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Marco M Lehmann, Bruno Gamarra, Ansgar Kahmen, Rolf T W Siegwolf, Matthias Saurer
Almost no δ(18) O data are available for leaf carbohydrates, leaving a gap in the understanding of the δ(18) O relationship between leaf water and cellulose. We measured δ(18) O values of bulk leaf water (δ(18) OLW ) and individual leaf carbohydrates (e.g. fructose, glucose, sucrose) in grass and tree species, and δ(18) O of leaf cellulose in grasses. The grasses were grown under two relative humidity (rH) conditions. Sucrose was generally (18) O-enriched compared to hexoses across all species with an apparent biosynthetic fractionation factor (εbio ) of more than 27‰ relative to δ(18) OLW , which might be explained by isotopic leaf water and sucrose synthesis gradients...
April 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Houchen Chang, P A Praveen Janantha, Jinjun Ding, Tao Liu, Kevin Cline, Joseph N Gelfand, Wei Li, Mario C Marconi, Mingzhong Wu
The role of damping in the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) was studied experimentally for the first time. The experiments used Y3Fe5O12 (YIG)/Pt bilayered structures where the YIG films exhibit very similar structural and static magnetic properties but very different damping. The data show that a decrease in the damping gives rise to an increase in the SSE coefficient, which is qualitatively consistent with some of the theoretical models. This response also shows quasi-linear behavior, which was not predicted explicitly by previous studies...
April 2017: Science Advances
Donatella D'Eliseo, Livia Di Renzo, Angela Santoni, Francesca Velotti
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oil, is a multi-target agent and exerts anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities alone or in combination with chemotherapies. Combinatorial anticancer therapies, which induce immunogenic apoptosis, autophagy and STAT3 inhibition have been proposed for long-term therapeutic success. Here, we found that DHA promoted immunogenic apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cells, with no toxicity on PBMCs and DCs. Immunogenic apoptosis was shown by the emission of specific DAMPs (CRT, HSP90, HMGB1) by apoptotic MM cells and the activation of their pro-apoptotic autophagy...
January 2017: Genes & Cancer
Nguyen Van Minh, E-Eum Woo, Gang-Seon Lee, Dae-Won Ki, In-Kyoung Lee, Sang-Yeob Lee, Kyeonghun Park, Jaekyeong Song, Jae Eul Choi, Bong-Sik Yun
Ginseng damping-off, caused by the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp., is a critical disease in ginseng seedling. In a continuing effort to find microorganisms with the potential of acting as a biocontrol agent against Rhizoctonia damping-off, we found that a Streptomyces sp. A501 showed significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. In field experiment to test the efficacy of Streptomyces sp. A501 in controlling ginseng damping-off, the incidence of damping-off disease was meaningfully reduced when ginseng seeds were soaked in the culture broth of Streptomyces sp...
March 2017: Mycobiology
N V Dezhkunov, A Francescutto, L Serpe, R Canaparo, G Cravotto
The way in which a cavitation zone develops in a focused pulsed ultrasound field is studied in this work. Sonoluminescence (SL), total hydrophone output and cavitation noise spectra have been recorded across a gradual, smooth increase in applied voltage. It is shown that the cavitation zone passes through a number of stages of evolution, according to increasing ultrasound intensity, decreasing pulse period and increasing ultrasound pulse duration. Sonoluminescence is absent in the first phase and the hydrophone output spectra consists of a main line with two or three harmonics whose intensity is much lower than that of the main (fundamental) line...
April 6, 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Sonia Colombo, Serena Broggi, Maddalena Collini, Laura D'Alfonso, Giuseppe Chirico, Enzo Martegani
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) play a central role in metabolism regulation, stress resistance and cell cycle progression. To monitor cAMP levels and PKA activity in vivo in single S. cerevisiae cells, we expressed an Epac-based FRET probe and a FRET-based A-kinase activity reporter, which were proven to be useful live-cell biosensors for cAMP levels and PKA activity in mammalian cells. Regarding detection of cAMP in single yeast cells, we show that in wild type strains the CFP/YFP fluorescence ratio increased immediately after glucose addition to derepressed cells, while no changes were observed when glucose was added to a strain that is not able to produce cAMP...
April 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Katrin Salman, Peter A Cain, Benjamin T Fitzgerald, Martin G Sundqvist, Martin Ugander
Cardiac amyloidosis is a rare but serious condition with poor survival. One of the early findings by echocardiography is impaired diastolic function, even before the development of cardiac symptoms. Early diagnosis is important, permitting initiation of treatment aimed at improving survival. The parameterized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism entails describing the left ventricular filling pattern during early diastole using the mathematical equation for the motion of a damped harmonic oscillator. We hypothesized that echocardiographic PDF analysis could detect differences in diastolic function between patients with amyloidosis and controls...
April 19, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Nikita A Nemkov, Ivan V Stenishchev, Alexey A Basharin
Dynamic anapole is a promising element for future nonradiating devices, such as cloaked sources and sensors, quantum emitters, and especially the sources for observing dynamic Aharonov-Bohm effect. However, the anapole response can be damped by the Joule losses. In this paper we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel type of active all-dielectric source, which is in some sense, realizes the elementary anapole of Afanasiev, and study its radiative/nonradiative regimes in the microwave range...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Omkar D Supekar, Mo Zohrabi, Juliet T Gopinath, Victor M Bright
Adaptive optical lenses, based on the electrowetting principle, are being rapidly implemented in many applications such as microscopy, remote sensing, displays, and optical communication. To characterize the response of these electrowetting lenses, the dependence on DC driving voltage functions was investigated in a low viscosity liquid system. Cylindrical lenses with inner diameter 2.45 and 3.95-mm were used to characterize the dynamic behavior of the liquids under DC voltage electrowetting actuation. By increasing the rise time of the input exponential driving voltage, the originally underdamped system response can be damped, enabling a smooth response from the lens...
April 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Carynelisa Haspel, Masada Tzabari
In this study, we performed a series of sensitivity tests in order to elucidate the convergence tendency of the scattering order formulation (SOF) of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). Using both the original formulation of the SOF and a new marching SOF, the progression of orders of scattering marches, along with the propagation of the incident plane wave through the scatterer, allow dipoles that come into steady-state oscillation with the incident wave earlier to more quickly advance to the next order of scattering that is local to them...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
D Y Wan, Y L Zhao, Y Cai, T C Asmara, Z Huang, J Q Chen, J Hong, S M Yin, C T Nelson, M R Motapothula, B X Yan, D Xiang, X Chi, H Zheng, W Chen, R Xu, Ariando, A Rusydi, A M Minor, M B H Breese, M Sherburne, M Asta, Q-H Xu, T Venkatesan
Semiconductor compounds are widely used for photocatalytic hydrogen production applications, where photogenerated electron-hole pairs are exploited to induce catalysis. Recently, powders of a metallic oxide (Sr1-xNbO3, 0.03<x<0.20) were reported to show competitive photocatalytic efficiencies under visible light, which was attributed to interband absorption. This discovery expanded the range of materials available for optimized performance as photocatalysts. Here we study epitaxial thin films of SrNbO3+δ and find that their bandgaps are ∼4...
April 19, 2017: Nature Communications
Günther Krämer, Florian Hausen, Roland Bennewitz
The confinement of liquids in nanometer-scale gaps can lead to changes in their viscous shear properties. For liquids of polar molecules, the charge state of the confining surfaces has a significant influence on the structure in the confined liquid. Here we report on the implementation of dynamic shear force microscopy in an electrochemical cell. Lateral oscillations of the tip of an atomic force microscope were magnetically activated at a frequency of about 50 kHz. The damping of the lateral tip oscillation was recorded as a function of the tip-sample distance and of the electrode potential at the surface of a Au(100) single crystal electrode...
April 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Richard Nuccitelli, Amanda McDaniel, Snjezana Anand, John Cha, Zachary Mallon, Jon Casey Berridge, Darrin Uecker
BACKGROUND: We have been developing a non-thermal, drug-free tumor therapy called Nano-Pulse Stimulation (NPS) that delivers ultrashort electric pulses to tumor cells which eliminates the tumor and inhibits secondary tumor growth. We hypothesized that the mechanism for inhibiting secondary tumor growth involves stimulating an adaptive immune response via an immunogenic form of apoptosis, commonly known as immunogenic cell death (ICD). ICD is characterized by the emission of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that serve to recruit immune cells to the site of the tumor...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Monika Cecot, Łukasz Karwacki, Witold Skowroński, Jarosław Kanak, Jerzy Wrona, Antoni Żywczak, Lide Yao, Sebastiaan Dijken, Józef Barnaś, Tomasz Stobiecki
When a current is passed through a non-magnetic metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an orthogonal spin current is generated. This spin current can be used to switch the magnetization of an adjacent ferromagnetic layer or drive its magnetization into continuous precession. The interface, which is not necessarily sharp, and the crystallographic structure of the nonmagnetic metal can both affect the strength of current-induced spin-orbit torques. Here, we investigate the effects of interface intermixing and film microstructure on spin-orbit torques in perpendicularly magnetized Ta/Co40Fe40B20/MgO trilayers with different Ta layer thickness (5 nm, 10 nm, 15 nm), greater than the spin diffusion length...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kasbawati, A Y Gunawan, K A Sidarto
An unstructured model for the growth of yeast cell on glucose due to growth inhibitions by substrate, products, and cell density is discussed. The proposed model describes the dynamical behavior of fermentation system that shows multiple steady states for a certain regime of operating parameters such as inlet glucose and dilution rate. Two types of steady state solutions are found, namely washout and non-washout solutions. Furthermore, different numerical impositions to the two parameters put in evidence three results regarding non-washout solution: a unique locally stable non-washout solution, a unique locally stable non-washout solution towards which other nearby solutions exhibit damped oscillations, and multiple non-washout solutions where one is locally stable while the other is unstable...
April 18, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Danny Thonig, Olle Eriksson, Manuel Pereiro
An essential property of magnetic devices is the relaxation rate in magnetic switching which strongly depends on the energy dissipation. This is described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the well known damping parameter, which has been shown to be reproduced from quantum mechanical calculations. Recently the importance of inertia phenomena have been discussed for magnetisation dynamics. This magnetic counterpart to the well-known inertia of Newtonian mechanics, represents a research field that so far has received only limited attention...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yan-Cheng Dai, Lie Zheng, Ya-Li Zhang, Xuan Chen, De-Liang Chen, Zhi-Peng Tang
This study aims to determine the effects of the Jianpi Qingchang decoction (JQD) on the quality of life (QOL) of patients with spleen deficiency and dampness-heat syndrome ulcerative colitis (UC).A total of 120 active UC patients with spleen deficiency and dampness-heat syndrome were enrolled into this study. These patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: test group and control group (n = 60, each group). Patients in the test group were treated with JQD, while patients in control group were treated with 5-amino salicylic acid...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Klemen Bohinc, Nejc Vantur, Drago Torkar, Tomaž Lampe, Marija Hribernik, Miroljub Jakovljević
The pendulum test is a method applied to measure passive resistance of the knee. A new and simple pendulum test with instrumentation based on infrared camera was used to evaluate knee stiffness and viscosity on a female human cadaver. The stiffness and viscosity were calculated based on the kinetic data. During the measurements, the periarticular and intraarticular soft tissue of the knee was gradually removed to determine the stiffness and viscosity as a function of the tissue removal rate. The measurements showed that the removal of tissue around the joint reduces the damping of leg oscillation, and therefore decreases the stiffness and viscosity...
April 19, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Gang Luo, Zhuo-Zhi Zhang, Guang-Wei Deng, Hai-Ou Li, Gang Cao, Ming Xiao, Guang-Can Guo, Guo-Ping Guo
Graphene-based electromechanical resonators have attracted great interest recently because of the outstanding mechanical and electrical properties of graphene and their various applications. However, the coupling between mechanical motion and charge transport has not been explored in graphene. Herein, we studied the mechanical properties of a suspended 50 nm wide graphene nanoribbon, which also acts as a single-electron transistor (SET) at low temperatures. Using the SET as a sensitive detector, we found that the resonance frequency could be tuned from 82 MHz to 100 MHz and the quality factor exceeded 30 000...
April 19, 2017: Nanoscale
Sonia Carta, Claudia Semino, Roberto Sitia, Anna Rubartelli
Infectious and sterile inflammation is induced by activation of innate immune cells. Triggering of toll-like receptors by pathogen-associated molecular pattern or damage-associated molecular pattern (PAMP or DAMP) molecules generates reactive oxygen species that in turn induce production and activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β. Recent evidence indicates that cell stress due to common events, like starvation, enhanced metabolic demand, cold or heat, not only potentiates inflammation but may also directly trigger it in the absence of PAMPs or DAMPs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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