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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930961/impact-of-a-novel-phosphoinositol-3-kinase-inhibitor-in-preventing-mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-accumulation-results-from-the-biochronicity-project
#1
George Edward Black, Kyle K Sokol, Donald M Moe, Jon D Simmons, David Muscat, Victor Pastukh, Gina Capley, Olena Gorodnya, Mykhaylo Ruchko, Mark B Roth, Mark Gillespie, Matthew J Martin
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930914/the-protective-effect-of-a-short-peptide-derived-from-cold-inducible-rna-binding-protein-in-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#2
Joseph McGinn, Fangming Zhang, Monowar Aziz, Weng-Lang Yang, Jeffrey Nicastro, Gene F Coppa, Ping Wang
Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) functions as damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) and has been demonstrated to be responsible in part for the damage occurring after renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). A short peptide derived from CIRP, named C23, binds to myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2), a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) co-receptor. We hypothesize that C23 reduces renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) injury by blocking CIRP. We observed that pre-treatment with C23 significantly decreased the levels of recombinant mouse CIRP-induced TNF-α in a dose-dependent fashion in cultured macrophages...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930581/biophysical-mechanisms-complementing-classical-cell-biology
#3
Richard H W Funk
This overview addresses phenomena in cell- and molecular biology which are puzzling by their fast and highly coordinated way of organization. Generally, it appears that informative processes probably involved are more on the biophysical than on the classical biochemical side. The coordination problem is explained within the first part of the review by the topic of endogenous electrical phenomena. These are found e.g. in fast tissue organization and reorganization processes like development, wound healing and regeneration...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930551/uremic-toxins-are-conditional-danger-or-homeostasis-associated-molecular-patterns
#4
Yu Sun, Candice Johnson, Jun Zhou, Luqiao Wang, Ya-Feng Li, Yifan Lu, Gayani Nanayakkara, Hangfei Fu, Ying Shao, Claudette Sanchez, William Y Yang, Xin Wang, Eric T Choi, Rongshan Li, Hong Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang
We mined novel uremic toxin (UT) metabolomics/gene databases, and analyzed the expression changes of UT receptors and UT synthases in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We made the following observations: 1) UTs represent only 1/80(th) of human serum small-molecule metabolome; 2) Some UTs are increased in CKD and CVD; 3) UTs either induce or suppress the expression of inflammatory molecules; 4) The expression of UT genes is significantly modulated in CKD patients, and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients; 5) The expression of UT genes is upregulated by caspase-1 and TNF-alpha pathways but is inhibited in regulatory T cells...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924173/interfacial-origin-of-the-magnetisation-suppression-of-thin-film-yttrium-iron-garnet
#5
A Mitra, O Cespedes, Q Ramasse, M Ali, S Marmion, M Ward, R M D Brydson, C J Kinane, J F K Cooper, S Langridge, B J Hickey
Yttrium iron garnet has a very high Verdet constant, is transparent in the infrared and is an insulating ferrimagnet leading to its use in optical and magneto-optical applications. Its high Q-factor has been exploited to make resonators and filters in microwave devices, but it also has the lowest magnetic damping of any known material. In this article we describe the structural and magnetic properties of single crystal thin-film YIG where the temperature dependence of the magnetisation reveals a decrease in the low temperature region...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923472/current-asthma-and-asthma-like-symptoms-among-workers-at-a-veterans-administration-medical-center
#6
Laura Kurth, Mohammed Abbas Virji, Eileen Storey, Susan Framberg, Christa Kallio, Jordan Fink, Anthony Scott Laney
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers are at increased risk for respiratory disorders. The purpose of our respiratory health survey was to estimate the prevalence of current asthma and asthma-like symptoms and their association with workplace exposures and tasks among healthcare workers at a Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on respiratory health and work characteristics, including tasks performed, products used, and exposures, were collected by questionnaire from a convenience sample of workers employed at the VA Medical Center during 2012-2014...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921472/telomere-damage-response-and-low-grade-inflammation
#7
Lihui Wang, Xianhua Yu, Jun-Ping Liu
Telomeres at the ends of chromosomes safeguard genome integrity and stability in human nucleated cells. However, telomere repeats shed off during cell proliferation and other stress responses. Our recent studies show that telomere attrition induces not only epithelial stem cell senescence but also low-grade inflammation in the lungs. The senescence-associated low-grade inflammation (SALI) is characteristic of alveolar stem cell replicative senescence, increased proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, infiltrated immune cells, and spillover effects...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920559/functional-mechanics-of-a-pectin-based-pleural-sealant-after-lung-injury
#8
Andrew B Servais, Cristian D Valenzuela, Arne Kienzle, Alexandra B Ysasi, Willi L Wagner, Akira Tsuda, Maximilian Ackermann, Steven J Mentzer
Pleural injury and associated air leaks are a major influence on patient morbidity and health care costs after lung surgery. Pectin, a plant-derived heteropolysaccharide, has recently demonstrated potential as an adhesive binding to the glycocalyx of visceral mesothelium. Since bioadhesion is a process likely involving the interpenetration of the pectin-based polymer with the glycocalyx, we predicted that the pectin-based polymer may also be an effective sealant for pleural injury. To explore the potential role of an equal weight % mixture of high-methoxyl pectin and carboxymethylcellulose as a pleural sealant, we compared the yield strength of the pectin-based polymer to commonly available surgical products...
September 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920000/oncolytic-peptide-ltx-315-induces-an-immune-mediated-abscopal-effect-in-a-rat-sarcoma-model
#9
Janne Nestvold, Meng-Yu Wang, Ketil A Camilio, Severin Zinöcker, Torunn Elisabeth Tjelle, Alf Lindberg, Bengt Erik Haug, Gunnar Kvalheim, Baldur Sveinbjørnsson, Øystein Rekdal
LTX 315 is an oncolytic peptide with potent immunological properties. In the present study, we demonstrate that intratumoral treatment with LTX-315 resulted in a complete regression and systemic immune response in a rat fibrosarcoma model. The treatment was T-cell dependent, and also resulted in an abscopal effect as demonstrated by the regression of distal non-treated lesions. Significant infiltration of CD8(+) T cells was observed in both treated and non-treated lesions, as shown by immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analysis...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918633/axisymmetric-and-non-axisymmetric-oscillations-of-sessile-compound-droplets-in-open-digital-microfluidic-platform
#10
Shubhi Bansal, Prosenjit Sen
Manipulating droplets of biological fluids in Electrowetting on Dielectric (EWOD) based digital microfluidic platform is a significant challenge due to biofouling and surface contamination. This problem is often addressed by operating in an oil environment. We study an alternate configuration of sessile compound droplets having an aqueous core surrounded by a smaller oil shell. In contrast to conventional EWOD, open digital microfluidic platform enabled by the core-shell configuration will allow electrical, mechanical or optical probes to get unrestricted access to the droplet and thus enabling highly flexible and dynamically reconfigurable lab-on-chip systems...
September 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918474/induction-of-immunogenic-cell-death-in-lymphoma-cells-by-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cell-conditioned-medium
#11
Daniel Hao Lin, Arijit Biswas, Mahesh Choolani, Chui-Yee Fong, Ariff Bongso
Strategies that induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) or downregulate CD47 or PD-L1 expression have resulted in successful therapeutic options for tumor eradication. Several groups have reported the tumoricidal effects of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (hWJSCs) or its conditioned medium (hWJSC-CM) on certain cancers but the mechanisms have not been elucidated. Since hWJSCs possess immunomodulatory properties, we investigated whether one of the tumoricidal mechanisms was via ICD. We first concentrated hWJSC-CM into a 3 kDa concentrate and then exposed various concentrations of this concentrate to human lymphoma cells to find out which concentration had the greatest tumoricidal effect...
September 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916224/lack-of-differences-in-radiation-induced-immunogenicity-parameters-between-hpv-positive-and-hpv-negative-human-hnscc-cell-lines
#12
Karolin Schneider, Vanesa Bol, Vincent Grégoire
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical studies indicate that patients with HPV/p16-associated head & neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represent a subgroup with a better prognosis and improved response to conventional radiotherapy. Involvement of immune-based factors has been hypothesized. In the present study, we investigated radiation-induced differences in release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines and activation of dendritic cells (DCs) in HPV-positive and negative HNSCC cancer cell lines...
September 12, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916200/islanding-detection-scheme-based-on-adaptive-identifier-signal-estimation-method
#13
M Bakhshi, R Noroozian, G B Gharehpetian
This paper proposes a novel, passive-based anti-islanding method for both inverter and synchronous machine-based distributed generation (DG) units. Unfortunately, when the active/reactive power mismatches are near to zero, majority of the passive anti-islanding methods cannot detect the islanding situation, correctly. This study introduces a new islanding detection method based on exponentially damped signal estimation method. The proposed method uses adaptive identifier method for estimating of the frequency deviation of the point of common coupling (PCC) link as a target signal that can detect the islanding condition with near-zero active power imbalance...
September 12, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914439/dampness-heat-accelerates-dmba-induced-mammary-tumors-in-rats
#14
Wei Dong, Xi-Lan Tang, Guang-Bin Shang, Guo-Liang Xu, Wei-Feng Zhu, Hong-Ning Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of dampness-heat (DH) on the development of mammary tumors in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rats. METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into 3 groups in a randomized block design, including the control group (n=13), DMBA group (n=14), and DMBA plus DH group (n=13). Rats in the DMBA group and DMBA plus DH group were intragastrically administrated with DMBA (100 mg/kg) for twice, once per week, while rats in the control group were treated with equivalent volumes of sesame oil...
September 15, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912579/interference-exact-radiative-transfer-equation
#15
Mikko Partanen, Teppo Häyrynen, Jani Oksanen
The Purcell effect, i.e., the modification of the spontaneous emission rate by optical interference, profoundly affects the light-matter coupling in optical resonators. Fully describing the optical absorption, emission, and interference of light hence conventionally requires combining the full Maxwell's equations with stochastic or quantum optical source terms accounting for the quantum nature of light. We show that both the nonlocal wave and local particle features associated with interference and emission of propagating fields in stratified geometries can be fully captured by local damping and scattering coefficients derived from the recently introduced quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) framework...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911261/out-of-the-frying-pan-and-into-the-fire-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-and-cardiovascular-toxicity-following-cancer-therapy
#16
Nicole S Klee, Cameron G McCarthy, Patricia Martinez-Quinones, R Clinton Webb
Cardio-oncology is a new and rapidly expanding field that merges cancer and cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease is an omnipresent side effect of cancer therapy; in fact, it is the second leading cause of death in cancer survivors after recurrent cancer. It has been well documented that many cancer chemotherapeutic agents cause cardiovascular toxicity. Nonetheless, the underlying cause of cancer therapy-induced cardiovascular toxicity is largely unknown. In this review, we discuss the potential role of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) as an underlying contributor to cancer therapy-induced cardiovascular toxicity...
September 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906208/pattern-recognition-receptors-signaling-pathways-and-dysregulation-in-canine-chronic-enteropathies-brief-review
#17
Romy M Heilmann, Karin Allenspach
Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are expressed by innate immune cells and recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. With a large potential for synergism or convergence between their signaling pathways, PRRs orchestrate a complex interplay of cellular mediators and transcription factors, and thus play a central role in homeostasis and host defense. Aberrant activation of PRR signaling, mutations of the receptors and/or their downstream signaling molecules, and/or DAMP/PAMP complex-mediated receptor signaling can potentially lead to chronic auto-inflammatory diseases or development of cancer...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904997/development-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-is-linked-to-a-longitudinal-restructuring-of-the-gut-metagenome-in-mice
#18
Thomas Sharpton, Svetlana Lyalina, Julie Luong, Joey Pham, Emily M Deal, Courtney Armour, Christopher Gaulke, Shomyseh Sanjabi, Katherine S Pollard
The gut microbiome is linked to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) severity and altered in late-stage disease. However, it is unclear how gut microbial communities change over the course of IBD development, especially in regard to function. To investigate microbiome-mediated disease mechanisms and discover early biomarkers of IBD, we conducted a longitudinal metagenomic investigation in an established mouse model of IBD, where damped transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in T cells leads to peripheral immune activation, weight loss, and severe colitis...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904373/spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-phase-slips-in-josephson-junction-chains
#19
Adem Ergül, Thomas Weißl, Jan Johansson, Jack Lidmar, David B Haviland
The Josephson effect, tunnelling of a supercurrent through a thin insulator layer between two superconducting islands, is a phenomena characterized by a spatially distributed phase of the superconducting condensate. In recent years, there has been a growing focus on Josephson junction devices particularly for the applications of quantum metrology and superconducting qubits. In this study, we report the development of Josephson junction circuit formed by serially connecting many Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices, SQUIDs...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904349/cross-polarization-coupling-terahertz-time-domain-spectroscopy-in-a-semiconductor-based-on-the-hall-effect
#20
Jiangsheng Hu, JinSong Liu, Kejia Wang
We propose a new type of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in an isotropic semiconductor wafer applied by a magnetic field in which two cross-polarization THz pulses couple with each other via the Hall effect. We built a classic theoretic model to describe cross-polarization coupling THz spectroscopy (CPCTS). Numerical simulations show that the magnetic field can clearly affect the spectral features of the two THz pulses via the Hall effect in which both the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field and the thickness of the wafer play important roles...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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