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M Affolter, F Anderegg, D H E Dubin, C F Driscoll
This paper presents the first experimental confirmation of a new theory predicting enhanced drag due to long-range collisions in a magnetized plasma. The experiments measure damping of Langmuir waves in a multispecies pure ion plasma, which is dominated by interspecies collisional drag in certain regimes. The measured damping rates in these regimes exceed classical predictions of collisional drag damping by as much as an order of magnitude, but agree with the new theory.
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Agda Marobo Andreotti, Marcelo Coelho Goiato, Adhara Smith Nobrega, Emily Vivianne Freitas da Silva, Humberto Gennari Filho, Eduardo Piza Pellizzer, Daniela Micheline Dos Santos
The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the relationship between two methods used to assess implant stability, investigating whether both provide similar implant stability assessments for the same clinical case. A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE-PubMed and Scopus databases, without limitation publication period, up to November 2015. The following key words were used, with associations among them: "dental implant", "dental implants", "Osstell", "resonance frequency analysis", "implant stability quotient", "ISQ", "Periostest", "Periotest value" and "PTV"...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Fabien Brieuc, Yael Bronstein, Hichem Dammak, Philippe Depondt, Fabio Finocchi, Marc Hayoun
The quantum thermal bath (QTB) has been presented as an alternative to path-integral based methods to introduce nuclear quantum effects in molecular dynamics simulations. The method has proved to be efficient, yielding accurate results for various systems. However, the QTB method is prone to zero-point energy leakage (ZPEL) in highly anharmonic systems. This is a well known problem in methods based on classical trajectories where part of the energy of the high frequency modes is transferred to the low frequency modes leading to a wrong energy distribution...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Hyunglae Lee, Elliott J Rouse, Hermano Igo Krebs
The human ankle joint plays a critical role during walking and understanding the biomechanical factors that govern ankle behavior and provides fundamental insight into normal and pathologically altered gait. Previous researchers have comprehensively studied ankle joint kinetics and kinematics during many biomechanical tasks, including locomotion; however, only recently have researchers been able to quantify how the mechanical impedance of the ankle varies during walking. The mechanical impedance describes the dynamic relationship between the joint position and the joint torque during perturbation, and is often represented in terms of stiffness, damping, and inertia...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
X M Zhou, J P Hu
There are two different records, namely,"vulnerability to dampness in autumn"and"dryness prevailing"in autumn, in the Neijing (Inner Canon). In the Jin and Yuan Dynasties, Liu Wansu supplemented the pathogenesis of dryness pathogen, whereas Wang Andao explained the contradictory records in the Neijing. In the Qing Dynasty, Yu Chang definitely challenged the theory"vulnerability to dampness in autumn"of the Neijing,triggering a debate on the recognition of"drying dampness". In fact, Yu Guopei was the initiator of"theory of drying dampness", who discussed the nature of Yin and Yang of"drying dampness"based on the laws of correspondence between human body and natural environment, elucidating that drying dampness should be the root of both exogenous disease and internal damage, and elaborating the etiology and pathogenesis of"drying dampness", the diagnosis and the nature of the drugs for drying dampness...
July 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
Cheng-Yin Wang, Canek Fuentes-Hernandez, Minseong Yun, Ankit K Singh, Amir Dindar, Sangmoo Choi, Samuel Graham, Bernard Kippelen
We report on top-gate OFETs with a bilayer gate dielectric comprising an Al2O3/HfO2 nanolaminate layer grown by atomic layer deposition and an amorphous fluoropolymer layer (CYTOP). Top-gate OFETs display average carrier mobility values of 0.9 ± 0.2 cm(2)/Vs and threshold voltage values of -1.9 ± 0.5 V and high operational and environmental stability under different environmental conditions such as damp air at 50 °C (80% relative humidity) and prolonged immersion in water at a temperature up to 95 °C.
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Matthew D Parker, Lynette A Jones, Ian W Hunter, A J Taberner, M P Nash, P M F Nielsen
A triaxial force-sensitive microrobot was developed to dynamically perturb skin in multiple deformation modes, in vivo. Wiener static nonlinear identification was used to extract the linear dynamics and static nonlinearity of the force-displacement behavior of skin. Stochastic input forces were applied to the volar forearm and thenar eminence of the hand, producing probe tip perturbations in indentation and extension. Wiener static nonlinear approaches increased the variance accounted for by 0.1 % to 3.4 % over linear approaches, to 94 % to 97 %...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Rosemary Fama, Edith V Sullivan, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Natalie M Zahr
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning and episodic memory impairment occur in HIV infection (HIV) and chronic alcoholism (ALC). Comorbidity of these conditions (HIV + ALC) is prevalent and heightens risk of vulnerability to separate and compounded deficits. Age and disease-related variables can also serve as mediators of cognitive impairment and should be considered, given the extended longevity of HIV-infected individuals in this era of improved pharmacological therapy. METHODS: HIV, ALC, HIV + ALC, and normal controls (NC) were administered traditional and computerized tests of executive function and episodic memory...
October 19, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sa Liu, Yulong Chen, Shiping Xie, Qianlei Xu, Jianshe Chen, Changhai Wang, Zhao Wang, Suna Ma, Xingwei Wu, Ning Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applied in the clinic as a complementary and alternative therapy has helped improve immunity and reduce side effects and symptomatic treatment in patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the mechanisms of TCM syndromes are not clear. Transcriptomics enables the study of such TCM syndromes. DESIGN: This study compared the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of healthy persons and patients with HIV/AIDS who had two common TCM syndromes, qi-yin deficiency and dampness-heat retention, to find the difference in HIV/AIDS with TCM syndromes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Marcus Gadau, Shi-Ping Zhang, Ho-Yin Yip, Wing-Fai Yeung, Zhao-Xiang Bian, Ai-Ping Lu, Chris Zaslawski
BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) uses a sophisticated diagnostic system called pattern differentiation, which allows for the tailor-made treatment of individuals. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the commonly used TCM patterns for lateral elbow pain (LEP), as well as the clinical features associated with these patterns. METHOD: Journal literature in 15 major Chinese and English databases and textbooks from five medical libraries as well as Chinamaxx were reviewed...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
William W Parson
The rates of nonadiabatic electron-transfer reactions depend on four main factors: the probability of finding the system in a conformation in which the reactant and product states have the same energy, the electronic coupling that drives oscillations between the two diabatic states, the dephasing that damps these oscillations, and the vibrational or electronic relaxations that trap the product state by transferring energy to the surroundings. This paper develops a simple expression that combines these factors in a relatively realistic manner...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Yumiao Wei, Yonggui Dong, Xianxiang Huang, Zhili Zhang
In order to measure the nonlinear features of micromechanical resonators, a free damped oscillation method based on stair-stepped frequency sinusoidal pulse excitation is investigated. In the vicinity of the resonant frequency, a frequency stepping sinusoidal pulse sequence is employed as the excitation signal. A set of free vibration response signals, containing different degrees of nonlinear dynamical characteristics, are obtained. The amplitude-frequency curves of the resonator are acquired from the forced vibration signals...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
Cheng Jiang, Yuanshun Cui, Guibin Chen
We explore theoretically the dynamics of an optomechanical system in which a resonantly driven cavity mode is quadratically coupled to the displacement of a mechanical resonator. Considering the first order correction to adiabatic elimination, we obtain the analytical expression of optomechanical damping rate which is negative and depends on the position of the mechanical resonator. After comparing the numerical results between the full simulation of Langevin equations, adiabatic elimination, and first order correction to adiabatic elimination, we explain the dynamics of the system in terms of overall mechanical potential and optomechanical damping rate...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
A A Baker, A I Figueroa, D Pingstone, V K Lazarov, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal
We present a study of the interaction mechanisms in magnetic trilayer structures with an MgO barrier grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The interlayer exchange coupling, Aex, is determined using SQUID magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), displaying an unexpected oscillatory behaviour as the thickness, tMgO, is increased from 1 to 4 nm. Transmission electron microscopy confirms the continuity and quality of the tunnelling barrier, eliminating the prospect of exchange arising from direct contact between the two ferromagnetic layers...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Olga Borovkova, Andrey Kalish, Vladimir Belotelov
We propose a novel method to enhance the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect (TMOKE) in the magneto-plasmonic (MP) nanostructures by means of the active dielectric layer. We report the theoretical analysis of the MP structure with a ferromagnetic dielectric doped with rear-earth ions (Nd<sup>3+</sup>) as the example of a gain layer. The enhancement takes place near the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonances of the nanostructures. The stimulated emission of the dopants in the field of the SPP wave partially compensates its losses...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Tetsuo Nakayama
The humoral and cellular immune responses of adaptive immunity are induced following immunization with effective vaccines. They induce functional cytokines and chemokines through the binding of vaccine components or adjuvants to innate immune receptors. Alum-adjuvanted vaccines induce local inflammatory nodules at injection sites, and the systemic and local production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, has been reported to occur three hours after vaccinations. Furthermore, G-CSF levels increase at injection sites...
October 13, 2016: Vaccine
Jennifer Gamboa Jackman, Hemraj Juwarker, Luke P Poveromo, Howard Levinson, Kam W Leong, Bruce A Sullenger
Dying cells release nucleic acids (NA) and NA-containing complexes that activate inflammatory pathways of immune cells. Sustained activation of these pathways contributes to chronic inflammation frequently encountered in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In this study, grafting of cationic polymers onto a nanofibrous mesh enabled local scavenging of negatively charged pro-inflammatory molecules in the extracellular space. Nucleic acid scavenging nanofibers (NASFs) formed from poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) conjugated with 1...
October 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Xi Fu, Torsten Lindgren, Gunilla Wieslander, Christer Janson, Dan Norbäck
The aim was to study associations between work and home environment and prevalence and incidence of respiratory health and a history of atopy in a 3-y cohort of commercial pilots. A questionnaire was mailed in 1997 to all pilots in a Scandinavian airline company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. The same questionnaire was sent to the participants 3 years later, 436 participated (76%). There were questions on asthma, respiratory symptoms and infections, allergies, the cabin environment, psychosocial environment and the home environment...
2016: PloS One
Janet M Macher, Mark J Mendell, Wenhao Chen, Kazukiyo Kumagai
Subjective indicators of building dampness consistently have been linked to health, but they are, at best, semi-quantitative, and objective and quantitative assessments of dampness are also needed to study dampness-related health effects. Investigators can readily and non-destructively measure the "moisture content" of building materials with hand-held moisture meters. However, moisture content does not indicate the amount of the water in a material that is available to microorganisms for growth, i.e., the "water activity...
October 14, 2016: Indoor Air
Anoosheh Yazdi, Matthias Sperl
We consider a two-dimensional model system of Brownian particles in which slow particles are accelerated while fast particles are damped. The motion of the individual particles is described by a Langevin equation with Rayleigh-Helmholtz velocity-dependent friction. In the case of noninteracting particles, the time evolution equations lead to a non-Gaussian velocity distribution. The velocity-dependent friction allows negative values of the friction or energy intakes by slow particles, which we consider active motion, and also causes breaking of the fluctuation dissipation relation...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
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