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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921611/dendritic-spines-provide-cognitive-resilience-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Benjamin D Boros, Kelsey M Greathouse, Erik G Gentry, Kendall A Curtis, Elizabeth L Birchall, Marla Gearing, Jeremy H Herskowitz
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging and other biomarker assays suggest that the pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) initiate years prior to clinical dementia onset. However some 30%-50% of older individuals that harbor AD pathology do not become symptomatic in their lifetime. It is hypothesized that such individuals exhibit cognitive resilience that protects against AD dementia. We hypothesized that in cases with AD pathology structural changes in dendritic spines would distinguish individuals that had or did not have clinical dementia...
September 16, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918784/-treatment-of-patellar-instability
#2
Martin Lind, Peter Faunø, Ole Gade Sørensen, Bjarne Mygind-Klavsen
First-time patellar luxation appears typically in teenagers and young adults below the age of 16 years, with a prevalence of 45/100,000/year. This luxation is treated with brief limited mobility in a bandage, and with a complementary physiotherapy if the mobility is influenced afterwards. Risk factors for patellar instability are patellofemoral dysplasia, hyperlaxity, patella alta and valgus malalignment in the knee joint. In case of repeated luxation the treatment is surgical, i.e. reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament recreating the medial patella-stabilizing structures...
September 18, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918340/-cervical-lift-an-update
#3
D Labbé, P Guerreschi
The neck is an aesthetic unit for which a rejuvenation request is sometimes very targeted or ore often encompassed in a global surgical project of face-lift. To obtain a long lasting outcome, the plastic surgeon has to make a full, detailed, and exhaustive analysis of the neck in order to choose the best indication within the multiple surgical tools. A full clinical examination is the key point, every aspects are outlined. The numerous surgical choices are described, illustrated, and sometimes revisited in the light of targeted anatomical studies...
September 13, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917698/introducing-axonal-myelination-in-connectomics-a-preliminary-analysis-of-g-ratio-distribution-in-healthy-subjects
#4
REVIEW
Matteo Mancini, Giovanni Giulietti, Nicholas Dowell, Barbara Spanò, Neil Harrison, Marco Bozzali, Mara Cercignani
Microstructural imaging and connectomics are two research areas that hold great potential for investigating brain structure and function. Combining these two approaches can lead to a better and more complete characterization of the brain as a network. The aim of this work is characterizing the connectome from a novel perspective using the myelination measure given by the g-ratio. The g-ratio is the ratio of the inner to the outer diameters of a myelinated axon, whose aggregated value can now be estimated in vivo using MRI...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913293/facial-flap-repositioning-in-posttraumatic-facial-asymmetry
#5
Il Hwan Byun, Dahn Byun, Woo Yeol Baek
Perfect facial and body symmetry is an important aesthetic concept which is very difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. Yet, facial asymmetries are commonly encountered by plastic and reconstructive surgeons. Here, we present a case of posttraumatic facial asymmetry successfully treated with a unique concept of facial flap repositioning. A 25-year-old male patient visited our department with severe posttraumatic facial asymmetry. There was deviated nasal bone and implant to the right, and the actual facial appearance asymmetry was much more severe compared to the computed tomography, generally shifted to the right...
December 2016: Arch Craniofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910440/harnessing-the-power-of-data-in-facial-plastic-and-reconstructive-surgery-from-refuse-to-riches
#6
Lisa E Ishii, John S Rhee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906360/plastic-wound-protectors-decreased-surgical-site-infections-following-laparoscopic-assisted-colectomy-for-colorectal-cancer-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Yang Luo, Yi-Er Qiu, Yi-Fei Mu, Shao-Lan Qin, Yang Qi, Ming Zhong, Min-Hao Yu, Li-Ying Ma
Laparoscopic surgery is widespread and safe for the management of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Although the use of standard surgical techniques can prevent perioperative wound infections, surgical site infections (SSIs) remain an unresolved complication in laparoscopic-assisted colectomy. The present study investigated the ability of plastic wound protectors applied to the extraction incision during the externalized portion of the procedure to reduce the rate of infection in laparoscopic-assisted colectomy...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904983/structure-function-relationships-in-the-visual-system-in-multiple-sclerosis-an-meg-and-oct-study
#8
Prejaas Tewarie, Lisanne J Balk, Arjan Hillebrand, Martijn D Steenwijk, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Cornelis J Stam, Axel Petzold
BACKGROUND: We conducted a multi-modal optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) study to test whether there is a relationship between retinal layer integrity and electrophysiological activity and connectivity (FC) in the visual network influenced by optic neuritis (ON) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: One hundred and two MS patients were included in this MEG/OCT study. Retinal OCT data were collected from the optic discs, macular region, and segmented...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904337/toxoplasma-modulates-signature-pathways-of-human-epilepsy-neurodegeneration-cancer
#9
Huân M Ngô, Ying Zhou, Hernan Lorenzi, Kai Wang, Taek-Kyun Kim, Yong Zhou, Kamal El Bissati, Ernest Mui, Laura Fraczek, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Craig W Roberts, Fiona L Henriquez, Alexandre Montpetit, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson, Kelsey Wheeler, Ian J Begeman, Carlos Naranjo-Galvis, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Roderick G Davis, Liliana Soroceanu, Charles Cobbs, Dennis A Steindler, Kenneth Boyer, A Gwendolyn Noble, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Peter Rabiah, Shawn Withers, Patricia Soteropoulos, Leroy Hood, Rima McLeod
One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis. Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven. To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain: We identified susceptibility genes for congenital toxoplasmosis in our cohort of infected humans and found these genes are expressed in human brain...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899819/information-content-of-dendritic-spines-after-motor-learning
#10
Davide Viggiano, Luisa Speranza, Marianna Crispino, Gian Carlo Bellenchi, Umberto di Porzio, Attilio Iemolo, Elvira De Leonibus, Floriana Volpicelli, Carla Perrone-Capano
Dendritic spines, small protrusions emerging from the dendrites of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain, are highly dynamic structures and their shape and number is continuously modulated by memory formation and other adaptive changes of the brain. In this study, using a behavioral paradigm of motor learning, we applied the non-linear analysis of dendritic spines to study spine complexity along dendrites of cortical and subcortical neural systems, such as the basal ganglia, that sustain important motor learning processes...
September 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898441/three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-the-pharyngeal-gland-cells-in-the-predatory-nematode-pristionchus-pacificus
#11
Metta Riebesell, Ralf J Sommer
Pristionchus pacificus is a model system in evolutionary biology and for comparison to Caenorhabditis elegans. As a necromenic nematode often found in association with scarab beetles, P. pacificus exhibits omnivorous feeding that is characterized by a mouth-form dimorphism, an example of phenotypic plasticity. Eurystomatous animals have a dorsal and a sub-ventral tooth enabling predatory feeding on other nematodes whereas stenostomatous animals have only a dorsal tooth and are microbivorous. Both mouth forms of P...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895155/work-related-musculoskeletal-symptoms-among-otolaryngologists-by-subspecialty-a-national-survey
#12
Thuy-Van Tina Ho, Chelsea S Hamill, Kevin J Sykes, Shannon M Kraft
OBJECTIVE: Given the high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms, increased appreciation for workplace ergonomics is critical. The purpose of this study is to assess work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and injury among otolaryngologists across subspecialties, as well as to quantify the understanding and application of ergonomic principles in the operating room. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: An online REDCap survey was distributed electronically to University of Kansas faculty, alumni, and residents; members of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; and residency program coordinators for distribution to residents and faculty between August 2016 and March 2017...
September 12, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892943/reconstruction-of-maxilla-with-titanium-mesh-and-fascia-lata-a-case-report
#13
Devkumar Rengaraja, Mohan Jagade, Karthik Rao, Radhika Sonate, Arpita Singhal
Maxillary defect reconstruction has been a grave challenge which unfortunately has stopped many ENT surgeons from attempting maxillectomy due to the fear of reconstruction. With our technique of reconstructing the maxillary defect with titanium mesh and fascia lata, the need for microvascular assistance is obviated. Here we describe a revision case of ameloblastoma of maxilla in a 33-year-old female for which total maxillectomy with reconstruction was done without the aid of microvascular tissue transfer. The aim of this article is to encourage and alleviate the fear among the ENT surgeons, in attempting maxillectomy and its reconstruction for delivering an equally good aesthetic and functional outcome especially at the centres where the facility of plastic assistance is not readily available...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888303/fat-grafting-for-burn-traumatic-and-surgical-scars
#14
REVIEW
Rafi Fredman, Adam J Katz, Charles Scott Hultman
Fat grafting provides a reliable modality with expanding usefulness in reconstructive plastic surgery. Owing to its mechanical and theorized regenerative properties, adipose tissue can improve scar qualities and scar related symptoms when grafted adjacent to or within a scar. In this article, the literature describing the effect of fat grafting on various types of scars, current scientific understanding of fat grafting for scars, and our current approach to the management of problematic burn scars are reviewed...
October 2017: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887865/plasma-rich-plasma-the-ultimate-secret-for-youthful-skin-elixir-and-hair-growth-triggering
#15
REVIEW
Ebtisam Elghblawi
The clinical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is based on the increase in the concentration of growth factors that are released from alpha-granule of the concentrated platelets and in the secretion of proteins which are able to capitalize on the healing process at the cellular level. It has been invented to restore the natural beauty by starting the natural rejuvenation process of the skin and aiming to make it function as a younger one and to keep the skin youthful and maintain it. Besides that, it is also emerged to include hairs as a new injectable procedure to enable stimulating hair growth locally and topically; preventing its fall; improving hair shaft, hair stem, and its caliber; increasing its shine, vitality, and pliability; and declining hair splitting and breakage...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887132/structure-and-diversity-of-human-dendritic-spines-evidenced-by-a-new-three-dimensional-reconstruction-procedure-for-golgi-staining-and-light-microscopy
#16
Roman Reberger, Aline Dall'Oglio, Claudio R Jung, Alberto A Rasia-Filho
BACKGROUND: Different approaches aim to unravel detailed morphological features of neural cells. Dendritic spines are multifunctional units that reflect cellular connectivity, synaptic strength and plasticity. NEW METHOD: A novel three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction procedure is introduced for visualization of dendritic spines from human postmortem brain tissue using brightfield microscopy. The segmentation model was based on thresholding the intensity values of the dendrite spine image along 'z' stacks...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885211/postoperative-control-of-functional-muscle-flaps-for-facial-palsy-reconstruction-ultrasound-guided-tissue-monitoring-using-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-ceus-and-ultrasound-elastography
#17
A Kehrer, V Mandlik, C Taeger, S Geis, L Prantl, E M Jung
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Facial paralysis causes excruciating impairments including facial asymmetry, limited eye closure, oral incontinence and social dysfunction. Modern plastic surgical reconstructions render favorable results with well-perfused dynamic muscle flaps. Post-operative tissue monitoring is a critical determinant for success. Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) and elastography have proven superior properties to evaluate tissue perfusion in various organs. We evaluated their role for functional muscle flaps positioned at the sub-skin level in facial palsy patients...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882492/assessing-the-effort-associated-with-teaching-residents
#18
Kelli R Aibel, Tracy Truong, Ronnie L Shammas, Eugenia H Cho, Kate J Buretta, Gina-Maria Pomann, Scott T Hollenbeck
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative resident education is an integral mission of academic medical centers and serves as the basis for training the next generation of surgeons. The actual effort associated with teaching residents is unknown as it pertains to additional operative time. Using a large validated multi-institutional dataset, this study aims to quantify the effect of having a resident present in common plastic surgery procedures on operative time. Future directions for developing standardized methods to record and report teaching time are proposed, which can help inform prospective studies...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880988/the-10-item-standardized-cosmesis-and-health-nasal-outcomes-survey-schnos-for-functional-and-cosmetic-rhinoplasty
#19
Sami P Moubayed, John P A Ioannidis, Mikhail Saltychev, Sam P Most
Importance: Rhinoplasty is a common operation in which shape and function are intimately related, whether the procedure is cosmetic, functional, or combined in nature. There is currently no properly developed and validated patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to evaluate both functional and cosmetic components of rhinoplasty. Objective: To develop, validate, and field test the Standardized Cosmesis and Health Nasal Outcomes Survey (SCHNOS) to evaluate both functional and cosmetic outcomes of rhinoplasty...
September 7, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880879/lotus-overexpression-accelerates-neuronal-plasticity-after-focal-brain-ischemia-in-mice
#20
Hajime Takase, Yuji Kurihara, Taka-Akira Yokoyama, Nobutaka Kawahara, Kohtaro Takei
Nogo receptor-1 (NgR1) and its ligands inhibit neuronal plasticity and limit functional recovery after brain damage such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS) antagonizes NgR1-mediated signaling. Here, we investigated whether LOTUS enhances neuronal plasticity and functional recovery after brain focal ischemia in adult mice. Focal ischemic infarcts were induced in wild-type and LOTUS-overexpressing transgenic mice via middle cerebral artery occlusion...
2017: PloS One
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