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Cardiovascular physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227995/comparison-of-pulse-wave-velocity-derived-from-accelerometer-and-reflective-photo-plethysmography-signals-placed-at-the-carotid-and-femoral-artery
#1
Jens Muehlsteff, Erik Bresch, Lars Schmitt, Jos Gelissen, Peter Bingley, Jens Muehlsteff, Erik Bresch, Lars Schmitt, Jos Gelissen, Peter Bingley, Jos Gelissen, Peter Bingley, Lars Schmitt, Jens Muehlsteff, Erik Bresch
Carotid - femoral pulse wave velocity is an established measure to assess cardiovascular risk and an interesting surrogate parameter towards non-invasive continuous blood pressure inference. Due to progress in sensing technologies for wearable wrist worn sensors, there are low cost sensor combinations of photo-plethysmography and high fidelity accelerometers available offering access to pulse information from larger arteries complemented by blood volume changes in the superficial tissue. In this work we compare pulse wave velocities derived from accelerometer and reflective photo-plethysmography signals placed at the carotid and femoral artery...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227449/comparison-of-methods-for-the-evaluation-of-nibp-from-pulse-transit-time
#2
L Peter, N Noury, M Cerny, I Nykl, L Peter, N Noury, M Cerny, I Nykl, L Peter, I Nykl, N Noury, M Cerny
Non-invasive blood pressure measurement (NIBP) is one of the most discussed topic in cardiovascular medicine. Currently continuous measurement of blood pressure is possible by invasive methods, which makes the measurement impractical for Doctors and uncomfortable for the patients. It is possible to use special devices to measure blood pressure noninvasively continuously but there are still some problems with long time monitoring and comfort for patient. Physiologically there is connection between electrical and mechanical heart functions, propagation of pulse wave and blood pressure value...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227374/measuring-pulse-rate-variability-using-long-range-non-contact-imaging-photoplethysmography
#3
Ethan B Blackford, Alyssa M Piasecki, Justin R Estepp, Ethan B Blackford, Alyssa M Piasecki, Justin R Estepp, Ethan B Blackford, Alyssa M Piasecki, Justin R Estepp
Camera-based measurement of the blood volume pulse via non-contact, imaging photoplethysmography is a very popular approach for measuring pulse rate using a remote imaging sensor. Comparatively less attention has been paid to the usefulness of the method for measuring features of pulse rate variability, and even less focus has been put on the accuracy of any cardiac activity feature that can be achieved at long imager-to-subject distances. In this study, video was recorded from 19 participants, while at rest, at a distance of 25 meters from the imaging sensor...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227284/on-the-pleasantness-of-a-haptic-stimulation-how-different-textures-can-be-recognized-through-heart-rate-variability-nonlinear-analysis
#4
Mimma Nardelli, Alberto Greco, Matteo Bianchi, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Gaetano Valenza, Mimma Nardelli, Alberto Greco, Matteo Bianchi, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Gaetano Valenza, Gaetano Valenza, Mimma Nardelli, Alberto Greco, Matteo Bianchi
The hedonic attributes of cutaneous elicitation play a crucial role in everyday life, influencing our behavior and psychophysical state. However, the correlation between such a hedonic aspect of touch and the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)-related physiological response, which is intimately connected to emotions, still needs to be deeply investigated. This study reports on caress-like stimuli conveyed to the forearm of 32 healthy subjects through different fabrics actuated by a haptic device, which can control both the strength (i...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226984/analysis-of-causal-cardio-postural-interaction-under-orthostatic-stress-using-convergent-cross-mapping
#5
Ajay K Verma, Amanmeet Garg, Andrew Blaber, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Ajay K Verma, Amanmeet Garg, Andrew Blaber, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Ajay K Verma, Amanmeet Garg, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Andrew Blaber
Knowledge of a cause-and-effect relationship between different physiological systems is helpful in predicting their performance under perturbations, such as orthostatic challenge. The causal coupling between representative signals of the cardiovascular and postural systems under orthostatic challenge remains unknown. Understanding the causal relationship between these two systems is critical, as their interplay is vital to maintain stable upright posture of the human body during quiet standing. In this research, convergent cross mapping (CCM) method was applied to study the causal relationship between the cardiovascular and postural systems previously shown to have coherent activity during quiet standing...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226571/cuff-less-ppg-based-continuous-blood-pressure-monitoring-a-smartphone-based-approach
#6
Aman Gaurav, Maram Maheedhar, Vijay N Tiwari, Rangavittal Narayanan, Aman Gaurav, Maram Maheedhar, Vijay N Tiwari, Rangavittal Narayanan, Maram Maheedhar, Rangavittal Narayanan, Vijay N Tiwari, Aman Gaurav
Cuff-less estimation of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure is an efficient approach for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of an individual's vitals. Although pulse transit time (PTT) based approaches have been successful in estimating the systolic and diastolic blood pressures to a reasonable degree of accuracy, there is still scope for improvement in terms of accuracies. Moreover, PTT approach requires data from sensors placed at two different locations along with individual calibration of physiological parameters for deriving correct estimation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and hence is not suitable for smartphone deployment...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225202/cardiac-remodeling-in-preterm-infants-with-prolonged-exposure-to-a-patent-ductus-arteriosus
#7
Koert de Waal, Nilkant Phad, Nick Collins, Andrew Boyle
BACKGROUND: Sustained volume load due to a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) leads to cardiac remodeling. Remodeling changes can become pathological and are associated with cardiovascular disease progression. Data on remodeling changes in preterm infants is not available. METHODS: Clinical and echocardiography data were collected in preterm infants <30 weeks gestation on postnatal day 3 and then every 7-14 days until closure of the ductus arteriosus. Images were analyzed using conventional techniques and speckle tracking...
February 22, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224946/exercise-adherence-in-the-elderly-experience-with-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-simple-treatment-and-prevention
#8
Mary McElrath, Jonathan Myers, Khin Chan, Holly Fonda
Poor adherence to health-related behaviors can have serious health consequences. Cardiac rehabilitation has been documented to have physiological and psychosocial benefits; however, optimizing adherence to exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease is a particular challenge. We recently completed a large, 6-year randomized trial of exercise training in elderly patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease (50-85 years), which provided an opportunity to describe adherence strategies in this unique group of elderly individuals...
March 2017: Journal of Vascular Nursing: Official Publication of the Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223398/exertional-dyspnoea-in-interstitial-lung-diseases-the-clinical-utility-of-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#9
Matteo Bonini, Giuseppe Fiorenzano
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterised by alveolar and interstitial damage, pulmonary inflammation (usually associated with fibrosis), decreased lung function and impaired gas exchange, which can be attributed to either a known or an unknown aetiology. Dyspnoea is one of the most common and disabling symptoms in patients with ILD, significantly impacting quality of life. The mechanisms causing dyspnoea are complex and not yet fully understood. However, it is recognised that dyspnoea occurs when there is an imbalance between the central respiratory efferent drive and the response of the respiratory musculature...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223222/disrupting-the-key-circadian-regulator-clock-leads-to-age-dependent-cardiovascular-disease
#10
Faisal J Alibhai, Jonathan LaMarre, Cristine J Reitz, Elena V Tsimakouridze, Jeffrey T Kroetsch, Steffen-Sebastian Bolz, Alex Shulman, Samantha Steinberg, Thomas P Burris, Gavin Y Oudit, Tami A Martino
The circadian mechanism underlies daily rhythms in cardiovascular physiology and rhythm disruption is a major risk factor for heart disease and worse outcomes. However, the role of circadian rhythms is generally clinically unappreciated. Clock is a core component of the circadian mechanism and here we examine the role of Clock as a vital determinant of cardiac physiology and pathophysiology in aging. Clock(Δ19/Δ19) mice develop age-dependent increases in heart weight, hypertrophy, dilation, impaired contractility, and reduced myogenic responsiveness...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219987/a-unique-angiotensin-sensitive-neuronal-population-coordinates-neuroendocrine-cardiovascular-and-behavioral-responses-to-stress
#11
Annette D de Kloet, Lei Wang, Soledad Pitra, Helmut Hiller, Justin A Smith, Yalun Tan, Dani Nguyen, Karlena M Cahill, Colin Sumners, Javier E Stern, Eric G Krause
Stress elicits neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses that mitigate homeostatic imbalance and ensure survival; however, chronic engagement of such responses promotes psychological, cardiovascular and metabolic impairments. Over recent years, the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a key mediator of stress responding and its related pathologies, but the neuronal circuits that orchestrate these interactions are not known. These studies combine the use of the Cre-recombinase/loxP system in mice with optogenetics to structurally and functionally characterize angiotensin type-1a receptor-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the goal being to determine the extent of their involvement in the regulation of stress responses...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218249/complexity-variability-assessment-of-nonlinear-time-varying-cardiovascular-control
#12
Gaetano Valenza, Luca Citi, Ronald G Garcia, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Nicola Toschi, Riccardo Barbieri
The application of complex systems theory to physiology and medicine has provided meaningful information about the nonlinear aspects underlying the dynamics of a wide range of biological processes and their disease-related aberrations. However, no studies have investigated whether meaningful information can be extracted by quantifying second-order moments of time-varying cardiovascular complexity. To this extent, we introduce a novel mathematical framework termed complexity variability, in which the variance of instantaneous Lyapunov spectra estimated over time serves as a reference quantifier...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217814/-effects-of-growth-differentiation-factor-15-gdf-15-on-neurological-systems-cardiovascular-diseases-and-cancer-progression
#13
Dong-Dong Liu, Yan-Ai Mei
Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. GDF-15 expression is dramatically upregulated during acute brain injury, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inflammation, suggesting its potential value as a disease biomarker. It has been suggested that GDF-15 has neurotropic effects in the nervous system. Our studies showed that GDF-15 modulated the expression of neuronal K(+) and Ca(2+) ion channels and increased the release of excitatory transmitter in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice...
February 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217778/a-critical-insight-into-the-development-pipeline-of-microfluidic-immunoassay-devices-for-the-sensitive-quantitation-of-protein-biomarkers-at-the-point-of-care
#14
REVIEW
Ana I Barbosa, Nuno M Reis
The latest clinical procedures for the timely and cost-effective diagnosis of chronic and acute clinical conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes or sepsis (i.e. the biggest causes of death worldwide), involve the quantitation of specific protein biomarkers released into the blood stream or other physiological fluids (e.g. urine or saliva). The clinical thresholds are usually in the femtomolar to picolomar range, and consequently the measurement of these protein biomarkers heavily relies on highly sophisticated, bulky and automated equipment in centralised pathology laboratories...
February 20, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217013/contributions-to-the-study-of-blood-brain-flux-using-radioactive-tracers
#15
Ioan Mureşan, Ioan Cosma
In this paper, we present an original radiocirculographic method for investigates of cerebral blood flow, which has proven to be very useful, simple, and efficient for studies of brain hemodynamics. Physical considerations on injected radioactive tracer in cardiovascular system, allowed us to state a relationship for the blood flux, F, valued as the amount of fluid-blood that traverses a vascular segment in unit time. All these theoretical facts, along with a host of remarkable clinical results, are presented in a doctoral thesis entitled "The cerebral Hemodynamics in Essential Hypertension and Arteriosclerosis" of the eminent doctor Ioan Mures,an, who died in 1984, at only 50 years old...
January 2017: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216514/diallyl-trisulfide-augments-ischemia-induced-angiogenesis-via-an-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-dependent-mechanism
#16
Ryo Hayashida, Kazuhisa Kondo, Sumio Morita, Kazumasa Unno, Satoshi Shintani, Yuuki Shimizu, John W Calvert, Rei Shibata, Toyoaki Murohara
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts beneficial actions against the development of cardiovascular disease. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is an organic polysulfide found in garlic oil that liberates H2S under physiological conditions. This study investigated whether DATS modulates endothelial cell function, as well as revascularization processes in a mouse model of hind-limb ischemia.Methods and Results:Wild-type (WT), endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient (eNOS-KO) and Akt1-heterogenic deficient (Akt-Het) mice were subjected to unilateral hindlimb ischemia (HLI)...
February 17, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216392/nitrergic-cardiovascular-regulation-in-the-african-lungfish-protopterus-aethiopicus
#17
Renato Filogonio, William Joyce, Tobias Wang
As a ubiquitous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO) exerts various important effects on the cardiovascular system and is involved in the regulation of vascular tone and myocardial metabolism in vertebrates. Lungfishes are closely related to tetrapods and provide an interesting possibility to understand the transition from water to land. Lungfishes are endowed with both systemic and pulmonary circulations, and their incompletely divided ventricle allows for blood to bypass either circuit. Lungfishes inhabit ephemeral waterbodies that may enforce prolonged aestivation during drought, throughout which nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression is upregulated...
February 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216026/cyclic-nucleotide-imaging-and-cardiovascular-disease
#18
REVIEW
Filip Berisha, Viacheslav O Nikolaev
The universal second messengers cyclic nucleotides 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) play central roles in cardiovascular function and disease. They act in discrete, functionally relevant subcellular microdomains which regulate, for example, calcium cycling and excitation-contraction coupling. Such localized cAMP and cGMP signals have been difficult to measure using conventional biochemical techniques. Recent years have witnessed the advent of live cell imaging techniques which allow visualization of these functionally relevant second messengers with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution at cellular, subcellular and tissue levels...
February 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215701/a-versatile-microfluidic-platform-for-the-study-of-cellular-interactions-between-endothelial-cells-and-neutrophils
#19
Xiaojie Wu, Molly A Newbold, Zhe Gao, Christy L Haynes
BACKGROUND: Endothelial migration is a critical physiological process during vascular angiogenesis, growth and development, as well as in multiple disease conditions, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Neutrophil migration, known as the important characteristic of immune responses, is also recognized as a contributor to diseases involving endothelial migration. Herein, the mutually dependent relationship between neutrophil recruitment and endothelial migration was studied on a microfluidic platform for the first time...
February 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215180/metabolic-and-cardiovascular-ageing-indices-in-relation-to-glycated-haemoglobin-in-healthy-and-diabetic-subjects
#20
H I Shruthi Suvarna, Shailaja Moodithaya, Raghava Sharma
Ageing is a natural phenomenon that has tremendous amount of control over normal physiological functions. Evidences suggest that there is a steady increase in glycated haemoglobin levels with age, leading to accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE'S) which contributes to the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aim of the study is to evaluate the strength of association of HbA1c with metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices in subjects between the age group of 40 to 60 yrs. A total of 220 subjects, with (n=110) and without (n=110) diabetes were assessed for the metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices...
February 16, 2017: Current Aging Science
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