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AK amputee

Abdullah Bin Saeed, Usama Bin Saeed, Muhammad Zain-Ur-Rehman, Rana Dawood Ahmad Khan, Ajmal Yasin
BACKGROUND: More than 100,000 major lower extremity amputations -- amputations at the metatarsal, below-knee or above-knee level -- are performed yearly in the United States. Despite improvements in long-term outcome, operative mortality following such amputations has remained stable at 9% to 10% over the last 20 years. Several predictors for functional outcome of amputee patients are mentioned in the literature. OBJECTIVES: The current study was planned to assess the impact of comorbidities on functional status after lower extremity amputations...
November 2015: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Fan Zhang, Ming Liu, He Huang
Recent studies have reported various methods that recognize amputees' intent regarding locomotion modes, which is potentially useful for volitional control of powered artificial legs. However, occasional errors in locomotion mode recognition are inevitable. When these intent recognition decisions are used for volitional prosthesis control, the effects of the decision errors on the operation of the prosthesis and user's task performance is unknown. Hence, the goals of this study were to 1) systematically investigate the effects of locomotion mode recognition errors on volitional control of powered prosthetic legs and the user's gait stability, and 2) identify the critical mode recognition errors that impact safe and confident use of powered artificial legs in lower limb amputees...
January 2015: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Fan Gao, Fan Zhang, He Huang
The objective of this pilot study is twofold: 1) to extract key factors/features in sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit (STS) performed by an above knee (AK) amputee; 2) to propose a convenient way to quantify symmetry. One male unilateral transfemoral amputee participated in the pilot study. The subject was instructed to rise in a comfortable and natural manner and conduct a series of sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit. We simultaneously measured kinematics, kinetics and muscle activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimension and identify modes and a convenient index of STS symmetry (slope of the major axis of the error ellipse) is proposed using the insole pressure sensors...
2011: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
J Kulkarni, S Pande, J Morris
BACKGROUND: To assess the 5-year and 10-year survival rates of major (above ankle disarticulation level) dysvascular lower limb amputees attending a sub-regional Disablement Services Centre (DSC) specialising in amputee rehabilitation. Also to investigate the association between survival rates, cause of dysvascularity, level of amputation, smoking status and occupational status. SETTING: The study was undertaken in sub-regional DSC for amputee rehabilitation covering a base population of about 3...
2006: International Journal of Surgery
H H Wetz, U Hafkemeyer, B Drerup
The C-Leg microprocessor-controlled knee-shin system for the above-knee amputees is introduced as a dramatic improvement over all other prosthetic knees. This is due to its combination of on-board microprocessor and the hydraulic controls acting both on the swing and stance phase. A more secure, natural and efficient gait is expected. Following the recommendations of Otto Bock the indications for the prescription of the C-leg are: Amputees with mobility level "able to walk outdoors without limitations" (AK3) and "able to walk outdoors without limitations plus engage in high performance activities" (AK4) if they face at least one extra obstacle as listed in the Otto Bock catalogue of indications...
April 2005: Der Orthopäde
V Michel, R K Y Chong
We used the framework of motor program adaptability to examine how unilateral above-knee (AK) or below-knee (BK) amputee subjects organize the global and local biomechanical processes of generation of the propulsive forces during gait initiation to overcome the segmental and neuro-muscular asymmetry. The organization of the global biomechanical process refers to the kinematics behavior of the couple center of foot pressure (CoP) and center of mass (CoM); the organization of the local biomechanical process refers to the propulsive forces generated by the prosthetic or intact limb during the anticipatory postural adjustment phase and the step execution phase...
October 2004: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
E Eskelinen, A Eskelinen, T Hyytinen, A Jaakkola
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is rather limited recent information on major amputations in Finland. Our objective was to describe the incidence of major lower limb amputations in a defined central hospital, the demographic characteristics of the amputees, diagnosis and situations leading to amputation, level of amputations and survival of the amputees after one year. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken on 156 patients with 169 lower limb major amputations from 1997 to 2000 at the Seinäjoki Central Hospital and Ahtäri District Hospital...
2001: Annales Chirurgiae et Gynaecologiae
Lambert Aw, Dashfield Ak, C Cosgrove, Wilkins Dc, Walker Aj, S Ashley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acute stump pain and phantom limb pain after amputation is a significant problem among amputees with a reported incidence of phantom limb pain in the first year following amputation as high as 70%. Epidural analgesia before limb amputation is commonly used to reduce postamputation acute stump pain in the immediate postoperative period and phantom pain in the first year. We investigated whether immediate postamputation stump pain and phantom pain in the first year is reduced by preoperative epidural block with bupivacaine and diamorphine compared with intraoperative placement of a perineural catheter infusing bupivacaine...
July 2001: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
L Tesio, D Lanzi, C Detrembleur
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the motion of the centre of gravity (CG) of the body during gait in unilateral lower limb amputees with good kinematic patterns. DESIGN: Three transtibial (below-knee, BK) and four transfemoral (above-knee, AK) amputees were required to perform successive walks over a 2.4 m long force plate, at freely chosen cadence and speed. BACKGROUND: In previous studies it has been shown that in unilateral lower limb amputee gait, the motion of the CG can be more asymmetric than might be suspected from kinematic analysis...
March 1998: Clinical Biomechanics
J Dormandy, L Heeck, S Vig
The major amputation rate is approximately 200 to 500/million/yr and occurs in patients presenting with an acute onset of critical leg ischemia (CLI) rather than in patients who steadily progress through increasingly severe claudication to rest pain and ulcers. Diabetics, who form only 2% to 5% of the population, form 40% to 45% of all amputees. Although it is widely believed that a below-knee (BK) to above-knee (AK) amputation ratio of 2.5 is the minimum acceptable for units providing a lower limb amputation service, the ratio is in fact usually very much below the recommended figure...
June 1999: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
M Aftabuddin, N Islam, M A Jafar, I Haque
We conducted a review of 450 single lower-limb amputations performed in our hospital in Bangladesh between July 1982 and June 1987. The incidence of amputation in the specific area of 1000000 inhabitants covered by the hospital was 0.75/10(3) per year. The indications for amputation were: limb ischemia in 366 patients (81%), traumatic crush injury in 45 (10%), diabetes-associated complications in 20 (5%), severe limb infection in 10 (2%), and neoplasm growth in 10 (2%). The ratio of above-knee (AK) to below-knee (BK) amputation was 1:65, and 36 patients (8%) required reamputation, 22 of whom had undergone BK amputation previously...
1997: Surgery Today
S A Weiss, B Lindell
The relationships between phantom limb pain and both the etiology of amputation (blood clots, nonclot diabetes, and miscellaneous) and the occurrence of gangrene and/or infection were investigated in 92 unilateral lower extremity (LE) amputees who were seen sequentially. There were 55 above-knee (AK) and 37 below-knee (BK) amputations in 61 men and 31 women. The mean age was 51.4 years. The blood-clot etiology had the highest levels of phantom pain both pre- and postrehabilitation, the longest time interval between amputation and prosthetic fitting, and the greatest number of medical conditions...
January 1996: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
C P Stewart, A S Jain
The Dundee Limb Fitting Centre has provided an integrated rehabilitation programme for the amputee since 1965. A review of 1846 primary amputees is discussed. During this period a dramatic change in the above-knee/below-knee (AK/BK) ratio has been achieved with 71% BK and 26% AK occurring in 1989. Over 80% of all amputees, the majority being elderly with peripheral vascular disease, were successfully fitted with a prosthesis. Final discharge home or to a residential home for the elderly was achieved in 76.2% of cases with 3...
April 1993: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
H H Wetz, H A Jacob
Stance- and swing-phase control of AK prostheses due to the development of new knee joint mechanics has been frequently discussed in the recent past. The functional anatomical principles of the thigh muscles will be presented, including the results of the most recent neurophysiological and biomechanical investigations. These conclusions lead to the discovery of obvious consequences in the modification of the above-knee amputation technique such as the fitting of AK prostheses.
May 1994: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Ihre Grenzgebiete
S F Kurdibaylo
Two hundred and thirty subjects with various levels of upper and lower limb amputation were examined with regard to cardiac and respiratory functions. The subjects were examined at rest and in balanced wheelchair ergometer testing. Noncontinuous step-by-step increased loading was performed. The data given are for age-group 20-40 who sustained traumatic amputation and suffered no prior respiratory or circulatory disease. Subjects after above-knee (AK), bilateral AK or AK plus below-knee amputation) showed a loss of the reaction of an adequate systolic output rise in wheelchair ergometer testing...
August 1994: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
A Gitter, J Czerniecki, K Weaver
Above-knee (AK) amputation substantially increases the metabolic cost of ambulation. Although the biomechanical mechanisms contributing to the increase have not been well studied, it has been assumed that altered center-of-mass (COM) kinematics and increased mechanical work account for the adverse effect on oxygen consumption. To understand better the relationship between mechanical work and the metabolic cost, 8 normal subjects and 8 traumatic AK amputees were studied during overground ambulation. Using segmental energy and inverse dynamics analyses, trunk COM excursion, the mechanical work associated with movement of the COM, and the work done by the major lower limb sagittal plane muscle groups were determined...
September 1995: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Z Susak, A Gaspar, T Najenson
The vascular status of 14 below-knee (BK) amputee patients and 12 above-knee (AK) amputee patients who had undergone amputation for arterial occlusive disease was assessed with the Doppler ultrasound technique. Ten healthy subjects were investigated as a control group. The ankle-arm pressure index in the sound leg and thigh-arm pressure index in the stump were classified in 4 grades. Rehabilitation was graded according to the amputee patients' ability to use their prostheses. The vascular condition of the BK amputees was generally better than that of the AK amputees...
June 1980: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
K Koike, Y Ishikura, S Kakurai, T Imamura
The conventional total contact suction AK prosthesis presents several disadvantages, such as difficulty in wearing the socket in a sitting position, difficulty in obtaining a favourable disposition of the stump soft tissues in the socket and difficulty in avoiding stump perspiration problems. In an attempt to solve these disadvantages, a new AK prosthesis with a thermoplastic double socket was developed at the Tokyo Metropolitan Rehabilitation Center for the Physically and Mentally Handicapped. The double socket is composed of an external socket attached to the lower parts and a detachable internal socket, and appears to solve all the disadvantages of the conventional prosthesis...
December 1981: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
T Mandrup-Poulsen, J S Jensen
Major amputations were performed on 310 patients because of gangrene of the lower limb. The mean age was 70 years and 58 per cent of the patients were males. Females were on average 5 years older. The primary levels of amputation were above-knee (AK) in 33 per cent (103/310), through-knee (TK) in 21 per cent (66/310) and below-knee (BK) in 46 per cent (141/310). Mortality during hospitalization was 18 per cent and the average hospitalization time 68 days. Mortality during hospital stay was primarily dependent on the occurrence of somatic complications, secondarily on the level of the amputation (as an expression of the extent of the gangrene) and finally on the age of the patient...
December 1982: Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica
A Cappozzo, F Figura, F Gazzani, T Leo, M Marchetti
The angular displacements of the longitudinal axis of the trunk, and of the latero-lateral axes of pelvis and shoulder girdle were measured in five normal subjects and four AK amputees during level walking at different speeds. Amputees used single axis prostheses with the SACH foot. Spatial measurements were carried out in three dimensions by means of a photogrammetric technique. The time functions of the target angles underwent harmonic analysis. Based on the Fourier coefficients, comparison was made between normal subjects' and amputees' angular displacements...
December 1982: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
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