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Functional Hops

Rachel H Gilmore, Elizabeth M Y Lee, Mark C Weidman, Adam P Willard, William A Tisdale
Energetic disorder in quantum dot solids adversely impacts charge carrier transport in quantum dot solar cells and electronic devices. Here, we use ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to show that homogeneously broadened PbS quantum dot arrays (σhom(2):σinh(2)>19:1, σinh/kBT<0.4) can be realized if quantum dot batches are sufficiently monodisperse (δ ≲ 3.3%). Homogeneous linewidth is found to be an inverse function of quantum dot size, monotonically increasing from ~25 meV for the largest quantum dots (5...
January 19, 2017: Nano Letters
Gabrielle Stetz, Gennady M Verkhivker
Allosteric interactions in the Hsp70 proteins are linked with their regulatory mechanisms and cellular functions. Despite significant progress in structural and functional characterization of the Hsp70 proteins fundamental questions concerning modularity of the allosteric interaction networks and hierarchy of signaling pathways in the Hsp70 chaperones remained largely unexplored and poorly understood. In this work, we proposed an integrated computational strategy that combined atomistic and coarse-grained simulations with coevolutionary analysis and network modeling of the residue interactions...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Yasuhisa Ano, Atsushi Dhata, Yoshimasa Taniguchi, Ayaka Hoshi, Kazuyuki Uchida, Akihiko Takashima, Hiroyuki Nakayama
Alongside the rapid growth in aging populations worldwide, prevention and therapy for age-related memory decline and dementia are in great demand to maintain a long healthy life. Here we found that iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter compounds in beer, enhance microglial phagocytosis and suppress inflammation via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ). In normal mice, oral administration of iso-α-acids led to a significant increase both in CD11b and CD206 double-positive anti-inflammatory type microglia (P<0...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Greig de Zubicaray, Douglas Fraser, Kori Ramajoo, Katie McMahon
Few investigations of lexical access in spoken word production have investigated the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in action naming. These are likely to be more complex than the mechanisms involved in object naming, due to the ways in which conceptual features of action words are represented. The present study employed a blocked cyclic naming paradigm to examine whether related action contexts elicit a semantic interference effect akin to that observed with categorically related objects. Participants named pictures of intransitive actions to avoid a confound with object processing...
January 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Ian C Dunican, David T Martin, Shona L Halson, Reid Reale, Brian Dawson, John Caldwell, Maddison J Jones, Peter R Eastwood
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of the removal of electronic devices (i.e., smartphones, etc.) for 48 hours on sleep quality and next-day athletic and cognitive performance in elite Judo athletes. PARTICIPANTS: Over 6 days and nights, 23 eliteAustralian Judo athletes were monitored while attending a camp at the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). In 14 athletes all electronic devices were removed on days 3 & 4 (i.e. for 48 hours: the 'device-restricted group') while 9 were permitted to use their devices throughout the camp (the 'control group')...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Naonobu Fujita, Wilson Huang, Tzu-Han Lin, Jean-Francois Groulx, Steve Jean, Yoshihiko Kuchitsu, Ikuko Koyama-Honda, Noboru Mizushima, Mitsunori Fukuda, Amy A Kiger
Transverse (T)-tubules make-up a specialized network of tubulated muscle cell membranes involved in excitation-contraction coupling for power of contraction. Little is known about how T-tubules maintain highly organized structures and contacts throughout the contractile system despite the ongoing muscle remodeling that occurs with muscle atrophy, damage and aging. We uncovered an essential role for autophagy in T-tubule remodeling with genetic screens of a developmentally regulated remodeling program in Drosophila abdominal muscles...
January 7, 2017: ELife
Manjusha Chugh, Madhav Ranganathan
Studying the adsorbate interactions on a surface helps in understanding the growing surface morphologies and calculating the effective surface diffusion barriers. We study the interaction between Ga-Ga, N-N and Ga-N adatom pairs on the polar GaN(0001) surface using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The interaction energy between two adatoms on the surface does not seem to follow definite trends with increasing distance between the adatoms. The presence of a number of possible reconstructions on clean GaN(0001) and periodic effects due to the finite size complicate the analysis of the interactions...
January 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yosuke Hisamatsu, Sarvendra Kumar, Shin Aoki
In this article we report on the successful synthesis and isolation of cyclometalated Ir complexes having three different nonsymmetric ligands based on ligand-selective electrophilic reactions via interligand HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) hopping phenomena. It was hypothesized that the electrophilic substitution reactions of bis-heteroleptic Ir complexes having 8-benzenesulfonamidoquinoline as an ancillary ligand, 5a and 7, would proceed at the 5 position of the quinoline ring of these Ir complexes to afford 18 and 19, because their HOMOs are localized on the quinoline rings, as predicted by density functional theory (DFT) calculations...
December 30, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Megan C Kirkland, Matthew B Downer, Brett J Holloway, Elizabeth M Wallack, Evan J Lockyer, Natasha C M Buckle, Courtney L Abbott, Michelle Ploughman
Measures of walking such as the timed 25-ft walk test (T25FWT) may not be able to detect subtle impairment in lower limb function among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We examined bipedal hopping to determine to what extent people with mild (Expanded Disease Severity Scale ≤ 3.5) MS (n = 13) would differ compared to age-, gender-, and education-matched controls (n = 9) and elderly participants (n = 13; ≥ 70 years old). We estimated lower limb power (e.g., hop length, velocity), consistency (e.g., variability of hop length, time), and symmetry (ratio of left to right foot)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Ion Stroescu, David B Hume, Markus K Oberthaler
We experimentally study particle exchange in a dissipative double-well potential using laser-cooled atoms in a hybrid trap. We measure the particle hopping rate as a function of barrier height, temperature, and atom number. Single-particle resolution allows us to measure rates over more than 4 orders of magnitude and distinguish the effects of loss and hopping. Deviations from the Arrhenius-law scaling at high barrier heights occur due to cold collisions between atoms within a well. By driving the system periodically, we characterize the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in the system response...
December 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Brigitte S Naughton, Norbert O Reich
Water plays important but poorly understood roles in the functions of most biomolecules. We are interested in understanding how proteins use diverse search mechanisms to locate specific sites on DNA; here we present a study of the role of closely associated waters in diverse translocation mechanisms. The bacterial DNA adenine methyltransferase, Dam, moves across large segments of DNA using an intersegmental hopping mechanism, relying in part on movement through bulk water. In contrast, other proteins, such as the bacterial restriction endonuclease EcoRI, rely on a sliding mechanism, requiring the protein to stay closely associated with DNA...
December 20, 2016: Biochemistry
Meng Zhang, Lijuan Wang, Dongping Zhong
Photolyase, a photomachine discovered half a century ago for repair of sun-induced DNA damage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs), has been characterized extensively in biochemistry (function), structure and dynamics since 1980s. The molecular mechanism and repair photocycle have been revealed at the most fundamental level. Using femtosecond spectroscopy, we have mapped out the entire dynamical evolution and determined all actual timescales of the catalytic processes...
December 19, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Lingxia Zheng, Pingping Yu, Kai Hu, Feng Teng, Hongyu Chen, Xiaosheng Fang
Hybrid inorganic-organic photoelectric devices draw considerable attention because of their unique features by combining the tunable functionality of organic molecules and the superior intrinsic carrier mobilities of inorganic semiconductors. An ordered thin layer of TiO2 nanowells is formed in situ with shallow nanoconcave patterns without cracking with scalable production by a facile and economic strategy, and these layers are used as building blocks to construct hybrid UV photodetectors (PDs). Organic conducting polymers (polyaniline (PANI) with various morphologies) have been exploited as p-type materials, enabling tunable photodetection performances at zero bias...
December 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Giovanni Valenti, Enrico Rampazzo, Sara Bonacchi, Luca Petrizza, Massimo Marcaccio, Marco Montalti, Luca Prodi, Francesco Paolucci
The impact of nanotechnology on analytical science is hardly overlooked. In the search for ever-increasing sensitivity in biomedical sensors, nanoparticles have been playing a unique role as, for instance, ultrabright labels, and unravelling the intimate mechanisms which govern their functioning is mandatory for the design of ultrasentitive devices. Herein, we investigated the mechanism of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) in a family of core-shell silica-PEG nanoparticles (DDSNs), variously doped with a Ru(bpy)3(2+) triethoxysilane derivative, and displaying homogeneous morphological, hydrodynamic, and photophysical properties...
December 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jason Brumitt, Amy Engilis, Dale Isaak, Amy Briggs, Alma Mattocks
BACKGROUND: Injuries are inherent in basketball with lower extremity (LE) injury rates reported as high as 11.6 per 1000 athletic exposures (AEs); many of these injuries result in time loss from sport participation. A recent trend in sports medicine research has been the attempt to identify athletes who may be at risk for injury based on measures of preseason fitness. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine if the standing long jump (SLJ) and/or the single-leg hop (SLH) for distance functional performance tests (FPT) are associated with non-contact time loss lower quadrant (LQ, defined as lower extremities or low back) injury in collegiate male basketball players...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Philipp Hoog, Meghan Warren, Craig A Smith, Nicole J Chimera
BACKGROUND: Although functional tests including the single leg hop (SLH), triple hop (TH), cross over hop (COH) for distance, and the tuck jump assessment (TJA) are used for return to play (RTP) criteria for post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, sport-specific baseline measurements are limited. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SLH, TH, and COH distance and limb symmetry index (LSI), as well as total scores, number of jumps, and individual flaws of the TJA in 97 injury-free Division I (DI) collegiate female student athletes participating in ACL injury prone vs...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Vala Flosadottir, Ewa M Roos, Eva Ageberg
BACKGROUND/AIM: Consequences of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury include worse patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and a decrease in activity level. Muscle function can be improved by targeted exercise. Our aims were to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations among lower extremity muscle function and PROs after ACL injury. METHODS: Fifty-four participants (15 women, mean 30 years) with ACL injury or reconstruction, from the Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Nonsurgical versus Surgical Treatment (KANON) trial (ISRCTN84752559), were assessed with hop performance, muscle power and postural orientation 3 years (SD 0...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Jens Ebing, Ulf Gast, Christoph Hauptmann, Dieter Felsenberg, Daniel L Belavý
The objective of this study was to determine the impact of vertical (Power-plate; POW) and side-alternating (Galileo; GAL) whole-body vibration exercise on muscle mass and lower-limb neuromuscular function. Forty-three sedentary male subjects (18-30yr) randomized into three groups underwent two upper-body exercise sessions per week for 10 weeks. Two groups of subjects underwent additional squat exercises on the GAL (N=15) or POW (N=14) devices. The third group was control. On magnetic resonance imaging, volume of the thigh muscles was measured...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Longyan Zheng, Xingchen Liu, Yu Meng, Yuwei Zhou, Wenping Guo, Qing Peng, Yong Yang, Haijun Jiao, Yong-Wang Li, Xiao-Dong Wen
Combining the basin hopping structure searching algorithm and density functional theory, the iron carbide clusters, FexCy (x ≤ 8 and y ≤ 8), and clusters with various stoichiometries (Fe2nCn, Fe3nCn, FenC2n, FenC3n and FenC4n (n = 1-7), Fe5nC2n, and Fe4nCn (n = 1-5)) are predicted. The stable structures of iron rich carbide clusters are composed of C-C dimers or single C atoms on the surface of the clusters, which are remarkably different from their corresponding bulk structures, where the carbon atoms are atomically distributed in the iron matrix...
December 7, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Anne K Gutmann, John E A Bertram
Metabolic rate appears to increase with the rate of force application for running. Leg function during ground contact is similar in hopping and running, so one might expect that this relationship would hold for hopping as well. Surprisingly, metabolic rate appeared to decrease with increasing force rate for hopping. However, this paradox is the result of comparing different cross-sections of the metabolic cost landscapes for hopping and running. The apparent relationship between metabolic rate and force rate observed in treadmill running is likely not a fundamental characteristic of muscle physiology, but a result of runners responding to speed constraints, i...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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