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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766769/movement-vigor-as-a-trait-like-attribute-of-individuality
#1
Thomas Reed Reppert, Ioannis Rigas, David Herzfeld, Ehsan Sedaghat-Nejad, Oleg Komogortsev, Reza Shadmehr
A common aspect of individuality is our subjective preferences in evaluation of reward and effort. The neural circuits that evaluate these commodities influence circuits that control our movements, raising the possibility that vigor differences between individuals may also be a trait of individuality, reflecting a willingness to expend effort. In contrast, classic theories in motor-control suggest that vigor differences reflect a speed-accuracy trade-off, predicting that those who move fast are sacrificing accuracy for speed...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537911/vigor-of-reaching-movements-reward-discounts-the-cost-of-effort
#2
Erik Summerside, Reza Shadmehr, Alaa A Ahmed
Making a movement may be thought of as an economic decision in which one spends effort in order to acquire reward. Time discounts reward, which predicts that the magnitude of reward should affect movement vigor: we should move faster, spending greater effort, when there is greater reward at stake. Indeed, saccade peak velocities are greater and reaction-times are shorter when a target is paired with reward. Here, we focused on human reaching and asked whether movement kinematics were affected by expectation of reward...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391243/incentives-facilitate-developmental-improvement-in-inhibitory-control-by-modulating-control-related-networks
#3
Michael N Hallquist, Charles F Geier, Beatriz Luna
Adolescence is a period of heightened sensitivity to incentives and relatively weak cognitive control, which may contribute to risky behaviors. Studies of brain activity have generally identified greater activation of the ventral striatum to rewards and less activation of prefrontal regions during control tasks in adolescents compared to adults. Little is known, however, about age-related changes in the functional brain networks underlying incentive processing and cognitive control. This cross-sectional study characterized the effects of incentives on inhibitory control during an oculomotor task using whole-brain functional connectivity analyses...
May 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357279/practice-related-changes-in-eye-movement-strategy-in-healthy-adults-with-simulated-hemianopia
#4
Anna Nowakowska, Alasdair D F Clarke, Arash Sahraie, Amelia R Hunt
The impact of visual field deficits such as hemianopia can be mitigated by eye movements that position the visual image within the intact visual field. Effective eye movement strategies are not observed in all patients, however, and it is not known whether persistent deficits are due to injury or to pre-existing individual differences. Here we examined whether repeated exposure to a search task with rewards for good performance would lead to better eye movement strategies in healthy individuals. Participants were exposed to simulated hemianopia during a search task in five testing sessions over five consecutive days and received monetary payment for improvements in search times...
January 31, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311323/suppression-of-frontal-eye-field-neuronal-responses-with-maintained-fixation
#5
Koorosh Mirpour, Zeinab Bolandnazar, James W Bisley
The decision of where to make an eye movement is thought to be driven primarily by responses to stimuli in neurons' receptive fields (RFs) in oculomotor areas, including the frontal eye field (FEF) of prefrontal cortex. It is also thought that a saccade may be generated when the accumulation of this activity in favor of one location or another reaches a threshold. However, in the reading and scene perception fields, it is well known that the properties of the stimulus at the fovea often affect when the eyes leave that stimulus...
January 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208918/the-necessity-to-choose-causes-the-effects-of-reward-on-saccade-preparation
#6
Christian Wolf, Anna Heuer, Anna Schubö, Alexander C Schütz
When humans have to choose between different options, they can maximize their payoff by choosing the option that yields the highest reward. Information about reward is not only used to optimize decisions but also for movement preparation to minimize reaction times to rewarded targets. Here, we show that this is especially true in contexts in which participants additionally have to choose between different options. We probed eye movement preparation by measuring saccade latencies to differently rewarded single targets (single-trial) appearing left or right from fixation...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187831/learning-where-to-look-for-high-value-improves-decision-making-asymmetrically
#7
Jaron T Colas, Joy Lu
Decision making in any brain is imperfect and costly in terms of time and energy. Operating under such constraints, an organism could be in a position to improve performance if an opportunity arose to exploit informative patterns in the environment being searched. Such an improvement of performance could entail both faster and more accurate (i.e., reward-maximizing) decisions. The present study investigated the extent to which human participants could learn to take advantage of immediate patterns in the spatial arrangement of serially presented foods such that a region of space would consistently be associated with greater subjective value...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116867/the-effects-of-smoking-abstinence-on-incentivized-spatial-working-memory
#8
Charles Geier, Nicole Roberts, David Lydon-Staley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reward processing and working memory (WM) underlie value-based decision-making; consequently, joint examination of these systems may further our understanding of why smokers choose to smoke again following a quit attempt (relapse). While previous studies have demonstrated altered reward and WM function associated with nicotine exposure, little is known about the effects of abstinence on the joint function of these systems. The current study aims to address this gap...
January 2, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100871/overt-and-covert-attention-to-location-based-reward
#9
Brónagh McCoy, Jan Theeuwes
Recent research on the impact of location-based reward on attentional orienting has indicated that reward factors play an influential role in spatial priority maps. The current study investigated whether and how reward associations based on spatial location translate from overt eye movements to covert attention. If reward associations can be tied to locations in space, and if overt and covert attention rely on similar overlapping neuronal populations, then both overt and covert attentional measures should display similar spatial-based reward learning...
October 26, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071352/characterizing-eye-movement-behaviors-and-kinematics-of-non-human-primates-during-virtual-navigation-tasks
#10
Benjamin W Corrigan, Roberto A Gulli, Guillaume Doucet, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Virtual environments (VE) allow testing complex behaviors in naturalistic settings by combining highly controlled visual stimuli with spatial navigation and other cognitive tasks. They also allow for the recording of eye movements using high-precision eye tracking techniques, which is important in electrophysiological studies examining the response properties of neurons in visual areas of nonhuman primates. However, during virtual navigation, the pattern of retinal stimulation can be highly dynamic which may influence eye movements...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052730/the-reward-of-seeing-different-types-of-visual-reward-and-their-ability-to-modify-oculomotor-learning
#11
Annegret Meermeier, Svenja Gremmler, Kerstin Richert, Til Eckermann, Markus Lappe
Saccadic adaptation is an oculomotor learning process that maintains the accuracy of eye movements to ensure effective perception of the environment. Although saccadic adaptation is commonly considered an automatic and low-level motor calibration in the cerebellum, we recently found that strength of adaptation is influenced by the visual content of the target: pictures of humans produced stronger adaptation than noise stimuli. This suggests that meaningful images may be considered rewarding or valuable in oculomotor learning...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051496/evidence-for-a-task-dependent-switch-in-subthalamo-nigral-basal-ganglia-signaling
#12
Jay J Jantz, Masayuki Watanabe, Ron Levy, Douglas P Munoz
Basal ganglia (BG) can either facilitate or inhibit movement through excitatory and inhibitory pathways; however whether these opposing signals are dynamically regulated during healthy behavior is not known. Here, we present compelling neurophysiological evidence from three complimentary experiments in non-human primates, indicating task-specific changes in tonic BG pathway weightings during saccade behavior with different cognitive demands. First, simultaneous local field potential recording in the subthalamic nucleus (STN; BG input) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr; BG output) reveals task-dependent shifts in subthalamo-nigral signals...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045458/individual-differences-in-responsivity-to-social-rewards-insights-from-two-eye-tracking-tasks
#13
Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Anthony Haffey, Loredana Canzano, Christopher P Taylor, Eugene McSorley
Humans generally prefer social over nonsocial stimuli from an early age. Reduced preference for social rewards has been observed in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). This preference has typically been noted in separate tasks that measure orienting toward and engaging with social stimuli. In this experiment, we used two eye-tracking tasks to index both of these aspects of social preference in in 77 typical adults. We used two measures, global effect and preferential looking time. The global effect task measures saccadic deviation toward a social stimulus (related to 'orienting'), while the preferential looking task records gaze duration bias toward social stimuli (relating to 'engaging')...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931609/movement-related-activity-in-the-periarcuate-cortex-of-monkeys-during-coordinated-eye-and-hand-movements
#14
Kiyoshi Kurata
To determine the role of the periarcuate cortex during coordinated eye and hand movements in monkeys, the present study examined neuronal activity in this region during movement with the hand, eyes, or both as effectors toward a visuospatial target. Similar to the primary motor cortex (M1), the dorsal premotor cortex contained a higher proportion of neurons that were closely related to hand movements, whereas saccade-related neurons were frequently recorded from the frontal eye field (FEF). Interestingly, neurons that exhibited activity related to both eye and hand movements were recorded most frequently in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), located between the FEF and M1...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733591/predictive-and-tempo-flexible-synchronization-to-a-visual-metronome-in-monkeys
#15
Ryuji Takeya, Masashi Kameda, Aniruddh D Patel, Masaki Tanaka
Predictive and tempo-flexible synchronization to an auditory beat is a fundamental component of human music. To date, only certain vocal learning species show this behaviour spontaneously. Prior research training macaques (vocal non-learners) to tap to an auditory or visual metronome found their movements to be largely reactive, not predictive. Does this reflect the lack of capacity for predictive synchronization in monkeys, or lack of motivation to exhibit this behaviour? To discriminate these possibilities, we trained monkeys to make synchronized eye movements to a visual metronome...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662236/earlier-saccades-to-task-relevant-targets-irrespective-of-relative-gain-between-peripheral-and-foveal-information
#16
Christian Wolf, Alexander C Schütz
Saccades bring objects of interest onto the fovea for high-acuity processing. Saccades to rewarded targets show shorter latencies that correlate negatively with expected motivational value. Shorter latencies are also observed when the saccade target is relevant for a perceptual discrimination task. Here we tested whether saccade preparation is equally influenced by informational value as it is by motivational value. We defined informational value as the probability that information is task-relevant times the ratio between postsaccadic foveal and presaccadic peripheral discriminability...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521141/indirect-pathway-of-caudal-basal-ganglia-for-rejection-of-valueless-visual-objects
#17
Hyoung F Kim, Hidetoshi Amita, Okihide Hikosaka
The striatum controls behavior in two ways: facilitation and suppression through the direct and indirect pathways, respectively. However, it is still unclear what information is processed in these pathways. To address this question, we studied two pathways originating from the primate caudate tail (CDt). We found that the CDt innervated the caudal-dorsal-lateral part of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (cdlSNr), directly or indirectly through the caudal-ventral part of the globus pallidus externus (cvGPe)...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499971/selective-reward-affects-the-rate-of-saccade-adaptation
#18
Yoshiko Kojima, Robijanto Soetedjo
In this study we tested whether a selective reward could affect the adaptation of saccadic eye movements in monkeys. We induced the adaptation of saccades by displacing the target of a horizontal saccade vertically as the eye moved toward it, thereby creating an apparent vertical dysmetria. The repeated upward target displacement caused the originally horizontal saccade to gradually deviate upward over the course of several hundred trials. We induced this directional adaptation in both right- and leftward saccades in every experiment (n=20)...
July 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443002/to-wait-or-not-to-wait-separate-mechanisms-in-the-oculomotor-circuit-of-basal-ganglia
#19
Masaharu Yasuda, Okihide Hikosaka
We reach a goal immediately after detecting the target, or later by withholding the immediate action. Each time, we choose one of these actions by suppressing the other. How does the brain control these antagonistic actions? We hypothesized that the output of basal ganglia (BG), substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), suppresses antagonistic oculomotor signals by sending strong inhibitory output to superior colliculus (SC). To test this hypothesis, we trained monkeys to perform two kinds of saccade task: Immediate (visually guided) and delayed (visually-withheld but memory-guided) saccade tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373569/parietal-neurons-encode-expected-gains-in-instrumental-information
#20
Nicholas C Foley, Simon P Kelly, Himanshu Mhatre, Manuel Lopes, Jacqueline Gottlieb
In natural behavior, animals have access to multiple sources of information, but only a few of these sources are relevant for learning and actions. Beyond choosing an appropriate action, making good decisions entails the ability to choose the relevant information, but fundamental questions remain about the brain's information sampling policies. Recent studies described the neural correlates of seeking information about a reward, but it remains unknown whether, and how, neurons encode choices of instrumental information, in contexts in which the information guides subsequent actions...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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