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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116867/the-effects-of-smoking-abstinence-on-incentivized-spatial-working-memory
#1
Charles Geier, Nicole Roberts, David Lydon-Staley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reward processing and working memory (WM) underlie value-based decision-making; consequently, joint examination of these systems may further our understanding of why smokers choose to smoke again following a quit attempt (relapse). While previous studies have demonstrated altered reward and WM function associated with nicotine exposure, little is known about the effects of abstinence on the joint function of these systems. The current study aims to address this gap...
November 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100871/overt-and-covert-attention-to-location-based-reward
#2
Brónagh McCoy, Jan Theeuwes
Recent research on the impact of location-based reward on attentional orienting has indicated that reward factors play an influential role in spatial priority maps. The current study investigated whether and how reward associations based on spatial location translate from overt eye movements to covert attention. If reward associations can be tied to locations in space, and if overt and covert attention rely on similar overlapping neuronal populations, then both overt and covert attentional measures should display similar spatial-based reward learning...
October 26, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071352/characterizing-eye-movement-behaviors-and-kinematics-of-non-human-primates-during-virtual-navigation-tasks
#3
Benjamin W Corrigan, Roberto A Gulli, Guillaume Doucet, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Virtual environments (VE) allow testing complex behaviors in naturalistic settings by combining highly controlled visual stimuli with spatial navigation and other cognitive tasks. They also allow for the recording of eye movements using high-precision eye tracking techniques, which is important in electrophysiological studies examining the response properties of neurons in visual areas of nonhuman primates. However, during virtual navigation, the pattern of retinal stimulation can be highly dynamic which may influence eye movements...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052730/the-reward-of-seeing-different-types-of-visual-reward-and-their-ability-to-modify-oculomotor-learning
#4
Annegret Meermeier, Svenja Gremmler, Kerstin Richert, Til Eckermann, Markus Lappe
Saccadic adaptation is an oculomotor learning process that maintains the accuracy of eye movements to ensure effective perception of the environment. Although saccadic adaptation is commonly considered an automatic and low-level motor calibration in the cerebellum, we recently found that strength of adaptation is influenced by the visual content of the target: pictures of humans produced stronger adaptation than noise stimuli. This suggests that meaningful images may be considered rewarding or valuable in oculomotor learning...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051496/evidence-for-a-task-dependent-switch-in-subthalamo-nigral-basal-ganglia-signaling
#5
Jay J Jantz, Masayuki Watanabe, Ron Levy, Douglas P Munoz
Basal ganglia (BG) can either facilitate or inhibit movement through excitatory and inhibitory pathways; however whether these opposing signals are dynamically regulated during healthy behavior is not known. Here, we present compelling neurophysiological evidence from three complimentary experiments in non-human primates, indicating task-specific changes in tonic BG pathway weightings during saccade behavior with different cognitive demands. First, simultaneous local field potential recording in the subthalamic nucleus (STN; BG input) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr; BG output) reveals task-dependent shifts in subthalamo-nigral signals...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045458/individual-differences-in-responsivity-to-social-rewards-insights-from-two-eye-tracking-tasks
#6
Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Anthony Haffey, Loredana Canzano, Christopher P Taylor, Eugene McSorley
Humans generally prefer social over nonsocial stimuli from an early age. Reduced preference for social rewards has been observed in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). This preference has typically been noted in separate tasks that measure orienting toward and engaging with social stimuli. In this experiment, we used two eye-tracking tasks to index both of these aspects of social preference in in 77 typical adults. We used two measures, global effect and preferential looking time. The global effect task measures saccadic deviation toward a social stimulus (related to 'orienting'), while the preferential looking task records gaze duration bias toward social stimuli (relating to 'engaging')...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931609/movement-related-activity-in-the-periarcuate-cortex-of-monkeys-during-coordinated-eye-and-hand-movements
#7
Kiyoshi Kurata
To determine the role of the periarcuate cortex during coordinated eye and hand movements in monkeys, the present study examined neuronal activity in this region during movement with the hand, eyes, or both as effectors toward a visuospatial target. Similar to the primary motor cortex (M1), the dorsal premotor cortex contained a higher proportion of neurons that were closely related to hand movements, whereas saccade-related neurons were frequently recorded from the frontal eye field (FEF). Interestingly, neurons that exhibited activity related to both eye and hand movements were recorded most frequently in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), located between the FEF and M1...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733591/predictive-and-tempo-flexible-synchronization-to-a-visual-metronome-in-monkeys
#8
Ryuji Takeya, Masashi Kameda, Aniruddh D Patel, Masaki Tanaka
Predictive and tempo-flexible synchronization to an auditory beat is a fundamental component of human music. To date, only certain vocal learning species show this behaviour spontaneously. Prior research training macaques (vocal non-learners) to tap to an auditory or visual metronome found their movements to be largely reactive, not predictive. Does this reflect the lack of capacity for predictive synchronization in monkeys, or lack of motivation to exhibit this behaviour? To discriminate these possibilities, we trained monkeys to make synchronized eye movements to a visual metronome...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662236/earlier-saccades-to-task-relevant-targets-irrespective-of-relative-gain-between-peripheral-and-foveal-information
#9
Christian Wolf, Alexander C Schütz
Saccades bring objects of interest onto the fovea for high-acuity processing. Saccades to rewarded targets show shorter latencies that correlate negatively with expected motivational value. Shorter latencies are also observed when the saccade target is relevant for a perceptual discrimination task. Here we tested whether saccade preparation is equally influenced by informational value as it is by motivational value. We defined informational value as the probability that information is task-relevant times the ratio between postsaccadic foveal and presaccadic peripheral discriminability...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521141/indirect-pathway-of-caudal-basal-ganglia-for-rejection-of-valueless-visual-objects
#10
Hyoung F Kim, Hidetoshi Amita, Okihide Hikosaka
The striatum controls behavior in two ways: facilitation and suppression through the direct and indirect pathways, respectively. However, it is still unclear what information is processed in these pathways. To address this question, we studied two pathways originating from the primate caudate tail (CDt). We found that the CDt innervated the caudal-dorsal-lateral part of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (cdlSNr), directly or indirectly through the caudal-ventral part of the globus pallidus externus (cvGPe)...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499971/selective-reward-affects-the-rate-of-saccade-adaptation
#11
Yoshiko Kojima, Robijanto Soetedjo
In this study we tested whether a selective reward could affect the adaptation of saccadic eye movements in monkeys. We induced the adaptation of saccades by displacing the target of a horizontal saccade vertically as the eye moved toward it, thereby creating an apparent vertical dysmetria. The repeated upward target displacement caused the originally horizontal saccade to gradually deviate upward over the course of several hundred trials. We induced this directional adaptation in both right- and leftward saccades in every experiment (n=20)...
July 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443002/to-wait-or-not-to-wait-separate-mechanisms-in-the-oculomotor-circuit-of-basal-ganglia
#12
Masaharu Yasuda, Okihide Hikosaka
We reach a goal immediately after detecting the target, or later by withholding the immediate action. Each time, we choose one of these actions by suppressing the other. How does the brain control these antagonistic actions? We hypothesized that the output of basal ganglia (BG), substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), suppresses antagonistic oculomotor signals by sending strong inhibitory output to superior colliculus (SC). To test this hypothesis, we trained monkeys to perform two kinds of saccade task: Immediate (visually guided) and delayed (visually-withheld but memory-guided) saccade tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373569/parietal-neurons-encode-expected-gains-in-instrumental-information
#13
Nicholas C Foley, Simon P Kelly, Himanshu Mhatre, Manuel Lopes, Jacqueline Gottlieb
In natural behavior, animals have access to multiple sources of information, but only a few of these sources are relevant for learning and actions. Beyond choosing an appropriate action, making good decisions entails the ability to choose the relevant information, but fundamental questions remain about the brain's information sampling policies. Recent studies described the neural correlates of seeking information about a reward, but it remains unknown whether, and how, neurons encode choices of instrumental information, in contexts in which the information guides subsequent actions...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263416/the-effect-of-reward-expectation-on-the-time-course-of-perceptual-decisions
#14
Annalisa Tosoni, Giorgia Committeri, Cinzia Calluso, Gaspare Galati
Perceptual discriminations can be strongly biased by the expected reward for a correct decision but the neural mechanisms underlying this influence are still partially unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a task requiring to arbitrarily associate a visual stimulus with a specific action, we have recently shown that perceptual decisions are encoded within the same sensory-motor regions responsible for planning and executing specific motor actions. Here we examined whether these regions additionally encode the amount of expected reward for a perceptual decision...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930724/efficient-avoidance-of-the-penalty-zone-in-human-eye-movements
#15
Markku Kilpeläinen, Jan Theeuwes
People use eye movements extremely effectively to find objects of interest in a cluttered visual scene. Distracting, task-irrelevant attention capturing regions in the visual field should be avoided as they jeopardize the efficiency of search. In the current study, we used eye tracking to determine whether people are able to avoid making saccades to a predetermined visual area associated with a financial penalty, while making fast and accurate saccades towards stimuli placed near the penalty area. We found that in comparison to the same task without a penalty area, the introduction of a penalty area immediately affected eye movement behaviour: the proportion of saccades to the penalty area was immediately reduced...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891082/reward-and-behavioral-factors-contributing-to-the-tonic-activity-of-monkey-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-neurons-during-saccade-tasks
#16
Ken-Ichi Okada, Yasushi Kobayashi
The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) in the brainstem plays a role in controlling reinforcement learning and executing conditioned behavior. We previously examined the activity of PPTg neurons in monkeys during a reward-conditioned, visually guided saccade task, and reported that a population of these neurons exhibited tonic responses throughout the task period. These tonic responses might depend on prediction of the upcoming reward, successful execution of the task, or both. Here, we sought to further distinguish these factors and to investigate how each contributes to the tonic neuronal activity of the PPTg...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807173/correlation-between-pupil-size-and-subjective-passage-of-time-in-non-human-primates
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tomoki W Suzuki, Jun Kunimatsu, Masaki Tanaka
Our daily experience of time is strongly influenced by internal states, such as arousal, attention, and mood. However, the underlying neuronal mechanism remains largely unknown. To investigate this, we recorded pupil diameter, which is closely linked to internal factors and neuromodulatory signaling, in monkeys performing the oculomotor version of the time production paradigm. In the self-timed saccade task, animals were required to make a memory-guided saccade during a predetermined time interval following a visual cue...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651148/striatal-dopamine-modulates-timing-of-self-initiated-saccades
#18
Jun Kunimatsu, Masaki Tanaka
The ability to adjust movement timing is essential in daily life. Explorations of the underlying neural mechanisms have reported a gradual increase or decrease in neuronal activity prior to self-timed movements within the cortico-basal ganglia loop. Previous studies in both humans and animals have shown that endogenous dopamine (DA) plays a modulatory role in self-timing. However, the specific site of dopaminergic regulation remains elusive because the systemic application of DA-related substances can directly alter both cortical and subcortical neuronal activities...
September 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594825/ecological-origins-of-object-salience-reward-uncertainty-aversiveness-and-novelty
#19
Ali Ghazizadeh, Whitney Griggs, Okihide Hikosaka
Among many objects around us, some are more salient than others (i.e., attract our attention automatically). Some objects may be inherently salient (e.g., brighter), while others may become salient by virtue of their ecological relevance through experience. However, the role of ecological experience in automatic attention has not been studied systematically. To address this question, we let subjects (macaque monkeys) view a large number of complex objects (>300), each experienced repeatedly (>5 days) with rewarding, aversive or no outcome association (mere-perceptual exposure)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582294/effects-of-reward-on-oculomotor-control
#20
Brónagh McCoy, Jan Theeuwes
The present study examines the extent to which distractors that signal the availability of monetary reward on a given trial affect eye movements. We used a novel eye movement task in which observers had to follow a target around the screen while ignoring distractors presented at varying locations. We examined the effects of reward magnitude and distractor location on a host of oculomotor properties, including saccade latency, amplitude, landing position, curvature, and erroneous saccades toward the distractor...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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