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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792472/effects-of-exercise-on-experimentally-manipulated-craving-for-cannabis-a-preliminary-study
#1
Sandy D Wilson, R Lorraine Collins, Mark A Prince, Paula C Vincent
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, and craving for cannabis is related to cannabis use. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce craving for substances. To examine the effects of exercise on cannabis craving, we conducted a 3-week within-subject crossover experiment. Young-adult men (n = 35) and women (n = 11), age 18-25 years (M = 20.76, SD = 1.68), who regularly (≥3 times per week) used cannabis participated in a cue exposure paradigm to stimulate craving. After each of three separate craving inductions, they completed a 10-min bout of exercise that varied in intensity (rest, moderate, vigorous)...
May 24, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792303/recurrent-spontaneous-vertigo-with-interictal-headshaking-nystagmus
#2
Sun-Uk Lee, Jeong-Yoon Choi, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVE: To define a disorder characterized by recurrent spontaneous vertigo (RSV) of unknown etiology and interictal headshaking nystagmus (HSN). METHODS: We characterized HSN in 35 patients with RSV-HSN compared to that recorded in randomly selected patients with compensated vestibular neuritis (VN), vestibular migraine (VM), and Ménière disease (MD). RESULTS: The estimated time constant (TC) of the primary phase of HSN was 12 seconds (95% confidence interval [CI] 12-13) in patients with RSV-HSN, which was larger than those in patients with VN (5 seconds, 95% CI 4-5), VM (5 seconds, 95% CI 5-6), or MD (6 seconds, 95% CI 5-6)...
May 23, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792158/landraces-of-snake-melon-an-ancient-middle-eastern-crop-reveal-extensive-morphological-and-dna-diversity-for-potential-genetic-improvement
#3
Samer Omari, Yuri Kamenir, Jennifer I C Benichou, Sarah Pariente, Hanan Sela, Rafael Perl-Treves
BACKGROUND: Snake melon (Cucumis melo var. flexuosus, "Faqqous") is a traditional and ancient vegetable in the Mediterranean area. A collection of landraces from 42 grower fields in Israel and Palestinian territories was grown and characterized in a "Common Garden" rain-fed experiment, at the morphological-horticultural and molecular level using seq-DArT markers. RESULTS: The different landraces ("populations") showed extensive variation in morphology and quantitative traits such as yield and femaleness, and clustered into four horticultural varieties...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790554/construction-of-dual-functional-polymer-nanomaterials-with-near-infrared-fluorescence-imaging-and-polymer-prodrug-by-raft-mediated-aqueous-dispersion-polymerization
#4
Chun Tian, Jinyun Niu, Xuerui Wei, Yujie Xu, Lifen Zhang, Zhenping Cheng, Xiulin Zhu
The performance of functional polymer nanomaterials is a vigorously discussed topic in polymer science. We devoted ourselves to investigating polymer nanomaterials based on near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging and polymer prodrug in this study. Aza-boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) is an important organic dye, having characteristics such as environmental resistance, light resistance, high molar extinction coefficient, and fluorescence quantum yield. We incorporated it into our target monomer, which can be polymerized without changing its parent structure in a polar solvent and copolymerized with water-soluble monomer to improve the solubility of the dye in an aqueous solution...
May 23, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790293/the-relationship-between-self-reported-restless-sleep-and-objectively-measured-physical-activity-in-adults-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#5
Abigail L Gilbert, Jungwha Lee, Jing Song, Pamela A Semanik, Linda S Ehrlich-Jones, C Kent Kwoh, Dorothy D Dunlop, Rowland W Chang
OBJECTIVE: Despite many health benefits of physical activity, inactivity is endemic among adults with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Because sleep quality may be a target to improve physical activity behavior, we investigated the cross-sectional relationship between restless sleep and physical activity in participants with or at risk for KOA. METHODS: We analyzed accelerometer-measured physical activity and clinical data from Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) participants...
May 22, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789938/meta-analysis-of-physical-activity-and-effects-of-social-function-and-quality-of-life-on-the-physical-activity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Kazutaka Ohi, Yuzuru Kataoka, Takamitsu Shimada, Aki Kuwata, Hiroaki Okubo, Kohei Kimura, Toshiki Yasuyama, Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kawasaki
Schizophrenia patients have increased mortality and morbidity, mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease resulting from decreased physical activity (PA). However, which PA intensity is impaired in the patients and how factors such as social function and quality of life (QoL) are related to decreased PA is unknown. To assess PA, social function and QoL, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Social Functioning Scale (SFS) and Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS), respectively, were used in 109 schizophrenia patients and 69 healthy subjects...
May 22, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789809/development-of-step-count-cut-points-for-school-day-vigorous-physical-activity
#7
Ryan D Burns, Timothy A Brusseau, You Fu, Peng Zhang
Background: No study has established step-count cut points for varying amounts of accelerometer-assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) accrued during the school day in children. The purpose of this study was to establish step-count cut points for discriminating children meeting VPA in 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, and 20 minutes per 7-hour school day. Methods: Participants were a convenience sample of 1,053 children (mean age = 8.4 (1.8) years) recruited from 5 schools from the Mountain West region of the USA...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789711/physical-activity-but-not-sedentary-time-is-associated-with-vitamin-d-status-in-adolescents-study-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-adolescents-erica
#8
Ana Carla Moreira da Silva, Felipe Vogt Cureau, Cecília Lacroix de Oliveira, Denise Tavares Giannini, Katia Vergetti Bloch, Maria Cristina Caetano Kuschnir, Eliane Said Dutra, Beatriz D Schaan, Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The association between active lifestyle components and vitamin D status in adolescents remains relatively unexplored. We aimed to investigate independent and joint associations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in adolescents. METHODS: This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 1152 Brazilian adolescents (age 12-17 years). Serum 25(OH)D was measured in a single laboratory and categorized as ≤20, 21-29, or ≥30 ng/mL...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788479/repeated-cis-regulatory-tuning-of-a-metabolic-bottleneck-gene-during-evolution
#9
Meihua Christina Kuang, Jacek Kominek, William G Alexander, Jan-Fang Cheng, Russell L Wrobel, Chris Todd Hittinger
Repeated evolutionary events imply underlying genetic constraints that can make evolutionary mechanisms predictable. Morphological traits are thought to evolve frequently through cis-regulatory changes because these mechanisms bypass constraints in pleiotropic genes that are reused during development. In contrast, the constraints acting on metabolic traits during evolution are less well studied. Here we show how a metabolic bottleneck gene has repeatedly adopted similar cis-regulatory solutions during evolution, likely due to its pleiotropic role integrating flux from multiple metabolic pathways...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788281/a-method-for-cranial-nerve-xi-silencing-during-surgery-of-the-foramen-magnum-region-technical-case-report
#10
Derek G Southwell, Jonathan D Breshears, William R Lyon, Michael W McDermott
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Skull base surgery involves the microdissection and intraoperative monitoring of cranial nerves, including cranial nerve XI (CN XI). Manipulation of CN XI can evoke brisk trapezius contraction, which in turn may disturb the surgical procedure and risk patient safety. Here we describe a method for temporarily silencing CN XI via direct intraoperative application of 1% lidocaine. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 41-yr-old woman presented with symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure and obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a hemangioblastoma of the right cerebellar tonsil...
May 18, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787775/health-information-exposure-from-information-and-communication-technologies-and-its-associations-with-health-behaviors-population-based-survey
#11
Chen Shen, Man Ping Wang, Alice Wan, Kasisomayajula Viswanath, Sophia Siu Chee Chan, Tai Hing Lam
Health information and communication technologies (ICTs) are increasingly used but little is known about routine exposure to health information from ICTs and its associations with health behaviors. A territory-wide population-based dual landline and mobile telephone survey was conducted in 2016 in Hong Kong, where smartphone ownership and Internet access are among the most prevalent, easiest and fastest in the world. Health information exposure from traditional sources (television/radio/newspaper/magazine), Internet websites, social media sites and instant messaging (IM); and information on smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity were recorded...
May 19, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785450/light-intensity-physical-activity-increases-and-sedentary-behavior-decreases-following-total-knee-arthroplasty-in-patients-with-osteoarthritis
#12
Emmanuel Frimpong, Joanne A McVeigh, Dick van der Jagt, Lipalo Mokete, Yusuf S Kaoje, Mohammed Tikly, Rebecca M Meiring
PURPOSE: To describe objectively measured changes in the volume and pattern of physical activity and sedentary behavior in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. METHODS: Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured in patients (13 males, 76 females) with a mean age of 64 years (range 55-80) and end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee, using an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) for seven consecutive days (24 h/day) prior to, 6 weeks and 6 months after total knee arthroplasty...
May 21, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785009/physical-activity-sleep-and-fatigue-in-community-dwelling-stroke-survivors
#13
Anthony I Shepherd, Richard Pulsford, Leon Poltawski, Anne Forster, Rod S Taylor, Anne Spencer, Laura Hollands, Martin James, Rhoda Allison, Meriel Norris, Raff Calitri, Sarah G Dean
Stroke can lead to physiological and psychological impairments and impact individuals' physical activity (PA), fatigue and sleep patterns. We analysed wrist-worn accelerometry data and the Fatigue Assessment Scale from 41 stroke survivors following a physical rehabilitation programme, to examine relationships between PA levels, fatigue and sleep. Validated acceleration thresholds were used to quantify time spent in each PA intensity/sleep category. Stroke survivors performed less moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) in 10 minute bouts than the National Stroke guidelines recommend...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783064/aerobic-resistance-or-combined-training-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-exercise-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk-in-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome
#14
Michael A Wewege, Jeanette M Thom, Kerry-Anne Rye, Belinda J Parmenter
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exercise is beneficial to individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). An understudied group, who represent the majority of the MetS population, are individuals who have not developed diabetes. This review examined aerobic, resistance and combined (aerobic + resistance) exercise for cardiovascular risk factors in MetS without diabetes. METHODS: Eight electronic databases were searched up to September 2017 for randomised controlled trials >4 weeks in duration that compared an exercise intervention to the non-exercise control in MetS without diabetes...
May 3, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782535/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-differ-in-their-capacity-to-recognize-infected-macrophages
#15
Jason D Yang, Daniel Mott, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Yu-Jung Lu, Fiona Raso, Britni Stowell, Greg Hunter Babunovic, Jinhee Lee, Steve M Carpenter, Sing Sing Way, Sarah M Fortune, Samuel M Behar
Containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires T cell recognition of infected macrophages. Mtb has evolved to tolerate, evade, and subvert host immunity. Despite a vigorous and sustained CD8+ T cell response during Mtb infection, CD8+ T cells make limited contribution to protection. Here, we ask whether the ability of Mtb-specific T cells to restrict Mtb growth is related to their capacity to recognize Mtb-infected macrophages. We derived CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the Mtb immunodominant epitope TB10...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782500/the-human-snail-transmission-environment-shapes-long-term-schistosomiasis-control-outcomes-implications-for-improving-the-accuracy-of-predictive-modeling
#16
David Gurarie, Nathan C Lo, Martial L Ndeffo-Mbah, David P Durham, Charles H King
INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic trematode disease that affects over 240 million people worldwide. The Schistosoma lifecycle is complex, involving transmission via specific intermediate-host freshwater snails. Predictive mathematical models of Schistosoma transmission have often chosen to simplify or ignore the details of environmental human-snail interaction in their analyses. Schistosome transmission models now aim to provide better precision for policy planning of elimination of transmission...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781119/the-effect-of-lifelong-exercise-frequency-on-arterial-stiffness
#17
Shigeki Shibata, Naoki Fujimoto, Jeffrey L Hastings, Graeme Carrick-Ranson, Paul S Bhella, Christopher Hearon, Benjamin D Levine
Central arterial stiffness increases with sedentary aging. While near-daily, vigorous lifelong (>25 yr) endurance exercise training prevents arterial stiffening with aging, this rigorous routine of exercise training over a lifetime is impractical for most individuals. The aim was to examine whether a less frequent 'dose' of lifelong exercise training (4-5 sessions/wk for > 30 min) that is consistent with current physical activity recommendations elicits similar benefits on central arterial stiffening with aging...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780078/work-related-injuries-and-fatalities-in-the-geotechnical-site-works
#18
Özge Akboğa Kale, Tuğba Eskişar
Geotechnical site works are comprehensive, and they constitute the first step of the construction process. This study performs data mining of geotechnical works and analyzes the database for the root causes of accidents. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was chosen for the 1984-2013 time frame with 247 cases. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed to discuss variables such as the end use of the work, project type and cost, soil type and condition, type and degree of injury, cause and type of accident, unsafe acts, and occupation and union status of the victim...
May 19, 2018: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777236/does-cardiorespiratory-fitness-moderate-the-prospective-association-between-physical-activity-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-children
#19
Turid Skrede, Eivind Aadland, Lars Bo Andersen, Mette Stavnsbo, Sigmund Alfred Anderssen, Geir Kåre Resaland, Ulf Ekelund
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are independently associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk in children, and may affect risk through different pathways. This study aims to examine if CRF moderate the prospective association between PA, sedentary time, and cardiometabolic outcomes in 10-year-old children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In total, 718 children of 1129 (drop out n = 7) had valid measures of PA (accelerometry), CRF (the Andersen running test), and a cardiometabolic risk profile measured at baseline and follow-up 7 months later...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777165/hiv-1-proteins-dysregulate-motivational-processes-and-dopamine-circuitry
#20
Sarah J Bertrand, Charles F Mactutus, Steven B Harrod, Landhing M Moran, Rosemarie M Booze
Motivational alterations, such as apathy, in HIV-1+ individuals are associated with decreased performance on tasks involving frontal-subcortical circuitry. We used the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat to assess effect of long-term HIV-1 protein exposure on motivated behavior using sucrose (1-30%, w/v) and cocaine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) maintained responding with fixed-ratio (FR) and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. For sucrose-reinforced responding, HIV-1 Tg rats displayed no change in EC50 relative to controls, suggesting no change in sucrose reinforcement but had a downward shifted concentration-response curves, suggesting a decrease in response vigor...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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