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Cardiovascular physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231753/rates-of-insufficiency-and-deficiency-of-vitamin-d-levels-in-elite-professional-male-and-female-skiers-a-chronobiologic-approach
#1
Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Giovanni Lombardi, Luca Cavaleri, Rosa Graziani, Herbert Schoenhuber, Antonio La Torre, Giuseppe Banfi
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance and promotion of musculoskeletal health, for the functioning of the immune, cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and its main action is to keep calcium and phosphate plasmatic physiological concentrations at intestinal, renal and bony level. Vitamin D affects several parameters related to physical performance too and a particularly high percentage of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in professional athletes has been observed. Several variables are able to impair the synthesis of 25(OH)D in athletes, specifically both genetic and environmental factors, but the most probable explanation for the deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels is the insufficient ultraviolet B light (UVB) exposure during winter...
December 12, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228434/functional-roles-of-exosomes-in-cardiovascular-disorders-a-systematic-review
#2
H-J Sun, X-X Zhu, W-W Cai, L-Y Qiu
Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of people death associated with high mortality and disability. Exosomes are nanosized extracellular vesicles containing protein, lipid, transcription factors, mRNAs, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and nucleic acid contents, which are critical players of intercellular communication via long-range signals or cell-to-cell contact. The emergence of exosomes provides favorable strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Exosomes-based molecular mechanisms are important for developing novel therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular events...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226712/-risk-stratification-before-thoracic-surgery-perioperative-pulmonary-rehabilitation
#3
Attila Vágvölgyi, Zsolt Rozgonyi, Pál Vadász, János Tamás Varga
INTRODUCTION: Besides the oncology and operative surgical technics, functional aspects influence the operability of lung cancer. Preoperative risk stratification, evaluation of postoperative complications needs to be considered. AIM: To review international literature and experiences of our institute. METHOD: We focused the literature of risk stratification of thoracic surgery. Lung function, lung mechanics, chest kinematics, exercise physiology were considered...
December 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226241/raman-spectroscopy-imaging-reveals-interplay-between-atherosclerosis-and-medial-calcification-in-the-human-aorta
#4
Amanda Y F You, Mads S Bergholt, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Worrapong Kit-Anan, Isaac J Pence, Adrian H Chester, Magdi H Yacoub, Sergio Bertazzo, Molly M Stevens
Medial calcification in the human aorta accumulates during aging and is known to be aggravated in several diseases. Atherosclerosis, another major cause of cardiovascular calcification, shares some common aggravators. However, the mechanisms of cardiovascular calcification remain poorly understood. To elucidate the relationship between medial aortic calcification and atherosclerosis, we characterized the cross-sectional distributions of the predominant minerals in aortic tissue, apatite and whitlockite, and the associated extracellular matrix...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225881/recovery-benefits-of-using-a-heat-and-moisture-exchange-mask-during-sprint-exercise-in-cold-temperatures
#5
John G Seifert, Jeremy Frost, John A St Cyr
Objectives: Breathing cold air can lead to bronchoconstriction and peripheral vasoconstriction, both of which could impact muscular performance by affecting metabolic demands during exercise. Successful solutions dealing with these physiological changes during exercise in the cold has been lacking; therefore, we investigated the influence of a heat and moisture exchange mask during exercise in the cold. Methods: There were three trial arms within this study: wearing the heat and moisture exchange mask during the rest periods in the cold, no-mask application during the rest periods in the cold, and a trial at room temperature (22°C)...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225315/comparison-of-the-effects-of-three-tea-cultivars-camellia-sinensis-l-on-nitric-oxide-production-and-aortic-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-expression-in-high-salt-diet-fed-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#6
Sachiko Nomura, Manami Monobe, Kaori Ema, Mari Maeda-Yamamoto, Atsushi Nesumi
Studies have suggested that the consumption of green tea reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the best studied active substance characteristic of green tea, previous results on EGCG do not appear sufficient to explain completely the mechanism of cardiovascular protection by green tea. Therefore, we investigated the effect of three different tea cultivars, "Yabukita," "Sofu," and "Sunrouge," which have characteristic flavonoid compositions, on the nitric oxide (NO) production and the related protein expression in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) fed a high-salt diet...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224583/nutrients-for-neurocognition-in-health-and-disease-measures-methodologies-and-mechanisms
#7
Andrew Scholey
Effective pharmaceutical treatments for age-related cognitive decline have proved elusive. There is, however, compelling evidence that nutritional status and supplementation could play crucial roles in modifying the expression of cognitive change through the lifespan. Subjective memory impairment and mild cognitive impairment can be harbingers of dementia but this is by no means inevitable. Neurocognitive change is influenced by a variety of processes, many of which are involved in other aspects of systemic health, including cardiovascular function...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224108/negative-impact-of-testosterone-deficiency-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-therapy-on-metabolic-and-sexual-function-in-men
#8
Abdulmaged M Traish
Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224098/role-of-estrogens-in-the-regulation-of-liver-lipid-metabolism
#9
Brian T Palmisano, Lin Zhu, John M Stafford
Before menopause, women are protected from atherosclerotic heart disease associated with obesity relative to men. Sex hormones have been proposed as a mechanism that differentiates this risk. In this review, we discuss the literature around how the endogenous sex hormones and hormone treatment approaches after menopause regulate fatty acid, triglyceride, and cholesterol metabolism to influence cardiovascular risk.The important regulatory functions of estrogen signaling pathways with regard to lipid metabolism have been in part obscured by clinical trials with hormone treatment of women after menopause, due to different formulations, routes of delivery, and pairings with progestins...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224092/sex-differences-in-leptin-control-of-cardiovascular-function-in-health-and-metabolic-diseases
#10
Eric J Belin de Chantemèle
Leptin, the adipocyte-derived hormone identified in 1994 for its major role in the control of satiety and body weight regulation, is an adipokine secreted in a sex-specific manner. Although it has clearly been established that females secrete three to four times more leptin than males and that this sexual dimorphism in leptin secretion is exacerbated with overweight and obesity, the origin and the physiological consequences of this sexual dimorphism remain ill-defined. The adipose tissue is the major site of leptin secretion; however, leptin receptors are ubiquitously expressed, conferring to leptin, and indirectly to the adipose tissue, a potential role in the control of numerous physiological functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223817/elevated-inflammatory-lp-pla2-and-il-6-link-e-waste-pb-toxicity-to-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-preschool-children
#11
Xueling Lu, Xijin Xu, Yu Zhang, Yuling Zhang, Chenyang Wang, Xia Huo
Cardiovascular toxicity of lead (Pb) manifests primarily as an effect on blood pressure and eventual increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Therefore, we investigated vascular inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular effects of Pb-exposed children. A total of 590 children (3-7 years old) were recruited from Guiyu (n = 337), an electronic waste (e-waste)-exposed group, and Haojiang (n = 253), a reference group, from November to December 2016. We measured child blood Pb levels (BPbs), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221954/total-particulate-matter-from-cigarette-smoke-disrupts-vascular-development-in-zebrafish-brain-danio-rerio
#12
Andrey Massarsky, G L Prasad, Richard T Di Giulio
Several studies have demonstrated zebrafish as a useful high-throughput in-vivo model to study the effects of cigarette smoke on early development. It has been shown previously that exposure of zebrafish to cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM) leads to several adverse physiological aberrations, including heart deformities and improper angiogenesis. Consequently, this study investigated the effects of TPM on cardiovascular development in zebrafish that were exposed to increasing concentrations of TPM based upon nicotine content from 6h post fertilization (hpf) up to 72hpf...
December 5, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220092/dose-rectification-of-an-unbalance-between-dpp4-and-glp-1-ameliorates-chronic-stress-related-vascular-aging-and-atherosclerosis
#13
Xian Wu Cheng, Megumi Narisawa, Enze Jin, Chenglin Yu, Wenhu Xu, Limei Piao
Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including vascular aging and regeneration. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) exerts many physiological and pharmacological functions by regulating its extremely abundant substrates [e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), stromal cell-derived factor-1α/ C-X-C chemokine receptor type-4, etc.]. Over the past decade, emerging data revealed unexpected roles for DPP-4 and GLP-1 in intracellular signaling, oxidative stress production, lipid metabolism, cell apoptosis, immune activation, insulin resistance, and inflammation...
December 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218644/cardiovascular-complications-of-marijuana-and-related-substances-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Amitoj Singh, Sajeev Saluja, Akshat Kumar, Sahil Agrawal, Munveer Thind, Sudip Nanda, Jamshid Shirani
The recreational use of cannabis has sharply increased in recent years in parallel with its legalization and decriminalization in several countries. Commonly, the traditional cannabis has been replaced by potent synthetic cannabinoids and cannabimimetics in various forms. Despite overwhelming public perception of the safety of these substances, an increasing number of serious cardiovascular adverse events have been reported in temporal relation to recreational cannabis use. These have included sudden cardiac death, vascular (coronary, cerebral and peripheral) events, arrhythmias and stress cardiomyopathy among others...
December 7, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217577/paradoxical-escape-responses-by-narwhals-monodon-monoceros
#15
Terrie M Williams, Susanna B Blackwell, Beau Richter, Mikkel-Holger S Sinding, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Until recent declines in Arctic sea ice levels, narwhals (Monodon monoceros) have lived in relative isolation from human perturbation and sustained predation pressures. The resulting naïvety has made this cryptic, deep-diving cetacean highly susceptible to disturbance, although quantifiable effects have been lacking. We deployed a submersible, animal-borne electrocardiograph-accelerometer-depth recorder to monitor physiological and behavioral responses of East Greenland narwhals after release from net entanglement and stranding...
December 8, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217323/noninvasive-monitoring-of-physiologic-compromise-in-acute-appendicitis-new-insight-into-an-old-disease
#16
Young Mee Choi, David Leopold, Kristen Campbell, Jane Mulligan, Greg Z Grudic, Steven L Moulton
INTRODUCTION: Physiologic compromise in children with acute appendicitis has heretofore been difficult to measure. We hypothesized that the Compensatory Reserve Index (CRI), a novel adjunctive cardiovascular status indicator, would be low for children presenting with acute appendicitis in proportion to their physiological compromise, and that CRI would rise with fluid resuscitation and surgical management of their disease. METHODS: Ninety-four children diagnosed with acute appendicitis were monitored with a CipherOx CRI™ M1 pulse oximeter (Flashback Technologies Inc...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216341/use-and-importance-of-nonhuman-primates-in-metabolic-disease-research-current-state-of-the-field
#17
Peter J Havel, Paul Kievit, Anthony G Comuzzie, Andrew A Bremer
Obesity and its multiple metabolic sequelae, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and fatty liver disease, are becoming increasingly widespread in both the developed and developing world. There is an urgent need to identify new approaches for the prevention and treatment of these costly and prevalent metabolic conditions. Accomplishing this will require the use of appropriate animal models for preclinical and translational investigations in metabolic disease research. Although studies in rodent models are often useful for target/pathway identification and testing hypotheses, there are important differences in metabolic physiology between rodents and primates, and experimental findings in rodent models have often failed to be successfully translated into new, clinically useful therapeutic modalities in humans...
December 5, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215538/cortisol-outperforms-novel-cardiovascular-inflammatory-and-neurohumoral-biomarkers-in-the-prediction-of-outcome-in-acute-pancreatitis
#18
Christian A Nebiker, Sebastian Staubli, Juliane Schäfer, Roland Bingisser, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Salome Dell-Kuster, Christian Mueller, Karla Scamardi, Carsten T Viehl, Dieter Kolleth, Urs von Holzen, Daniel Oertli, Rachel Rosenthal
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess whether copeptin, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, proadrenomedullin, and cortisol are associated with disease severity in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) and to compare their ability in predicting organ failure or death. METHODS: From April 2011 to January 2015, 142 patients with AP were included in this prospective single-center study and observed for 4 days. Disease severity was rated by the Atlanta 1992 and 2012 criteria and organ failure by the modified Marshall score...
December 5, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215023/a-pilot-characterization-of-the-human-chronobiome
#19
Carsten Skarke, Nicholas F Lahens, Seth D Rhoades, Amy Campbell, Kyle Bittinger, Aubrey Bailey, Christian Hoffmann, Randal S Olson, Lihong Chen, Guangrui Yang, Thomas S Price, Jason H Moore, Frederic D Bushman, Casey S Greene, Gregory R Grant, Aalim M Weljie, Garret A FitzGerald
Physiological function, disease expression and drug effects vary by time-of-day. Clock disruption in mice results in cardio-metabolic, immunological and neurological dysfunction; circadian misalignment using forced desynchrony increases cardiovascular risk factors in humans. Here we integrated data from remote sensors, physiological and multi-omics analyses to assess the feasibility of detecting time dependent signals - the chronobiome - despite the "noise" attributable to the behavioral differences of free-living human volunteers...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214922/the-design-and-rationale-of-an-interdisciplinary-non-prescriptive-and-health-at-every-size%C3%A2-based-clinical-trial-the-health-and-wellness-in-obesity-study
#20
Mariana D Ulian, Bruno Gualano, Fabiana B Benatti, Patricia Lopes de Campos-Ferraz, Desire Coelho, Odilon J Roble, Fernanda Sabatini, Isabel Perez, Luiz Aburad, Ana Jéssica Pinto, André Vessoni, Jhessica Campos Victor, Victoria Kupper Lima, Ramiro Fernandez Unsain, Priscila de Morais Sato, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Tatiana Natasha Toporcov, Fernanda B Scagliusi
BACKGROUND: This manuscript describes the design and rationale of a clinical trial that aims to investigate the multiple physiological, attitudinal, nutritional, and behavioral effects of a new interdisciplinary intervention based on the Health at Every Size® (HAES®) approach in obese women. METHODS: This will be a prospective, 7-month, randomized (2:1), mixed-method clinical trial. Obese women will be recruited and randomly allocated into two groups. The intervention group (I-HAES®; proposed n = 40) will undertake a novel HAES®-based intervention...
December 2017: Nutrition and Health
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