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Megan Quinn, Sheila Gephart
BACKGROUND: Palliative care is a holistic framework that is designed to improve quality of life by identifying and treating distressing symptoms of life-threatening or complex conditions. Neonatal palliative care (NPC) has potential benefits for parents, staff, and patients, yet evidence suggests that implementation and utilization of organized NPC services are low. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to answer the clinical question: In neonatal intensive care, what evidence can be used to guide implementation of palliative care protocols? SEARCH STRATEGY: A literature search was conducted using CINAHL (Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature), PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases...
October 22, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
So Youn Park, Ivo Kwon, In Hwan Oh
When thinking about priority setting in access to healthcare resources, decision-making requires that cost-effectiveness is balanced against medical ethics. The burden of disease has emerged as an important approach to the assessment of health needs for political decision-making. However, the disability adjusted life years approach hides conceptual and methodological issues regarding the claims and value of disabled people. In this article, we discuss ethical issues that are raised as a consequence of the introduction of evidence-based health policy, such as economic evidence, in establishing resource allocation priorities...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Adewumi Adediran, Modu Baba Kagu, Tamunomieibi Wakama, Aliyu Ahmadu Babadoko, Dapus Obadiah Damulak, Sunday Ocheni, Marcus Inyama Asuquo
Background. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is an inherited condition whose clinical manifestations arise from the tendency of haemoglobin to polymerize and deform red blood cells into characteristic sickle shape. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation offers a cure. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness, knowledge, and acceptance of this beneficial procedure in Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 tertiary hospitals in Nigeria in 2015. Approval was obtained from each institution's research and ethics committee...
2016: Bone Marrow Research
J Bradley Segal
Certain genes and neurobiology ('neurogenetics') may predispose some people to violent behavior. Increasingly, defendants introduce neurogenetic evidence as a mitigating factor during criminal sentencing. Identifying the cause of a criminal act, biological or otherwise, does not necessarily preclude moral or legal liability. However, valid scientific evidence of an inherited proclivity sometimes should be considered when evaluating whether a defendant is less morally culpable for a crime and perhaps less deserving of punishment...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Emily A Largent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
John A Robertson
The birth of a child after uterus transplant from a living donor in Sweden in October, 2013 has spurred reproductive and transplant physicians in Europe and North America to investigate whether uterus transplants, from living or cadaveric donors, will be a safe and effective therapy for women with uterine insufficiency. While progress with uterus transplant depends on medical factors, there are also important ethical and legal concerns. Uterus transplant is essential for women without access to surrogacy. It may also be sought by infertile women who dislike surrogacy...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Anna Wexler
Several recent articles have called for the regulation of consumer transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) devices, which provide low levels of electrical current to the brain. However, most of the discussion to-date has focused on ethical or normative considerations; there has been a notable absence of scholarship regarding the actual legal framework in the United States. This article aims to fill that gap by providing a pragmatic analysis of the consumer tDCS market and relevant laws and regulations...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Leslie Meltzer Henry, Megan E Larkin, Elizabeth R Pike
Biomedical research, no matter how well designed and ethically conducted, carries uncertainties and exposes participants to risk of injury. Research injuries can range from the relatively minor to those that result in hospitalization, permanent disability, or even death. Participants might also suffer a range of economic harms related to their injuries. Unlike the vast majority of developed countries, which have implemented no-fault compensation systems, the United States continues to rely on the tort system to compensate injured research participants-an approach that is no longer morally defensible...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Yang Rao, Jihong Cui, Lu Yin, Wei Liu, Wenguang Liu, Mei Sun, Xingrong Yan, Ling Wang, Fulin Chen
BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem cell (ESC) derivatives hold great promise for the construction of tissue-engineered skin equivalents (TESE). However, harvesting of ESCs destroys viable embryos and may lead to political and ethical concerns over their application. In the current study, we directed mouse parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) to differentiate into fibroblasts, constructed TESE, and evaluated its function in vivo. METHODS: The stemness marker expression and the pluripotent differentiation ability of pESCs were tested...
October 22, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jie Meng, Lijing Zhu, Li Zhu, Huanhuan Wang, Song Liu, Jing Yan, Baorui Liu, Yue Guan, Yun Ge, Jian He, Zhengyang Zhou, Xiaofeng Yang
BACKGROUND: To explore the role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram shape related parameters in early assessment of treatment response during the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) course of advanced cervical cancers. METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-two patients with advanced cervical squamous cell carcinomas underwent diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (b values, 0 and 800 s/mm(2)) before CCRT, at the end of 2nd and 4th week during CCRT and immediately after CCRT completion...
October 22, 2016: Radiation Oncology
Francis Barchi, Madison T Little
BACKGROUND: Ethical and regulatory guidance on the collection and use of human biospecimens (HBS) for research forms an essential component of national health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rapid advances in genetic- and genomic-based technologies are fueling clinical trials involving HBS and the establishment of large-scale biobanks. METHODS: An extensive multi-level search for publicly available ethics regulatory guidance was conducted for each SSA country...
October 22, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Emily F M Fitzpatrick, Alexandra L C Martiniuk, Heather D'Antoine, June Oscar, Maureen Carter, Elizabeth J Elliott
BACKGROUND: When conducting research with Indigenous populations consent should be sought from both individual participants and the local community. We aimed to search and summarise the literature about methods for seeking consent for research with Indigenous populations. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted for articles that describe or evaluate the process of seeking informed consent for research with Indigenous participants. Guidelines for ethical research and for seeking consent with Indigenous people are also included in our review...
October 22, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Minoo Heidari Kani, Eng-Cheng Chan, Roger C Young, Trent Butler, Roger Smith, Jonathan W Paul
Research insights into uterine function and the mechanisms of labour have been hindered by the lack of suitable animal and cellular models. The use of traditional culturing methods limits the exploration of complex uterine functions, such as cell interactions, connectivity and contractile behaviour, as it fails to mimic the three-dimensional (3D) nature of uterine cell interactions in vivo. Animal models are an option, however, use of these models is constrained by ethical considerations as well as translational limitations to humans...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
C H Wong, T R Tan, H Y Heng Hy, T Ramesh, P W Ting, W S Lee, C L Teng, N Sivalingam, K K Tan
INTRODUCTION: Open disclosure is poorly understood in Malaysia but is an ethical and professional responsibility. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the perception of parents regarding the severity of medical error in relation to medication use or diagnosis; (2) the preference of parents for information following the medical error and its relation to severity; and (3) the preference of parents with regards to disciplinary action, reporting, and legal action. METHODS: We translated and contextualised a questionnaire developed from a previous study...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Laura Prieto-Borja, Graciela Rodriguez-Sevilla, Alvaro Auñon, Concepción Pérez-Jorge, Enrique Sandoval, Joaquín Garcia-Cañete, Ignacio Gadea, Ricardo Fernandez-Roblas, Antonio Blanco, Jaime Esteban
BACKGROUND: The development of sonication protocols over the last few years has improved the sensitivity of conventional cultures for the diagnosis of prosthetic-joint infection (PJI). However, the development of a new, specifically designed kit for the molecular diagnosis of PJI could provide a major improvement in this field. METHODS: Prostheses retrieved from patients who underwent implant removal from May 2014 to May 2015 were sent for culture, and processed according to a previously defined protocol that included sonication...
October 18, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Sayani Mitra, Silke Schicktanz
BACKGROUND: During a commercial surrogacy arrangement, the event of embryo transfer can be seen as the formal starting point of the arrangement. However, it is common for surrogates to undergo a failed attempt at pregnancy conception or missed conception after an embryo transfer. This paper attempts to argue that such failed attempts can be understood as a loss. It aims to reconstruct the experiences of loss and grief of the surrogates and the intended parents as a consequence of their collective failure to conceive a surrogate pregnancy...
September 19, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Eri Maeda, Takahiro Higashi, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Susumu Yokoya, Takahiro Mochizuki, Tomohiro Ishii, Junko Ito, Susumu Kanzaki, Akira Shimatsu, Koji Takano, Toshihiro Tajima, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Yusuke Tanahashi, Akira Teramoto, Toshiro Nagai, Kunihiko Hanew, Reiko Horikawa, Toru Yorifuji, Naohiro Wada, Toshiaki Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Treatment costs for children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency are subsidized by the government in Japan if the children meet clinical criteria, including height limits (boys: 156.4 cm; girls: 145.4 cm). However, several funding programs, such as a subsidy provided by local governments, can be used by those who exceed the height limits. In this study, we explored the impacts of financial support on GH treatment using this natural allocation. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 696 adolescent patients (451 boys and 245 girls) who reached the height limits was conducted...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Fabrice Kwiatkowski, Pascal Dessenne, Claire Laquet, Jean-Pierre Daures, Mathilde Gay-Bellile, Yves-Jean Bignon
BACKGROUND: Young women exposed to a high hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) risk are particularly vulnerable. They are ignored by health prevention measures but exposed to a stream of contradictory information (medicine, media, Internet). They may feel concerned about surgical prevention issues at a key moment of their identity construction (self, relationship, sexuality). We designed a special psychoeducational intervention to help these women cope better with these difficulties...
October 21, 2016: Trials
David J Pulford, Philipp Harter, Anne Floquet, Catherine Barrett, Dong Hoon Suh, Michael Friedlander, José Angel Arranz, Kosei Hasegawa, Hiroomi Tada, Peter Vuylsteke, Mansoor R Mirza, Nicoletta Donadello, Giovanni Scambia, Toby Johnson, Charles Cox, John K Chan, Martin Imhof, Thomas J Herzog, Paula Calvert, Pauline Wimberger, Dominique Berton-Rigaud, Myong Cheol Lim, Gabriele Elser, Chun-Fang Xu, Andreas du Bois
BACKGROUND: The focus on translational research in clinical trials has the potential to generate clinically relevant genetic data that could have importance to patients. This raises challenging questions about communicating relevant genetic research results to individual patients. METHODS: An exploratory pharmacogenetic analysis was conducted in the international ovarian cancer phase III trial, AGO-OVAR 16, which found that patients with clinically important germ-line BRCA1/2 mutations had improved progression-free survival prognosis...
October 21, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Signe Mezinska, Péter Kakuk, Goran Mijaljica, Marcin Waligóra, Dónal P O'Mathúna
BACKGROUND: Conducting research during or in the aftermath of disasters poses many specific practical and ethical challenges. This is particularly the case with research involving human subjects. The extraordinary circumstances of research conducted in disaster settings require appropriate regulations to ensure the protection of human participants. The goal of this study is to systematically and qualitatively review the existing ethical guidelines for disaster research by using the constant comparative method (CCM)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
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