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G J Morales
A numerical study is presented of a free particle interacting with a deterministic thermostat in which the usual friction force is supplemented with a fluctuating force that depends on the self-consistent damping coefficient associated with coupling to the heat bath. It is found that this addition results in a chaotic environment in which a particle self-heats from rest and moves in positive and negative directions, exhibiting a characteristic diffusive behavior. The frequency power spectrum of the dynamical quantities displays the exponential frequency dependence ubiquitous to chaotic dynamics...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
A V Kargovsky, A Yu Chikishev, O A Chichigina
An open system that can be analyzed using the Langevin equation with multiplicative noise is considered. The stationary state of the system results from a balance of deterministic damping and random pumping simulated as noise with controlled periodicity. The dependence of statistical moments of the variable that characterizes the system on parameters of the problem is studied. A nontrivial decrease in the mean value of the main variable with an increase in noise stochasticity is revealed. Applications of the results in several physical, chemical, biological, and technical problems of natural and humanitarian sciences are discussed...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Yuchao Wu, Darshil U Shah, Baoyuan Wang, Ji Liu, Xiaohe Ren, Michael H Ramage, Oren A Scherman
Spider silk is a fascinating material, combining high strength and elasticity that outperforms most synthetic fibers. Another intriguing feature of spider silk is its ability to "supercontract," shrinking up to 50% when exposed to water. This is likely on account of the entropy-driven recoiling of secondary structured proteins when water penetrates the spider silk. In contrast, humidity-driven contraction in synthetic fibers is difficult to achieve. Here, inspired by the spider silk model, a supercontractile fiber (SCF), which contracts up to 50% of its original length at high humidity, comparable to spider silk, is reported...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
Nian-Ke Chen, Xian-Bin Li, Junhyeok Bang, Xue-Peng Wang, Dong Han, Damien West, Shengbai Zhang, Hong-Bo Sun
Time-dependent density-functional theory molecular dynamics reveals an unexpected effect of optical excitation in the experimentally observed rhombohedral-to-cubic transition of GeTe. The excitation induces coherent forces along [001], which may be attributed to the unique energy landscape of Peierls-distorted solids. The forces drive the A_{1g} optical phonon mode in which Ge and Te move out of phase. Upon damping of the A_{1g} mode, phase transition takes place, which involves no atomic diffusion, defect formation, or the nucleation and growth of the cubic phase...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Xiaodong Ge, Elena Arriazu, Fernando Magdaleno, Daniel J Antoine, Rouchelle Dela Cruz, Neil Theise, Natalia Nieto
BACKGROUND & RATIONALE: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) increased in response to liver injury. Since HMGB1 is a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), we hypothesized that induction of HMGB1 could participate in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis via RAGE cell-specific signaling mechanisms. RESULTS: liver HMGB1 protein expression correlated with fibrosis stage in patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH)...
May 18, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ritwik Mondal, Marco Berritta, Peter Oppeneer
The phenomenological Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation of motion remains as the cornerstone of contemporary magnetisation dynamics studies, wherein the Gilbert damping parameter has been attributed to first-order relativistic effects. To include magnetic inertial effects the LLG equation has previously been extended with a supplemental inertia term and the arising inertial dynamics has been related to second-order relativistic effects. Here we start from the relativistic Dirac equation and, performing a Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, derive a generalised Pauli spin Hamiltonian that contains relativistic correction terms to any higher order...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Xinyuan Li, Luqiao Wang, Pu Fang, Yu Sun, Xiaohua Jiang, Hong Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang
Innate immune cells express danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) receptors, T-cell co-stimulation/co-inhibition receptors, and the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II). We have recently proposed that endothelial cells can serve as innate immune cells, but the molecular mechanisms involved still await discovery. Here, we investigated whether human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) could be transdifferentiated into innate immune cells by exposing them to hyperlipidemia-upregulated DAMP molecules, i...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Emily R Watts, Sarah R Walmsley
Neutrophil recruitment in response to pathogen invasion is mediated through "self" tissue damage signals (DAMPs) and pathogen associated signals (PAMPs). In this issue of Immunity, Huang and Niethammer, (2018) demonstrate that DAMP signaling is a prerequisite for neutrophil recruitment.
May 15, 2018: Immunity
Hugues Goosse, Jennifer E Kay, Kyle C Armour, Alejandro Bodas-Salcedo, Helene Chepfer, David Docquier, Alexandra Jonko, Paul J Kushner, Olivier Lecomte, François Massonnet, Hyo-Seok Park, Felix Pithan, Gunilla Svensson, Martin Vancoppenolle
The concept of feedback is key in assessing whether a perturbation to a system is amplified or damped by mechanisms internal to the system. In polar regions, climate dynamics are controlled by both radiative and non-radiative interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, ice sheets and land surfaces. Precisely quantifying polar feedbacks is required for a process-oriented evaluation of climate models, a clear understanding of the processes responsible for polar climate changes, and a reduction in uncertainty associated with model projections...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Vitaly I Korepanov, Daria M Sedlovets
Asymmetric lineshapes are experimentally observed in the Raman spectra of different classes of condensed matter. Determination of the peak parameters, typically done with symmetric pseudo-Voigt functions, in such situations yields unreliable results. While a wide choice of asymmetric fitting functions is possible, for the function to be practically useful, it should satisfy several criteria: simple analytic form, minimum parameters, description of the symmetric shape as "zero case", estimation of the desired peak parameters in a straightforward way and, above all, adequate description of the experimental data...
May 15, 2018: Analyst
S G Castillo-López, N M Makarov, F Pérez-Rodríguez
The resonant quantization of Landau damping in far-infrared absorption spectra of metal nano-thin films is predicted within the Kubo formalism. Specifically, it is found that the discretization of the electromagnetic and electron wave numbers inside a metal nanoslab produces quantum nonlocal resonances well-resolved at slab thicknesses smaller than the electromagnetic skin depth. Landau damping manifests itself precisely as such resonances, tracing the spectral curve obtained within the semiclassical Boltzmann approach...
May 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Enrique A López-Guerra, Francesco Banfi, Santiago D Solares, Gabriele Ferrini
Scanning probe microscopy has enabled nanoscale mapping of mechanical properties in important technological materials, such as tissues, biomaterials, polymers, nanointerfaces of composite materials, to name only a few. To improve and widen the measurement of nanoscale mechanical properties, a number of methods have been proposed to overcome the widely used force-displacement mode, that is inherently slow and limited to a quasi-static regime, mainly using multiple sinusoidal excitations of the sample base or of the cantilever...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
L Couëdel, V Nosenko, M Rubin-Zuzic, S Zhdanov, Y Elskens, T Hall, A V Ivlev
The full melting of a two-dimensional plasma crystal was induced in a principally stable monolayer by localized laser stimulation. Two distinct behaviors of the crystal after laser stimulation were observed depending on the amount of injected energy: (i) below a well-defined threshold, the laser melted area recrystallized; (ii) above the threshold, it expanded outwards in a similar fashion to mode-coupling instability-induced melting, rapidly destroying the crystalline order of the whole complex plasma monolayer...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Peng Wang, Lianhua Zhu, Wei Su, Lei Wu, Yonghao Zhang
The nonlinear oscillation of rarefied gas flow inside a two-dimensional rectangular cavity is investigated on the basis of the Shakhov kinetic equation. The gas dynamics, heat transfer, and damping force are studied numerically via the discrete unified gas-kinetic scheme for a wide range of parameters, including gas rarefaction, cavity aspect ratio, and oscillation frequency. Contrary to the linear oscillation where the velocity, temperature, and heat flux are symmetrical and oscillate with the same frequency as the oscillating lid, flow properties in nonlinear oscillatory cases turn out to be asymmetrical, and second-harmonic oscillation of the temperature field is observed...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Tanay Nag, Atanu Rajak
We investigate the effect of a time-reversal-breaking impurity term (of strength λ_{d}) on both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium critical properties of entanglement entropy (EE) in a three-spin-interacting transverse Ising model, which can be mapped to a p-wave superconducting chain with next-nearest-neighbor hopping and interaction. Importantly, we find that the logarithmic scaling of the EE with block size remains unaffected by the application of the impurity term, although, the coefficient (i.e., central charge) varies logarithmically with the impurity strength for a lower range of λ_{d} and eventually saturates with an exponential damping factor [∼exp(-λ_{d})] for the phase boundaries shared with the phase containing two Majorana edge modes...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Cyril Pitrou
We build a general formalism to describe thin viscous jets as one-dimensional objects with an internal structure. We present in full generality the steps needed to describe the viscous jets around their central line, and we argue that the Taylor expansion of all fields around that line is conveniently expressed in terms of symmetric trace-free tensors living in the two dimensions of the fiber sections. We recover the standard results of axisymmetric jets and we report the first and second corrections to the lowest order description, also allowing for a rotational component around the axis of symmetry...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Ruonan Wu, Qiuping Wu, Fengtian Han, Rong Zhang, Peida Hu, Haixia Li
Transverse navigation has been proposed to help inertial navigation systems (INSs) fill the gap of polar navigation ability. However, as the transverse system does not have the ability of navigate globally, a complicated switch between the transverse and the traditional algorithms is necessary when the system moves across the polar circles. To maintain the inner continuity and consistency of the core algorithm, a hybrid transverse polar navigation is proposed in this research based on a combination of Earth-fixed-frame mechanization and transverse-frame outputs...
May 12, 2018: Sensors
Sae Hwan Chun, Bo Yuan, Diego Casa, Jungho Kim, Chang-Yong Kim, Zhaoming Tian, Yang Qiu, Satoru Nakatsuji, Young-June Kim
We report a resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study of the magnetic excitation spectrum in a highly insulating Eu_{2}Ir_{2}O_{7} single crystal that exhibits a metal-insulator transition at T_{MI}=111(7)  K. A propagating magnon mode with a 20 meV bandwidth and a 28 meV magnon gap is found in the excitation spectrum at 7 K, which is expected in the all-in-all-out magnetically ordered state. This magnetic excitation exhibits substantial softening as the temperature is raised towards T_{MI} and turns into a highly damped excitation in the paramagnetic phase...
April 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Eleonora Fava, Tom Bienaimé, Carmelo Mordini, Giacomo Colzi, Chunlei Qu, Sandro Stringari, Giacomo Lamporesi, Gabriele Ferrari
The spin dynamics of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensed binary mixture of sodium atoms is experimentally investigated at finite temperature. In the collisional regime the motion of the thermal component is shown to be damped because of spin drag, while the two condensates exhibit a counterflow oscillation without friction, thereby providing direct evidence for spin superfluidity. Results are also reported in the collisionless regime where the spin components of both the condensate and thermal part oscillate without damping, their relative motion being driven by a mean-field effect...
April 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Qinlong Liu, Hasibur Rehman, Yasodha Krishnasamy, John J Lemasters, Zhi Zhong
Pulmonary complications frequently occur after liver transplantation and are often life-threatening. Thus, we investigated whether hepatic ischemic preconditioning (IP) attenuates acute lung injury (ALI) after small-for-size liver transplantation. Rat livers were explanted after 9-min ischemia plus 5-min reperfusion, reduced to 50% of original size ex vivo , and implanted into recipients with approximately twice the donor body weight, resulting in quarter-size liver grafts (QSG). After QSG transplantation, hepatic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα ) expression increased markedly and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), was released from QSG into the blood...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
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