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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351713/-living-with-localized-prostate-cancer-decision-making-and-coping-with-the-illness
#1
Friederike Kendel, Isabella Otto, Jennifer Engler, Mark Schrader, Christine Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer must make a choice between treatment strategies that differ considerably in their side effects and have different long-term requirements for coping with the disease. The aim of this study was to describe how men perceive their treatment decision retrospectively and which coping strategies they use. MATERIAL & METHODS: Fifteen men (age mean=67.13±9.38 years) diagnosed with localized prostate cancer participated in three focus groups, grouped according to the treatment strategies radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, and active surveillance...
January 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351665/swiss-consumers-willingness-to-pay-and-attitudes-regarding-dual-purpose-poultry-and-eggs
#2
I D M Gangnat, S Mueller, M Kreuzer, R E Messikommer, M Siegrist, V H M Visschers
Chick culling is an efficient and cost-effective method in modern poultry farming, but it raises ethical concerns. Dual-purpose poultry (DP), in which males are fattened and females are used for egg production, is currently the most realistic alternative to culling, as in ovo sexing is not yet viable for practical application. Consumers' acceptance of DP products and their willingness to pay (WTP) for them have not been studied yet, and we expect that both aspects are closely related to the acceptance of and WTP for products from systems claiming beyond-conventional animal welfare, such as organic products...
January 17, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351364/the-ethical-foundations-of-risk-analysis
#3
Daniel J Rozell
In the field of risk analysis, the normative value systems underlying accepted methodology are rarely explicitly discussed. This perspective provides a critique of the various ethical frameworks that can be used in risk assessments and risk management decisions. The goal is to acknowledge philosophical weaknesses that should be considered and communicated in order to improve the public acceptance of the work of risk analysts.
January 19, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351283/decreased-mir-17-in-glioma-cells-increased-cell-viability-and-migration-by-increasing-the-expression-of-cyclin-d1-p-akt-and-akt
#4
Guangwei Sun, Guozhong SiMa, Chunhui Wu, Yongzhong Fan, Yong Tan, Zhong Wang, Gang Cheng, Jie Li
BACKGROUND: The activating mutations of micro RNA (miR)-17 have been revealed in tumors such as human non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and T cell leukemia. However, it is unclear about the role of miR-17 in glioma cells. The current study aimed to investigate effects of miR-17 mimics or inhibitor on the viability and migration of rat glioma C6 cells, and explore possible mechanisms. METHODS: The expression of miR-17 in rat glioma C6 cells and normal brain tissue was detected by quantitative PCR...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351151/hepatitis-c-in-pregnancy-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-potential-benefits-of-universal-screening-and-antepartum-therapy
#5
Helene B Bernstein, Jeffrey C Dunkelberg, Kimberly K Leslie
Hepatitis C in pregnancy is on the rise, and new direct-acting antiviral agents are available that cure the disease. Published recommendations need to be reviewed and clinically evaluated for the care of pregnant women who are at risk for or have chronic hepatitis C. Available evidence and some of the medical and ethical reasons to consider universal screening and antepartum therapy for hepatitis C during pregnancy are presented. Universal screening and proactive treatment during pregnancy is on the horizon, and these measures should be quickly evaluated for safety and implemented if appropriate...
March 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350780/an-evolutionary-concept-analysis-of-futility-in-healthcare
#6
Lauren Morata
AIM: To report a concept analysis of futility in healthcare. BACKGROUND: Each member of the healthcare team, the physician, the nurse, the patient, the family and all others involved perceive futility differently. The current evidence and knowledge in regard to futility in healthcare manifest a plethora of definitions, meanings and interpretations without consensus. DESIGN: Concept analysis. DATA SOURCES: Databases searched included Medline, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PsycINFO...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350699/medical-cannabis-the-oncology-nurse-s-role-in-patient-education-about-the-effects-of-marijuana-on-cancer-palliation%C3%A2
#7
Carey S Clark
BACKGROUND: Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is legal either medicinally or recreationally in 29 states and the District of Columbia, with a majority of the U.S. adult population now living in states where cannabis is legal for medicinal use. As an advocate for patient autonomy and informed choice, the oncology nurse has an ethical responsibility to educate patients about and support their use of cannabis for palliation.
. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to discuss the human endocannabinoid system as a basis for better understanding the palliative and curative nature of cannabis as a medicine, as well as review cannabis delivery methods and the emerging role of the oncology nurse in this realm...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350320/ethical-implications-in-vaccine-pharmacotherapy-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-drug-of-abuse-dependence
#8
Anna Carfora, Paola Cassandro, Alessandro Feola, Francesco La Sala, Raffaella Petrella, Renata Borriello
Different immunotherapeutic approaches are in the pipeline for the treatment of drug dependence. "Drug vaccines" aim to induce the immune system to produce antibodies that bind to drugs and prevent them from inducing rewarding effects in the brain. Drugs of abuse currently being tested using these new approaches are opioids, nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In human clinical trials, "cocaine and nicotine vaccines" have been shown to induce sufficient antibody levels while producing few side effects. Studies in humans, determining how these vaccines interact in combination with their target drug, are underway...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350083/from-a-fair-game-to-a-form-of-covert-research-research-ethics-committee-members-differing-notions-of-consent-and-potential-risk-to-participants-within-social-media-research
#9
R A Hibbin, G Samuel, G E Derrick
Social media (SM) research presents new challenges for research ethics committees (RECs) who must balance familiar ethical principles with new notions of public availability. This article qualitatively examines how U.K. REC members view this balance in terms of risk and consent. While it found significant variance overall, there were discernible experience-based trends. REC members with less experience of reviewing SM held inflexible notions of consent and risk that could be categorized as either relying on traditional notions of requiring direct consent, or viewing publicly available data as "fair game...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350027/evaluation-of-drug-exposure-and-metabolism-in-locust-and-zebrafish-brains-using-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#10
Marvin Villacrez, Karin Hellman, Tatsuya Ono, Yutaka Sugihara, Melinda Rezeli, Fredrik Ek, Gyorgy Marko-Varga, Roger Olsson
Studying how and where drugs are metabolized in the brain is challenging. In an entire organism, peripheral metabolism produces many of the same metabolites as those in the brain, and many of these metabolites can cross the blood-brain barrier from the periphery, thus making the relative contributions of hepatic and brain metabolism difficult to study in vivo. In addition, drugs and metabolites contained in ventricles and in the residual blood of capillaries in the brain may overestimate drugs' and metabolites' concentrations in the brain...
January 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349921/community-pharmacists-views-on-the-regulation-of-complementary-medicines-and-complementary-medicines-practitioners-a-qualitative-study-in-new-zealand
#11
Joanne Barnes, Rachael Butler
OBJECTIVES: To examine community pharmacists' perspectives on CMs regulation in New Zealand, where proposals for CMs regulations had recently been suspended and where, currently, CMs are only weakly regulated. METHODS: Qualitative, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with New Zealand practising community pharmacists are identified through purposive and convenience sampling. Data were analysed using a general inductive approach. KEY FINDINGS: Participants held mixed views regarding harmonisation of CMs regulations across Australia and NZ; some supported an NZ national regulatory framework for CMs, based on the Australian system...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349590/law-as-clinical-evidence-a-new-constitutivemodel-of-medical-education-and-decision-making
#12
Malcolm Parker, Lindy Willmott, Ben White, Gail Williams, Colleen Cartwright
Over several decades, ethics and law have been applied to medical education and practice in a way that reflects the continuation during the twentieth century of the strong distinction between facts and values. We explain the development of applied ethics and applied medical law and report selected results that reflect this applied model from an empirical project examining doctors' decisions on withdrawing/withholding treatment from patients who lack decision-making capacity. The model is critiqued, and an alternative "constitutive" model is supported on the basis that medicine, medical law, and medical ethics exemplify the inevitable entanglement of facts and values...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349485/undiagnosed-primary-hyperparathyroidism-and-recurrent-miscarriage-the-first-prospective-pilot-study
#13
Aimee DiMarco, Ioannis Christakis, Vasilis Constantinides, Lesley Regan, F Fausto Palazzo
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) in pregnancy is reported to be associated with significant maternal and foetal complications and an up to threefold increase in the risk of miscarriage. However, the true incidence of pHPT in pregnancy, complete and miscarried, is unknown and there are no data on the prevalence of undiagnosed pHPT in recurrent miscarriage (RM) (≥3 consecutive miscarriages under 24-week gestation). This is the first prospective study aiming to establish the prevalence of undiagnosed pHPT in RM...
January 18, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349406/thrombolytic-therapy-for-critical-limb-ischemia-in-a-jehovah-s-witness-with-severe-anemia
#14
Jeremy D Kauffman, T Joseph Watson, Joseph J Campbell
A patient's refusal to receive blood products can pose both clinical and ethical challenges to the surgeon. In this report, we review the case of a Jehovah's Witness presenting with critical lower limb ischemia and severe anemia for whom the decision of whether to perform thrombolytic therapy was complicated by his refusal to accept blood products. The case demonstrates that thrombolytic therapy can produce favorable results in severely anemic patients even when transfusion is not an option. We conclude that offering thrombolytic therapy in this context is a reasonable therapeutic option from both a clinical and ethical perspective...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348711/efficacy-of-empirical-therapy-with-combined-ciprofloxacin-versus-topical-drops-alone-in-patients-with-tubotympanic-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-trial
#15
Maisam Abbas Onali, Syeda Beenish Bareeqa, Sadaf Zia, Syed Ijlal Ahmed, Asneha Owais, Ahmad Nawaz Ahmad
Background: One of the prevailing otologic infections in our country is chronic suppurative otitis media, especially the tubotympanic type for which various treatment protocols are followed. Usually, oral and topical antibiotics (mainly quinolones) are given alone or in combination. There is a lack of consensus as to whether topical drops alone are effective or a combined oral and systemic therapy should be prescribed. In our study, we have attempted to observe the efficacy of empirical therapy with combined ciprofloxacin versus topical drops only in patients with tubotympanic chronic suppurative otitis media for control of infection...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Ear, Nose and Throat
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348694/effect-of-deliberation-on-the-public-s-attitudes-toward-consent-policies-for-biobank-research
#16
Tom Tomlinson, Raymond G De Vries, H Myra Kim, Linda Gordon, Kerry A Ryan, Chris D Krenz, Scott Jewell, Scott Y H Kim
In this study, we evaluate the effect of education and deliberation on the willingness of members of the public to donate tissue to biobank research and on their attitudes regarding various biobank consent policies. Participants were randomly assigned to a democratic deliberation (DD) group, an education group that received only written materials, and a control group. Participants completed a survey before the deliberation and two surveys post-deliberation: one on (or just after) the deliberation day, and one 4 weeks later...
January 18, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348295/tuning%C3%A2-crispr-cas9-gene-drives-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#17
Emily Roggenkamp, Rachael M Giersch, Madison N Schrock, Emily Turnquist, Megan Halloran, Gregory C Finnigan
Control of biological populations is an ongoing challenge in many fields including agriculture, biodiversity, ecological preservation, pest control, and the spread of disease. In some cases, such as insects that harbor human pathogens (e.g. malaria), elimination or reduction of a small number of species would have a dramatic impact across the globe. Given the recent discovery and development of the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology, a unique arrangement of this system-a nuclease based "gene drive"-allows for the Super-Mendelian spread and forced propagation of a genetic element through a population...
January 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348112/comparing-short-dental-implants-to-standard-dental-implants-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#18
Amir Reza Rokn, Abbasali Keshtkar, Abbas Monzavi, Kazem Hashemi, Tahereh Bitaraf
BACKGROUND: Short dental implants have been proposed as a simpler, cheaper, and faster alternative for the rehabilitation of atrophic edentulous areas to avoid the disadvantages of surgical techniques for increasing bone volume. OBJECTIVE: This review will compare short implants (4 to 8 mm) to standard implants (larger than 8 mm) in edentulous jaws, evaluating on the basis of marginal bone loss (MBL), survival rate, complications, and prosthesis failure. METHODS: We will electronically search for randomized controlled trials comparing short dental implants to standard dental implants in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials...
January 18, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347929/the-hiv-self-testing-debate-where-do-we-stand
#19
REVIEW
Marilou Gagnon, Martin French, Yamilee Hébert
BACKGROUND: Emphasis on HIV testing as a gateway to prevention, treatment and care has grown tremendously over the past decade. In turn, this emphasis on testing has created a demand for new policies, programs, and technologies that can potentially increase access to and uptake of HIV testing. HIV self-testing (HST) technologies have gained important momentum following the approval of the over-the-counter self-tests in the United States, the UK, and France. While the renewed interest in HST has given rise to a number of high quality reviews of empirical studies conducted on this topic, we have yet to find an article that captures the extent of the debate on HST...
January 18, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347917/does-different-information-disclosure-on-placebo-control-affect-blinding-and-trial-outcomes-a-case-study-of-participant-information-leaflets-of-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials-of-acupuncture
#20
Soyeon Cheon, Hi-Joon Park, Younbyoung Chae, Hyangsook Lee
BACKGROUND: While full disclosure of information on placebo control in participant information leaflets (PILs) in a clinical trial is ethically required during informed consent, there have been concerning voices such complete disclosures may increase unnecessary nocebo responses, breach double-blind designs, and/or affect direction of trial outcomes. Taking an example of acupuncture studies, we aimed to examine what participants are told about placebo controls in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, and how it may affect blinding and trial outcomes...
January 18, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
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