease, are well known as risk factors for these pathologies. Cells of the innate immune system are equipped with surface and cytoplasmic receptors for recognition of microorganisms called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are crucial for the activation and killing of pathogenic fungi by immune system...
2016: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
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