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Timotheus Y F Halim, Batika M J Rana, Jennifer A Walker, Bernhard Kerscher, Martin D Knolle, Helen E Jolin, Eva M Serrao, Liora Haim-Vilmovsky, Sarah A Teichmann, Hans-Reimer Rodewald, Marina Botto, Timothy J Vyse, Padraic G Fallon, Zhi Li, David R Withers, Andrew N J McKenzie
The local regulation of type 2 immunity relies on dialog between the epithelium and the innate and adaptive immune cells. Here we found that alarmin-induced expression of the co-stimulatory molecule OX40L on group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) provided tissue-restricted T cell co-stimulation that was indispensable for Th2 and regulatory T (Treg) cell responses in the lung and adipose tissue. Interleukin (IL)-33 administration resulted in organ-specific surface expression of OX40L on ILC2s and the concomitant expansion of Th2 and Treg cells, which was abolished upon deletion of OX40L on ILC2s (Il7raCre/+ Tnfsf4fl/fl mice)...
May 31, 2018: Immunity
Jan Máca, Matúš Peteja, Petr Reimer, Ondřej Jor, Věra Šeděnková, Lucie Panáčková, Peter Ihnát, Michal Burda, Pavel Ševčík
Background: Major abdominal surgery (MAS) is high-risk intervention usually accompanied by tissue injury leading to a release of signaling danger molecules called alarmins. This study evaluates the surgical injury caused by two fundamental types of gastrointestinal surgical procedures (open surgery and laparoscopy) in relation to the inflammation elicited by alarmins. Patients and methods: Patients undergoing MAS were divided into a mixed laparoscopy group (LPS) and an open surgery group (LPT)...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Inna M Yasinska, Isabel Gonçalves Silva, Svetlana S Sakhnevych, Laura Ruegg, Rohanah Hussain, Giuliano Siligardi, Walter Fiedler, Jasmin Wellbrock, Marco Bardelli, Luca Varani, Ulrike Raap, Steffen Berger, Bernhard F Gibbs, Elizaveta Fasler-Kan, Vadim V Sumbayev
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone protein localised in the cell nucleus, where it interacts with DNA and promotes nuclear transcription events. HMGB1 levels are elevated during acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) progression followed by participation of this protein in triggering signalling events in target cells as a pro-inflammatory stimulus. This mechanism was hypothesised to be employed as a survival pathway by malignant blood cells and our aims were therefore to test this hypothesis experimentally...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Julio A Diaz-Perez, Meaghan E Killeen, Yin Yang, Cara D Carey, Louis D Falo, Alicia R Mathers
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease dependent on the IL-23/IL-17 axis, a potent inflammatory pathway involved in pathogen clearance and autoimmunity. Several triggers have been proposed as initiators for psoriasis, including alarmins such as ATP. However, the role of alarmins in psoriasis pathogenesis and cutaneous inflammation has not been well addressed. Herein studies demonstrate that signaling through the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) pathway underlies the development of psoriasiform inflammation. In this regard, psoriasiform dermatitis induced by IL-23 is dependent on P2X7R signaling...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Chloé Michaudel, Isabelle Maillet, Louis Fauconnier, Valérie Quesniaux, Kian Fan Chung, Coen Wiegman, Daniel Peter, Bernhard Ryffel
Air pollution associated with ozone exposure represents a major inducer of respiratory disease in man. In mice, a single ozone exposure causes lung injury with disruption of the respiratory barrier and inflammation. We investigated the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1)-associated cytokines upon a single ozone exposure (1 ppm for 1 h) using IL-1α-, IL-1β-, and IL-18-deficient mice or an anti-IL-1α neutralizing antibody underlying the rapid epithelial cell death. Here, we demonstrate the release of the alarmin IL-1α after ozone exposure and that the acute respiratory barrier injury and inflammation and airway hyperreactivity are IL-1α-dependent...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Traci A Wilgus
Purpose of review: Tissue injury stimulates an inflammatory response that is mediated in part by alarmins. Alarmins are a group of endogenous molecules that trigger inflammation in response to damage. This class of molecules is becoming increasingly recognized for their ability to influence wound healing. This article will provide an overview of alarmins and outline the latest findings on these mediators in cutaneous wound healing. Recent findings: In addition to stimulating inflammatory cells, recent evidence suggests that alarmins can act on other cells in the skin to affect wound closure and the extent of scar tissue production...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
Damian Tworek, Sebastian Majewski, Karolina Szewczyk, Justyna Kiszałkiewicz, Zofia Kurmanowska, Paweł Górski, Ewa Brzeziańska-Lasota, Piotr Kuna, Adam Antczak
BACKGROUND: Interleukin(IL)-33 is an epithelial alarmin important for eosinophil maturation, activation and survival. The aim of this study was to examine the association between IL-33, its receptor expression and airway eosinophilic inflammation in non-atopic COPD. METHODS: IL-33 concentrations were measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collected from healthy non-smokers, asthmatics and non-atopic COPD subjects using ELISA. Serum and sputum samples were collected from healthy non-smokers, healthy smokers and non-atopic COPD patients...
June 1, 2018: Respiratory Research
Matthew G Frank, Laura K Fonken, Samuel D Dolzani, Jessica L Annis, Philip H Siebler, Dominic Schmidt, Linda R Watkins, Steven F Maier, Christopher A Lowry
Exposure to stressors induces anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, which are mediated, in part, by neuroinflammatory processes. Recent findings demonstrate that treatment with the immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory bacterium, Mycobacterium vaccae (M. vaccae), attenuates stress-induced exaggeration of peripheral inflammation and stress-induced anxiety-like behavioral responses. However, the effects of M. vaccae on neuroimmune processes have largely been unexplored. In the present study, we examined the effect of M...
May 25, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
C J Hauser, L E Otterbein
In all multicellular organisms, immediate host responses to both sterile and infective threat are initiated by very primitive systems now grouped together under the general term 'danger responses'. Danger signals are generated when primitive 'pattern recognition receptors' (PRR) encounter activating 'alarmins'. These molecular species may be of pathogenic infective origin (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) or of sterile endogenous origin (danger-associated molecular patterns). There are many sterile and infective alarmins and there is considerable overlap in their ability to activate PRR, but in all cases the end result is inflammation...
May 24, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Serge Grazioli, Jérôme Pugin
Over the recent years, much has been unraveled about the pro-inflammatory properties of various mitochondrial molecules once they are leaving the mitochondrial compartment. On entering the cytoplasm or the extracellular space, mitochondrial DAMPs (also known as mitochondrial alarmins) can become pro-inflammatory and initiate innate and adaptive immune responses by activating cell surface and intracellular receptors. Current evidence indicates that uncontrolled and excessive release of mitochondrial DAMPs is associated with severity, has prognosis value in human diseases, and contributes to the dysregulated process observed in numerous inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, as well as in ischemic heart disease and cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Silvia Uccella, Stefano La Rosa, Debora Scaldaferri, Laura Monti, Roberta Maragliano, Elisa Sorrenti, Marzia Gariboldi, Roberto Taramelli, Fausto Sessa, Francesco Acquati
Ribonuclease T2 (RNASET2) is a pleiotropic and polyfunctional protein, which exerts several different activities in neoplastic cells since the early steps of tumor development. Besides having an antitumorigenic activity, RNASET2 inhibits both bFGF-induced and VEGF-induced angiogenesis and has a role as a stress-response, alarmin-like, protein. In this study, we investigated RNASET2 expression in well-differentiated and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung (Lu-NENs), which are known to show clear-cut differences in morphology, biology and clinical behavior...
May 12, 2018: Human Pathology
C J Boos, C M Lamb, M Midwinter, A Mellor, D R Woods, M Howley, T Stansfield, M Foster, J P O'hara
The binding of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) to the membrane receptor for advanced glycation end-products (mRAGE) is a key early mediator of non-infectious inflammation and its triggers include ischaemia/hypoxia. The effects of acute hypoxia on soluble RAGE (sRAGE) are unknown. Fourteen healthy adults (50% women; 26.6+/-3.8 years) were assessed at baseline normoxia (T0), followed by four time-points (T90, 95, 100 and 180 minutes) over three hours of continuous normobaric hypoxia (NH, 4450m equivalent) and again 60 minutes after return to normoxia (T240)...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
Ruslan Rust, Anna-Sophie Hofer, Martin E Schwab
Patients who survive a stroke have an increased risk for recurrent vascular events. The mechanisms underlying the events are barely understood. A recent study suggests that stroke-enhanced atherosclerosis is induced through brain-released alarmins, which lead to systemic vascular inflammation and plaque formation. Interfering with these processes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches.
May 7, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Sandra Gran, Lisa Honold, Olesja Fehler, Stefanie Zenker, Sarah Eligehausen, Michael T Kuhlmann, Edwin Geven, Martijn van den Bosch, Peter van Lent, Christoph Spiekermann, Sven Hermann, Thomas Vogl, Michael Schäfers, Johannes Roth
Recruitment of leukocytes from the blood to sites of inflammation poses a promising target for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. We aimed to develop a novel method to non-invasively analyze molecular mechanisms of leukocyte migration in pre-clinical models of inflammation in vivo . Methods: We used the ER-HoxB8 system to transiently immortalize murine myeloid precursors from wildtype and CD18- as well as MRP14-deficient mice. A VLA4α-/- cell line was generated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing...
2018: Theranostics
Irene Di Ceglie, Giuliana Ascone, Niels A J Cremers, Annet W Sloetjes, Birgitte Walgreen, Thomas Vogl, Johannes Roth, J Sjef Verbeek, Fons A J van de Loo, Marije I Koenders, Peter M van der Kraan, Arjen B Blom, Martijn H J van den Bosch, Peter L E M van Lent
BACKGROUND: Osteoclast-mediated bone erosion is a central feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Immune complexes, present in a large percentage of patients, bind to Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), thereby modulating the activity of immune cells. In this study, we investigated the contribution of FcγRs, and FcγRIV in particular, during antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). METHODS: AIA was induced in knee joints of wild-type (WT), FcγRI,II,III-/- , and FcγRI,II,III,IV-/- mice...
May 2, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Eleonora Di Salvo, Elvira Ventura-Spagnolo, Marco Casciaro, Michele Navarra, Sebastiano Gangemi
Cytokines play an important role in the regulation of the immune system (adaptive and innate). Given their importance in proinflammatory processes, cytokines have been used for understanding the pathogenesis and as biomarkers in many diseases. IL-31 and IL-33 are still considered novel cytokines. IL-31 controls signalling and regulates a huge amount of biological functions: it induces proinflammatory cytokines, regulates cell proliferation, and is involved also in tissue remodelling. On the other hand, IL-33 has been identified as an "alarmin" released from the epithelial cells and from different human tissues and organs after a damage following, that is, an inflammatory process...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Monojit Debnath, Madhu Nagappa, Pinku Mani Talukdar, Manjula Subbanna, P Sundaravadivel, Venkataram Shivakumar, Debprasad Dutta, Rahul Wahatule, Sanjib Sinha, Parayil Sankaran Bindu, Sundar Periyavan, G S Umamaheswara Rao, Arun B Taly
Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS) is one of the commonest acquired immune-mediated neuropathies, often preceded by infections. Although cellular immune responses are shown to substantially account for the pathophysiology of GBS, the precise mechanistic basis of risk and disease course remains enigmatic till date. Cytokines are best known for their abilities to drive cellular immunity and inflammation through their co-ordinated actions. Data obtained from clinical and animal model studies suggest important implications of some of the cytokines in the progression and recovery of GBS...
April 25, 2018: Cytokine
Jan Maca, Michal Holub, Filip Bursa, Peter Ihnat, Petr Reimer, Zdenek Svagera, Michal Burda, Pavel Sevcik
The dysregulation of inflammatory response to surgical injury affects outcomes. Alarmins, the earliest bioactive substances from damaged cells, play a crucial role in initiating the inflammation. We analyzed serum levels of alarmins (S100A8, S100A12, high mobility group box, and heat shock protein 70) after major abdominal surgery (MAS) in surgical (S) (n = 82) and nonsurgical (NS) groups (n = 35). The main objective was determining a role of selected alarmins in host response to MAS. The secondary objectives were (i) evaluation of the relationship among alarmins and selected biomarkers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), (ii) influence of the place of gastrointestinal resection, and (iii) role of alarmins in MAS for cancer...
February 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Young Min Kim, Eun Jung Park, Hye Jung Kim, Ki Churl Chang
Excessive inflammation plays a detrimental role in endotoxemia. A recent study indicated that alarmins such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) have drawn attention as therapeutic targets of sepsis. Post-translational modification (i.e., acetylation of lysine residues) of HMGB1 leads to the release of HMGB1 into the cellular space, operating as a warning signal that induces inflammation. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been shown to negatively regulate HMGB1 hyperacetylation and its extracellular release in sepsis. Therefore, we hypothesized that the S-nitrosylation (SNO) of SIRT1 may disrupt the ability of SIRT1 to negatively regulate the hyperacetylation of HMGB1...
June 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Andrew P Fontenot
Metal-induced hypersensitivity is driven by T-cell sensitization to metal ions. Although numerous metals are associated with the development of diffuse parenchymal lung disease, beryllium-induced hypersensitivity is the best-studied to date. This review focuses on the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity that leads to the development of chronic beryllium disease. After beryllium exposure, activation of the innate immune system occurs through the engagement of pattern-recognition receptors. This activation leads to cell death, release of alarmins, and activation and migration of dendritic cells to lung-draining lymph nodes...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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