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Michelle E Leslie, Sean W Rogers, Antje Heese
Callose deposition within the cell wall is a well-documented plant immune response to pathogenic organisms as well as to pathogen-/microbe- associated molecular patterns (P/MAMPs). However, the molecular mechanisms that modulate pathogen-induced callose deposition are less understood. We reported previously that Arabidopsis plants lacking the vesicle trafficking component DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN 2B (DRP2B) display increased callose deposition in response to the PAMP flg22. Here, we show that increased number of flg22-induced callose deposits in drp2b leaves is fully dependent on the callose synthase POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT 4 (PMR4)...
October 17, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Maoulida Toueni, Cécile Ben, Aurélie Le Ru, Laurent Gentzbittel, Martina Rickauer
Resistance mechanisms to Verticillium wilt are well-studied in tomato, cotton, and Arabidopsis, but much less in legume plants. Because legume plants establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses in their roots, resistance to root-attacking pathogens merits particular attention. The interaction between the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium alfalfae and the model legume Medicago truncatula was investigated using a resistant (A17) and a susceptible (F83005.5) line. As shown by histological analyses, colonization by the pathogen was initiated similarly in both lines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bruno Sangiorgi, Rodrigo Alexandre Panepucci
In the last decade, the immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have attracted a lot of attention, due to their potential applicability in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a condition frequently associated with opportunistic infections. The present review addresses how Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPS) modulate the immunosuppressive phenotype of human MSCs by signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Overall, we observed that regardless of the source tissue, human MSCs express TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9...
2016: Stem Cells International
Lei Li, Yufei Yu, Zhaoyang Zhou, Jian-Min Zhou
Plants are exposed to numerous potential pathogenic microbes. To counter the threat, plants have evolved diverse patternrecognition receptors (PRRs), which are receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor proteins (RPs) specialized to detect conserved pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs). Although only a handful of RKs and RPs are known PRRs, they belong to the receptor-like kinase (RLK) and receptor-like protein (RLP) superfamilies that undergo lineagespecific expansion, suggesting that many of these RLKs and RLPs are potential PRRs...
October 12, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Jiyeon Ko, Qiang Wan, S D N K Bathige, Jehee Lee
Lysozymes are a family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of bacterial cell wall, acting as antimicrobial effectors of the innate immune system. In the present study, an ortholog of goose-type lysozyme (ShLysG) from the big-belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) was identified and characterized structurally and functionally. The full-length cDNA sequence (1213 bp) of ShLysG is comprised of an open reading frame made up of 552 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 184 amino acid (aa) with a predicted molecular mass of 20 kDa...
October 9, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ying Huang, Wen Wang, Qian Ren
C1q is the target recognition sequence of the classical complement pathway and a major link that connects innate and acquired immunity. In this study, a C1qDC homolog, HcC1qDC5, from the triangle-shell pearl mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii) was identified. The complete nucleotide sequence of HcC1qDC5 cDNA consists of a 5'-untranslated terminal region (UTR) of 123 bp, a 3'-UTR of 105 bp with a poly(A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1344 bp, which encodes a polypeptide of 447 amino acids. HcC1qDC5 contains a signal peptide and three typical C1q domains...
October 7, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Cristina Maria de Barros, Emad Ibrahim Wafa, Khanidtha Chitphet, Kawther Ahmed, Sean M Geary, Aliasger K Salem
Immune adjuvants, such as ligands for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), have been showing promise in boosting immune responses to tumor associated antigens, and delivering these adjuvants as discrete packages is considered advantageous over delivery in soluble form. Here we describe in detail, methods for independently loading a range of adjuvants into polymer-based biodegradable particles. We also describe the means by which to characterize these particles with respect to adjuvant loading and release kinetics as well as in terms of particle size, shape, and zeta-potential...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Masahiro Noshi, Daisuke Mori, Noriaki Tanabe, Takanori Maruta, Shigeru Shigeoka
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in chloroplasts have been proposed to act as signaling molecules for plant immunity through pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as flg22. To elucidate this process, we herein conducted genetic screening of flg22-sensitive mutants from T-DNA insertion lines lacking chloroplastic H2O2-responsive genes. The results obtained showed that knockout mutants lacking a clade IV TGA transcription factor, TGA10, were more sensitive to the flg22 treatment than wild-type plants...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Sebastijan Kovačič, Michael S Silverstein
Swell! Superabsorbent, mechanically robust, high-porosity hydrogels based on poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) have been successfully synthesized by templating within high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs). These hydrogel polyHIPEs (HG-PHs) exhibit unusually high uptakes of water and of artificial urine through structure- and crosslinking-dependent hydrogel-swelling-driven void expansion. An HG-PH with 3.1 mmol g(-1) of highly accessible sulfonic acid groups exhibits a 7 meq NaOH ion exchange capacity per gram polymer and rapid dye absorption...
September 26, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Jianli Tao, Xiang Zhou, Zhengfan Jiang
Innate immunity is the first line of host defense against invading pathogens. The detection of aberrant nucleic acids which represent some conserved PAMPs triggers robust type I IFN-mediated innate immune responses. Host- or pathogen-derived cytosolic DNA binds and activates the DNA sensor cGAS, which synthesizes the second messenger 2'3'-cGAMP and triggers STING-dependent downstream signaling. Here, we highlight recent progress in cGAS-cGAMP-STING, the Three Musketeers of cytosolic DNA sensing and signaling, and their essential roles in infection, autoimmune diseases, and cancer...
October 5, 2016: IUBMB Life
Claire L Feerick, Declan P McKernan
NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a family of 23 receptors known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), they are expressed in many cell types and play a key role in the innate immune response. The NLRs are activated by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) which include structurally conserved molecules present on the surfaces of bacteria. The activation of these NLRs by pathogens results in the downstream activation of signalling kinases and transcription factors, culminating in the transcription of genes coding for pro-inflammatory factors...
October 5, 2016: Immunology
Yuntong Jiao, Weirong Xu, Dong Duan, Yuejin Wang, Peter Nick
Stilbenes are central phytoalexins in Vitis, and induction of the key enzyme stilbene synthase (STS) is pivotal for disease resistance. Here, we address the potential for breeding resistance using an STS allele isolated from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) by comparison with its homologue from Vitis vinifera cv. 'Carigane' (VvSTS). Although the coding regions of both alleles are very similar (>99% identity on the amino acid level), the promoter regions are significantly different. By expression in Arabidopsis as a heterologous system, we show that the allele from the wild Chinese grapevine can confer accumulation of stilbenes and resistance against the powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, whereas the allele from the vinifera cultivar cannot...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
David Pulido, Maria Flor Garcia-Mayoral, Mohammed Moussaoui, Diego Velázquez, Marc Torrent, Marta Bruix, Ester Boix
Acute infection by Gram-negative pathogens can induce an exacerbated immune response that leads to lethal septic shock syndrome. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) molecule that can initiate massive and lethal immune system stimulation. Therefore, the development of new and effective LPS-neutralizing agents is a top priority. The eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is an antimicrobial protein secreted in response to infection, with a remarkable affinity for LPS...
October 3, 2016: FEBS Journal
Yun Zhou, Jianping Pan
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are expressed mainly on innate immunocytes such as dendritic cells and macrophages, and may have the potential to recognize and bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from Candida albicans, thereby triggering the downstream signals. The genetic polymorphism of TLRs is associated with susceptibility to Candida albicans. The activation of TLRs by PAMPs from Candida albicans can induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines that play key roles in the anti-infection of Candida albicans...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Hua Zhou, Erin Harberts, Rita Fishelevich, Anthony A Gaspari
UVR-induced apoptosis in cutaneous antigen presenting cells (APC) causes systemic immune suppression and is dependent on TLR4/MyD88 signaling, but the apoptotic signaling pathways have not been defined. Macrophages pre-treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were unresponsive to subsequent LPS treatment; however, but were susceptible to UVR-induced apoptosis. Macrophage survival and apoptotic events after UVR were also unaffected by treatment with TLR4 antagonists, a blocking IgG or a TLR4 analog antagonist, suggesting that UVR cell death is independent of a soluble ligand...
September 27, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Ying-Chun Yeh, Ting-Yu Wang, Hsin-Yiu Chou, Han-You Lin, Tzong-Yueh Chen, Takashi Aoki, Han-Ching Wang
A novel grouper immune gene, EcVig was identified in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). We recently determined that EcVig expression can be induced by infection with nervous necrosis virus (NNV, an RNA virus), whereas NNV replication may be suppressed when EcVig was overexpressed. Although EcVig appeared to be involved in grouper antiviral activity, its immune effects have not been well characterized. In the present study, two PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns; lipopolysaccharides [LPS] and synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]), as well as fish DNA virus (red sea bream iridovirus, RSIV; grouper iridovirus, GIV), were used to study EcVig responses in orange-spotted grouper...
September 22, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Isabel Ferreira, Joana Liberal, João Martins, Ana Silva, Bruno M Neves, Maria Teresa Cruz
An intricate interplay between innate and adaptive immune cells is crucial for an effective immune response during disease, infection and vaccination. This interplay is manly performed by dendritic cells (DCs), which are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) with unparalleled capacity to translate innate to adaptive immunity. They effectively recognize and uptake antigens, migrate to lymphoid tissues, and activate naïve T-cells. To enable rapid pathogen detection DCs utilize numerous germline encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that recognize conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
September 21, 2016: Current Drug Targets
Zhou Yun, Pan Jianping
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are expressed mainly on innate immunocytes such as dendritic cells and macrophages, and may have the potential to recognize and bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from Candida albicans, thereby triggering the downstream signals. The genetic polymorphism of TLRs is associated with susceptibility to Candida albicans. The activation of TLRs by PAMPs from Candida albicans can induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines that play key roles in the anti-infection of Candida albicans...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Chanyong Yun, Youngchul Jung, Wonjoo Chun, Beodeul Yang, Junghyun Ryu, Chiyeon Lim, Jung-Hoon Kim, Hyungwoo Kim, Su-In Cho
The leaves of Artemisia argyi Lev. et Vant. and A. princeps Pamp. are well known medicinal herbs used to treat patients in China, Japan, and Korea with skin problems such as eczema and itching, as well as abdominal pain and dysmenorrhoea. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Artemisia leaf extract (ALE) using CD mice and Raw 264.7 cells. The effects of ALE on histopathological changes and cytokine production in ear tissues were assessed in mice with CD induced by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB)...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Qiu-Ning Liu, Zhao-Zhe Xin, Dai-Zhen Zhang, Sen-Hao Jiang, Xin-Yue Chai, Chao-Feng Li, Chun-Lin Zhou, Bo-Ping Tang
Lysozymes, innate immunity molecules, play a vital role in immune response to pathogens. The yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Siluriformes: Bagridae) is an economically important fish in China. The aim of this study was to quantify expression of the P. fulvidraco LysG gene (a g-type lysozyme) in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) challenge. First, the P. fulvidraco LysG gene (PfLysG) was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of PfLysG is 1323 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 131 bp, a 3'-UTR of 634 bp, and an open reading frame of 558 bp encoding a polypeptide of 185 amino acids, which contains a transglycosylase SLT domain (Pfam01464)...
September 16, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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