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Karin B Michels, Alexandra M Binder
The number of epigenetic studies is exponentially increasing. There is anticipation that DNA methylation may close gaps in our understanding of disease etiology, and how certain risk factors affect health and disease, but also that it has potential as a biomarker for disease. Human DNA methylation studies require careful considerations for design and analysis including population and tissue selection, population stratification, cell heterogeneity, confounding, temporality, sample size, appropriate statistical analysis, and validation of results...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Julia Forstenpointner, Violetta C Oberlojer, Dennis Naleschinski, Johanna Höper, Stephanie M Helfert, Andreas Binder, Janne Gierthmühlen, Ralf Baron
Cold hyperalgesia is a common side effect of oxaliplatin treatment; still the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms as well as the contribution of different primary afferent fiber systems are unclear. Therefore, patients with oxaliplatin-induced acute neuropathy with (n=6) and without (n=7) cold hyperalgesia were tested by applying a preferential blockade of peripheral myelinated A-fiber afferents in combination with quantitative sensory testing. Additionally, an interview-based questionnaire assessed the severity of symptoms and the impact on daily activities...
December 9, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Andreas Troester, Fabian Schmitz, Peter Virnau, Kurt Binder
In a theoretical description of homogeneous nucleation one frequently assumes an ``equilibrium'' coexistence of a liquid droplet with surrounding vapor of a density exceeding that of a saturated vapor at bulk vapor-liquid two-phase coexistence. Thereby one ignores the caveat that in the thermodynamic limit, for which the vapor would be called supersaturated, such states will at best be metastable with finite lifetime, and thus not be well-defined within equilibrium statistical mechanics. In contrast, in a system of finite volume stable equilibrium coexistence of droplet and supersaturated vapor at constant total density is perfectly possible, and numerical analysis of equilibrium free energies of finite systems allows to obtain physically relevant results...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Hanting Tang, Jinlong Yang, Guangxing Zhang, Chaokun Liu, Han Wang, Qinghe Zhao, Jiangtao Hu, Yandong Duan, Feng Pan
Functional porous carbon materials are widely used to solve the low conductivity and shuttle effect of Li-S batteries; however, the common carbon/sulfur composite electrodes based on traditional technology (with conducting agents and binders) make it difficult for a battery to work stably at an ultra-high sulfur loading of 10 mg cm-2. Herein, an appropriate content of sulfur was injected into a pomegranate-like structure self-assembled with nanohollows (PSSN) of N-graphene. The Li-PSSN/S battery based on traditional technology displays a large-capacity, high-rate and long-life at an ultra-high areal-sulfur loading of 10...
December 8, 2017: Nanoscale
Jaya Jethra Chawla, Devendra Arora, Namrita Sandhu, Megha Jain, Anju Kumari
Separation of pubic symphysis during delivery is a rare complication resulting in considerable and prolonged morbidity for parturient women. The usual presentation is that of something giving way in the region of the symphysis pubis sometimes with an audible crack at the time of delivery. Unbearable pain on moving from side-to-side and on performing any weight-bearing activity (such as walking or climbing stairs) precludes ambulation in the immediate postpartum period. This could be accompanied by disruption of the sacroiliac joint, hemorrhage, or urine incontinence in severe cases...
November 2017: Oman Medical Journal
Hui Chen, Chunxiao Wang, Moci Qi, Lihua Ge, Zhenchuan Tian, Jinhua Li, Min Zhang, Min Wang, Linfang Huang, Xiaofei Tang
Objective: To explore whether Rhaponticum uniflorum (R. uniflorum) had anti-tumor effects in oral cancer and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in these anti-tumor effects. Methods: Chemical compositions of R. uniflorum ethyl acetate (RUEA) extracts were detected by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-Q/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS), followed by pharmacology-based network prediction analysis. The effects of RUEA extracts on proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion ability of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line SCC15 were evaluated by CCK8 assay, Annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, wound healing assay, and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sota Yagi, Satoshi Akanuma, Akihiko Yamagishi
Designing novel protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with high affinity is a challenging task. Directed evolution, a combination of randomization of the gene for the protein of interest and selection using a display technique, is one of the most powerful tools for producing a protein binder. However, the selected proteins often bind to the target protein at an undesired surface. More problematically, some selected proteins bind to their targets even though they are unfolded. Current state-of-the-art computational design methods have successfully created novel protein binders...
December 6, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
Frederikus A Klok, Walter Ageno, Stefano Barco, Harald Binder, Benjamin Brenner, Daniel Duerschmied, Klaus Empen, Pompilio Faggiano, Joachim H Ficker, Nazzareno Galiè, Alexandre Ghuysen, Matthias Held, Nadine Heydenreich, Menno V Huisman, David Jiménez, Matija Kozak, Irene M Lang, Mareike Lankeit, Thomas Münzel, Antoniu Petris, Piotr Pruszczyk, Kurt Quitzau, Sebastian Schellong, Kai-Helge Schmidt, Branislav S Stefanovic, Franck Verschuren, Anamaria Wolf-Puetz, Guy Meyer, Stavros V Konstantinides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Sara B Pillay, William L Gross, William W Graves, Colin Humphries, Diane S Book, Jeffrey R Binder
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the neural basis of recovery from stroke is a major research goal. Many functional neuroimaging studies have identified changes in brain activity in people with aphasia, but it is unclear whether these changes truly support successful performance or merely reflect increased task difficulty. We addressed this problem by examining differences in brain activity associated with correct and incorrect responses on an overt reading task. On the basis of previous proposals that semantic retrieval can assist pronunciation of written words, we hypothesized that recruitment of semantic areas would be greater on successful trials...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Iontcho R Vlahov, Longwu Qi, Paul J Kleindl, Hari K Santhapuram, Albert Felten, Garth L Parham, Kevin Wang, Fei You, Jeremy F Vaughn, Spencer J Hahn, Hanna F Klein, Marilynn Vetzel, Joseph A Reddy, Melissa Nelson, Jeff Nicoson, Christopher P Leamon
Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) and their dimers (bis-PBDs) have emerged as some of the most potent chemotherapeutic compounds, and are currently under development as novel payloads in antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). However, when used as stand-alone therapeutics or as warheads for small molecule drug conjugates (SMDCs), dose-limiting toxicities are often observed. As an elegant solution to this inherent problem, we designed diazepine-ring-opened conjugated prodrugs lacking the imine moiety. Once the prodrug (pro-PBD) conjugate enters a targeted cell, cleavage of the linker system triggers the generation of a reactive intermediate possessing an aldehyde and aromatic amine...
December 6, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Kwok L Chung, Chunwei Zhang, Yuanyuan Li, Li Sun, Mohamed Ghannam
This research article presents dual-frequency correlation models for predicting the growth of elasticity and flexural strength of engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) using microwave nondestructive inspection technique. Parallel measurements of microwave properties and mechanical properties of ECC specimens were firstly undertaken in the sense of cross-disciplinary experiments. Regression models were developed via means of nonlinear regression to the measured data. The purpose of the study is: (i) to monitor the flexural strength and elasticity growth; and (ii) to predict their mature values under the influence of different initial water contents, via microwave effective conductance at early ages...
December 6, 2017: Sensors
Andrea Astolfi, Giuseppe Manfroni, Violetta Cecchetti, Maria Letizia Barreca
We herein review all the currently available PDB ATP-site and non-ATP-site ligands bound to p38α MAPK. The co-crystallized inhibitors have been classified into different families according to their experimental binding mode and chemical structure, and the ligand-protein interactions discussed using the most representative compounds. This systematic structural analysis could provide take-home lessons for drug discovery programs aimed at the rational identification and optimization of new p38α MAPK inhibitors...
December 6, 2017: ChemMedChem
Andreas Picker, Luc Nicoleau, Zaklina Burghard, Joachim Bill, Igor Zlotnikov, Christophe Labbez, André Nonat, Helmut Cölfen
Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is the binder in concrete, the most used synthetic material in the world. The main weakness of concrete is the lack of elasticity and poor flexural strength considerably limiting its potential, making reinforcing steel constructions necessary. Although the properties of C-S-H could be significantly improved in organic hybrids, the full potential of this approach could not be reached because of the random C-S-H nanoplatelet structure. Taking inspiration from a sea urchin spine with highly ordered nanoparticles in the biomineral mesocrystal, we report a bioinspired route toward a C-S-H mesocrystal with highly aligned C-S-H nanoplatelets interspaced with a polymeric binder...
November 2017: Science Advances
Yueqiang Yu, Yanling Guo, Ting Jiang, Jian Li, Kaiyi Jiang, Hui Zhang
To alleviate resource shortage, reduce the cost of materials consumption and the pollution of agricultural and forestry waste, walnut shell composites (WSPC) consisting of walnut shell as additive and copolyester hot melt adhesive (Co-PES) as binder was developed as the feedstock of selective laser sintering (SLS). WSPC parts with different ingredient proportions were fabricated by SLS and processed through after-treatment technology. The density, mechanical properties and surface quality of WSPC parts before and after post processing were analyzed via formula method, mechanical test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively...
December 2, 2017: Materials
Francesca Gabrieli, Kathryn A Dooley, Jason G Zeibel, James D Howe, John Delaney
Microscale mid-infrared (mid-IR) imaging spectroscopy is used for mapping chemical functional groups. The extension to macroscale imaging requires either the mid-IR radiation reflected off or emitted by the object be greater than the radiation from the thermal background. Reflectance spectra can be obtained using an active IR source to increase the amount of radiation reflected off the object, but rapid heating >4 C can occur, a problem for paintings. Rather than using an active source, by placing a highly reflective tube between the painting and camera and introducing a low temperature source, thermal radiation from the room can be reduced, allowing the IR radiation emitted by the painting to dominate...
December 4, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Marangelie Criado-Marrero, Theo Rein, Elisabeth B Binder, James T Porter, John Koren, Laura J Blair
Mood disorders affect nearly a quarter of the world's population. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these conditions is of great importance. FK-506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) encodes the FKBP51 protein, a heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) co-chaperone, and is a risk factor for several affective disorders. FKBP51, in coordination with Hsp90, regulates glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity via a short negative feedback loop. This signalling pathway rapidly restores homeostasis in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following stress...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Matthew S Binder, Joaquin N Lugo
Objective: The goal of this study was to identify changes in quantitative and qualitative aspects of neonatal ultrasonic vocalizations USVs in neuron-subset specific (NS-Pten) knockout males and females when compared with wild-type male and female mice. Background: One signaling cascade that plays a crucial role in the development of an autistic-like phenotype is the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Mouse models that illustrate this connection include Fmr1, Tsc1, and NS-Pten-deficient mice...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
Masaki Takahashi
High affinity binders targeting specific cell surface proteins are vital for developing basic and applied biosciences. However, despite sustained efforts to generate such binders by chemicals and antibodies, there are still many cell surface proteins that lack high affinity binders. Nucleic acids, referred to as aptamers, appear to be potential binders to capture cell surface proteins because single-strand DNA/RNA can form distinct structures of high affinity and specificity to a wide range of targets. Aptamers are isolated from large combinatorial libraries using a unique iterative selection-amplification process known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX)...
November 30, 2017: Biochimie
James A C Fagg, Mehool R Acharya, Tim J S Chesser, Anthony J Ward
AIMS: To determine the effectiveness of 'binder-off' plain pelvic radiographs in the assessment of pelvic ring injuries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients requiring operative intervention at our tertiary referral pelvic unit/major trauma centre for high-energy pelvic injuries between April 2012 and December 2014 were retrospectively identified. Pre-operative pelvic imaging with and without pelvic binder was reviewed with respect to fracture pattern and pelvic stability...
November 21, 2017: Injury
Luisa Calvanese, Andrea Caporale, Giuseppina Focà, Emanuela Iaccarino, Annamaria Sandomenico, Nunzianna Doti, Ivana Apicella, Giuseppina Maria Incisivo, Sandro De Falco, Lucia Falcigno, Gabriella D'Auria, Menotti Ruvo
Pharmacological strategies aimed at preventing cancer growth are in most cases paralleled by diagnostic investigations for monitoring and prognosticating therapeutic efficacy. A relevant approach in cancer is the suppression of pathological angiogenesis, which is principally driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or closely related factors and by activation of specific receptors, prevailingly VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, set on the surface of endothelial cells. Monitoring the presence of these receptors in vivo is henceforth a way to predict therapy outcome...
December 2, 2017: Amino Acids
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