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Cardiovascular physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678339/usefulness-of-pulmonary-arterial-end-diastolic-forward-flow-late-after-tetralogy-of-fallot-repair-to-predict-a-restrictive-right-ventricle
#1
Shelby Kutty, Anne Marie Valente, Matthew T White, Kelsey Hickey, David A Danford, Andrew J Powell, Tal Geva
The functional significance of pulmonary arterial end-diastolic forward flow (EDFF) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) is not fully understood, with conflicting reports regarding its associations with pulmonary regurgitation (PR), right ventricular (RV) size and function, and so-called restrictive RV physiology. To examine these associations, we retrospectively analyzed 399 patients with rTOF who had contemporaneous echocardiography (Echo) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) studies...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677517/gpr68-senses-flow-and-is-essential-for-vascular-physiology
#2
Jie Xu, Jayanti Mathur, Emilie Vessières, Scott Hammack, Keiko Nonomura, Julie Favre, Linda Grimaud, Matt Petrus, Allain Francisco, Jingyuan Li, Van Lee, Fu-Li Xiang, James K Mainquist, Stuart M Cahalan, Anthony P Orth, John R Walker, Shang Ma, Viktor Lukacs, Laura Bordone, Michael Bandell, Bryan Laffitte, Yan Xu, Shu Chien, Daniel Henrion, Ardem Patapoutian
Mechanotransduction plays a crucial role in vascular biology. One example of this is the local regulation of vascular resistance via flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Impairment of this process is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction and a precursor to a wide array of vascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Yet the molecules responsible for sensing flow (shear stress) within endothelial cells remain largely unknown. We designed a 384-well screening system that applies shear stress on cultured cells...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677212/pulsatile-operation-of-a-continuous-flow-right-ventricular-assist-device-rvad-to-improve-vascular-pulsatility
#3
Boon C Ng, Matthias Kleinheyer, Peter A Smith, Daniel Timms, William E Cohn, Einly Lim
Despite the widespread acceptance of rotary blood pump (RBP) in clinical use over the past decades, the diminished flow pulsatility generated by a fixed speed RBP has been regarded as a potential factor that may lead to adverse events such as vasculature stiffening and hemorrhagic strokes. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of generating physiological pulse pressure in the pulmonary circulation by modulating the speed of a right ventricular assist device (RVAD) in a mock circulation loop. A rectangular pulse profile with predetermined pulse width has been implemented as the pump speed pattern with two different phase shifts (0% and 50%) with respect to the ventricular contraction...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675404/neonatal-hemodynamics-from-developmental-physiology-to-comprehensive-monitoring
#4
REVIEW
Sabine L Vrancken, Arno F van Heijst, Willem P de Boode
Maintenance of neonatal circulatory homeostasis is a real challenge, due to the complex physiology during postnatal transition and the inherent immaturity of the cardiovascular system and other relevant organs. It is known that abnormal cardiovascular function during the neonatal period is associated with increased risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Understanding the functional and structural characteristics of the neonatal circulation is, therefore, essential, as therapeutic hemodynamic interventions should be based on the assumed underlying (patho)physiology...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673874/origins-of-lifetime-health-around-the-time-of-conception-causes-and-consequences
#5
REVIEW
Tom P Fleming, Adam J Watkins, Miguel A Velazquez, John C Mathers, Andrew M Prentice, Judith Stephenson, Mary Barker, Richard Saffery, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Judith J Eckert, Mark A Hanson, Terrence Forrester, Peter D Gluckman, Keith M Godfrey
Parental environmental factors, including diet, body composition, metabolism, and stress, affect the health and chronic disease risk of people throughout their lives, as captured in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept. Research across the epidemiological, clinical, and basic science fields has identified the period around conception as being crucial for the processes mediating parental influences on the health of the next generation. During this time, from the maturation of gametes through to early embryonic development, parental lifestyle can adversely influence long-term risks of offspring cardiovascular, metabolic, immune, and neurological morbidities, often termed developmental programming...
April 16, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673469/thyroid-hormones-and-cardiovascular-function-and-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Salman Razvi, Avais Jabbar, Alessandro Pingitore, Sara Danzi, Bernadette Biondi, Irwin Klein, Robin Peeters, Azfar Zaman, Giorgio Iervasi
Thyroid hormone (TH) receptors are present in the myocardium and vascular tissue, and minor alterations in TH concentration can affect cardiovascular (CV) physiology. The potential mechanisms that link CV disease with thyroid dysfunction are endothelial dysfunction, changes in blood pressure, myocardial systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and dyslipidemia. In addition, cardiac disease itself may lead to alterations in TH concentrations (notably, low triiodothyronine syndrome) that are associated with higher morbidity and mortality...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671248/executive-function-and-quality-of-life-in-individuals-with-marfan-syndrome
#7
Ileana Ratiu, Thomas B Virden, Hope Baylow, Melissa Flint, Mitra Esfandiarei
PURPOSE: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder that affects skeletal, ocular, pulmonary, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. Psychological and physiologic symptoms may lead to diminished quality of life (QoL) in individuals with MFS compared with healthy individuals. Currently, there is little evidence regarding the impact of MFS on executive function and QoL. This study examined perceptions of executive function and QoL among persons with MFS. METHOD: A total of 318 participants with MFS completed surveys assessing perceptions of executive function abilities and QoL...
April 18, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669697/the-prevalence-of-sarcopaenia-in-a-vascular-surgical-patient-cohort-and-its-impact-on-outcome
#8
Rachel Heard, Douglas Black, George Ramsay, Neil Scott, Diane Hildebrand
BACKGROUND: Sarcopaenia, loss of lean muscle mass and quality, has prognostic significance and can be used to guide the management of oncology patients.1 However, there is limited research into the prevalence and effect of sarcopaenia in vascular populations. We aim to investigate the prevalence of this measure of physiological reserve in a vascular patient group. METHODS: All patients admitted to a tertiary vascular unit in a single year were considered for the study...
April 16, 2018: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668847/adiponectin-determines-farnesoid-x-receptor-agonism-mediated-cardioprotection-against-post-infarction-remodeling-and-dysfunction
#9
Yunlong Xia, Fuyang Zhang, Shihao Zhao, Yueyang Li, Xiyao Chen, Erhe Gao, Xinyue Xu, Zhenyu Xiong, Xiaomeng Zhang, Jinglong Zhang, Huishou Zhao, Wei Wang, Helin Wang, Yanjie Guo, Yi Liu, Congye Li, Shan Wang, Ling Zhang, Wenjun Yan, Ling Tao
Aims: The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the metabolic nuclear receptor superfamily that plays a critical regulatory role in cardiovascular physiology/pathology. However, the role of systemic FXR activation in the chronic phase in myocardial infarction (MI)-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of long-term FXR activation on post-MI cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. Methods and Results: Mice underwent either MI surgery or sham operation...
April 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668322/time-course-of-compensatory-physiological-responses-to-central-hypovolemia-in-high-and-low-tolerant-human-subjects
#10
Lusha Xiang, Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde, Kathy L Ryan, Caroline A Rickards, Victor A Convertino
Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) simulates hemorrhage in humans. Most subjects (67%) exhibited high tolerance (HT) to hypovolemia, while the remainder (33%) has low tolerance (LT). To investigate the mechanisms for decompensation to hypovolemia in HT and LT subjects, we characterized the time course of total peripheral resistance (TPR), heart rate (HR) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during LBNP to tolerance determined by the onset of decompensation (presyncope, PS). We hypothesized that 1) maximum (max) TPR, HR, and MSNA would coincide, and 2) PS results from simultaneous decreases in TPR, HR and MSNA in LT and HT, but occur earlier in LT versus HT subjects...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668044/impairments-in-hemodynamic-responses-to-orthostasis-associated-with-frailty-results-from-the-irish-longitudinal-study-on-ageing-tilda
#11
Matthew Dl O'Connell, George M Savva, Ciarán Finucane, Roman Romero-Ortuno, Chie Wei Fan, Rose Anne Kenny
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the relationships between orthostatic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate recovery and frailty in an older population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two health centers in the Republic of Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing participants aged 50 and older (N=4,334). MEASUREMENTS: Continuous noninvasive BP responses during active standing were captured using digital photoplethysmography...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666136/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-diabetes-mellitus-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-condition-epidemiology-in-sexual-minority-women
#12
Catherine Meads, Adam Martin, Jeffrey Grierson, Justin Varney
OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority women (SMW) experience higher chronic disease risk factors than heterosexual counterparts. However, it was unclear if these risks translate into higher physical condition rates. This systematic review evaluates cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, respiratory disease and diabetes mellitus in SMW. METHODS: A protocol was registered with the Prospero database (CRD42016050299). Included were studies reporting mortality, incidence or prevalence of the above-listed conditions in SMW compared with heterosexual women...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665043/the-act-of-answering-questions-elicited-differentiated-responses-in-a-concealed-information-test
#13
Takuro Otsuka, Mitsuyoshi Mizutani, Akihiro Yagi, Jun'ichi Katayama
The concealed information test (CIT), a psychophysiological detection of deception test, compares physiological responses between crime-related and crime-unrelated items. In previous studies, whether the act of answering questions affected physiological responses was unclear. This study examined effects of both question-related and answer-related processes on physiological responses. Twenty participants received a modified CIT, in which the interval between presentation of questions and answering them was 27 s...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663995/-risk-factors-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-critical-ill-patients
#14
Jianyu Fu, Hongying Bi, Yunsong Xia, Hui Fang, Xu Liu, Yan Tang, Difen Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical features of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, and to explore the correlation between the routine detection index and the new-onset AF and to find out risk factors for new AF in critically ill patients. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted. The patients with AF admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of the Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University from March 2016 to June 2017 were enrolled. The patients were divided into new-onset AF group and past-existed AF group according to their past history of AF (including persistent AF, paroxysmal AF or permanent AF)...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663892/complement-components-c3-and-c4-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Melanie Copenhaver, Chack-Yung Yu, Robert P Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Increased systemic inflammation is engaged likely plays a significant role in the development of adult cardiometabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. The complement system is part of the innate immune system and plays a key role in in regulation inflammation. Of particular importance is the activation of complement components C3 and C4. C3 is produced primarily by the liver but is also produced in adipocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells, all of which are present in adipose tissue...
April 17, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662456/dynamic-regulation-of-circulating-micrornas-during-acute-exercise-and-long-term-exercise-training-in-basketball-athletes
#16
Yongqin Li, Mengchao Yao, Qiulian Zhou, Yan Cheng, Lin Che, Jiahong Xu, Junjie Xiao, Zhongming Shen, Yihua Bei
Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661689/cardiometabolic-risk-and-female-sexuality-part-ii-understanding-and-overcoming-gender-differences-the-key-role-of-an-adequate-methodological-approach
#17
REVIEW
Elisa Maseroli, Irene Scavello, Linda Vignozzi
INTRODUCTION: Although basic science and clinical research indicate that the vascular physiopathology of male and female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is similar, to date the association between FSD and cardiovascular (CV) diseases has been only marginally explored. AIM: To discuss the potential reasons for differences in the role of CV diseases and risk factors in sexual function in women vs men in the 2nd part of a 2-part review. METHODS: A thorough literature search of peer-reviewed publications on the topic was performed using the PubMed database...
April 13, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660366/tools-and-drugs-for-uracil-nucleotide-activated-p2y-receptors
#18
REVIEW
Muhammad Rafehi, Christa E Müller
P2Y receptors (P2YRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors activated by extracellular nucleotides. Physiological P2YR agonists include purine and pyrimidine nucleoside di- and triphosphates, such as ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP, nucleotide sugars, and dinucleotides. Eight subtypes exist, P2Y1 , P2Y2 , P2Y4 , P2Y6 , P2Y11 , P2Y12 , P2Y13 , and P2Y14 , which represent current or potential future drug targets. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of ligands for the subgroup of the P2YR family that is activated by uracil nucleotides: P2Y2 (UTP, also ATP and dinucleotides), P2Y4 (UTP), P2Y6 (UDP), and P2Y14 (UDP, UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose)...
April 13, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660362/variability-in-cerebral-blood-flow-velocity-at-rest-and-during-mental-stress-in-healthy-individuals-associations-with-cardiovascular-parameters-and-cognitive-performance
#19
Casandra I Montoro, Stefan Duschek, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso
This study analyzed variability in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and possible underlying physiological mechanisms during rest and a mental arithmetic task. Blood flow velocities were bilaterally recorded by transcranial Doppler sonography in the anterior and middle cerebral arteries of 43 participants. Electrocardiography, continuous blood pressure (BP) and respiratory recordings were additionally obtained. Fast Fourier transformation revealed a spectral profile with two main components in CBFV, one in the very low frequency (VLF, 0...
April 13, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659929/cross-associations-between-physical-activity-and-sedentary-time-on-metabolic-health-a-comparative-assessment-using-self-reported-and-objectively-measured-activity
#20
Niels Thakkar, Veronica Jamnik, Chris I Ardern
Purpose: Physical activity and sedentary time have distinct physiologic and metabolic effects, but little is known about their joint associations. Methods: The Canadian Health Measures Survey (n = 5950) was used to (i) examine the joint relationship between active/non-sedentary (referent group), active/sedentary, inactive/non-sedentary and inactive/sedentary phenotypes on obesity and metabolic health; and (ii) compare these relationships when using objective (accelerometer) total activity or subjective (self-report) leisure-time measures...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Public Health
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