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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092321/dexmedetomidine-disrupts-the-local-and-global-efficiencies-of-large-scale-brain-networks
#1
Javeria A Hashmi, Marco L Loggia, Sheraz Khan, Lei Gao, Jieun Kim, Vitaly Napadow, Emery N Brown, Oluwaseun Akeju
BACKGROUND: A clear understanding of the neural basis of consciousness is fundamental to research in clinical and basic neuroscience disciplines and anesthesia. Recently, decreased efficiency of information integration was suggested as a core network feature of propofol-induced unconsciousness. However, it is unclear whether this finding can be generalized to dexmedetomidine, which has a different molecular target. METHODS: Dexmedetomidine was administered as a 1-μg/kg bolus over 10 min, followed by a 0...
January 16, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088887/-improvement-of-lumbal-motor-control-and-trunkmuscle-conditions-with-a-novel-low-back-pain-prevention-exercise-program
#2
Viktória Kovácsné Bobály, Brigitta Szilágyi, Alexandra Makai, Ákos Koller, Melinda Járomi
INTRODUCTION: Ballet dancers often suffer from low back pain. AIM: Low back pain can be reduced by strengthening the core muscles with the help of a special exercise program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the study 62 ballet dancer women (average age: 14.89 ± 1.21 years) were included. Intervention group: n = 30 participant, average age: 14.86 ± 1.00 years, control group: n = 32 participant, average age: 14.91 ± 1.37 years. We examined the pain intensity that occurs during training with visual analog scale, the habitual posture with photogrammetry, the abdominal muscle strength with Kraus-Weber test, the static muscle strength of the trunk muscles with core test and the lumbar motor control with leg lowering test...
January 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088144/more-room-for-microphase-separation-an-extended-study-on-binary-liquids-confined-in-sba-15-cylindrical-pores
#3
Ramona Mhanna, Abdel Razzak Abdel Hamid, Sujeet Dutta, Ronan Lefort, Laurence Noirez, Bernhard Frick, Denis Morineau
The confinement of liquid mixtures in porous channels provides new insight into fluid ordering at the nanoscale. In this study, we address a phenomenon of microphase separation, which appears as a novel fascinating confinement effect for fully miscible binary liquids. We investigate the structure of tert-butanol-toluene mixtures confined in the straight and mono-dispersed cylindrical nanochannels of SBA-15 mesoporous silicates (D = 8.3 nm). Small angle neutron scattering experiments on samples with carefully designed isotopic compositions are performed to systematically vary the scattering length density of the different compounds and assess the radial concentration profile of the confined phases...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087891/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#4
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
January 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076918/disparities-in-supports-for-student-wellness-promotion-efforts-among-secondary-schools-in-minnesota
#5
Nicole Larson, Michael O'Connell, Cynthia S Davey, Caitlin Caspi, Martha Y Kubik, Marilyn S Nanney
BACKGROUND: We examined whether there are differences in the presence of supports for student wellness promotion (1) between schools in city, suburban and rural locations and, (2) among rural schools, according to distance from a metropolitan center. METHODS: The analysis was conducted in a sample of 309 secondary schools using 2012 Minnesota School Health Profiles surveys and National Center for Educational Statistics Common Core Data. Scores for overall support addressed school health improvement coordination (range: 0-29), collaboration on health education activities (range: 0-5), and teachers' professional preparation (range: 0-7)...
February 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075562/evidence-for-a-di-%C3%A2%C2%B5-oxo-diamond-core-in-the-mn-iv-fe-iv-activation-intermediate-of-ribonucleotide-reductase-from-chlamydia-trachomatis
#6
Ryan J Martinie, Elizabeth J Blaesi, Carsten Krebs, J Martin Bollinger, Alexey Silakov, Christopher J Pollock
High-valent iron and manganese complexes effect some of the most challenging biochemical reactions known, including hydrocarbon and water oxidations associated with the global carbon cycle and oxygenic photosynthesis, respectively. Their extreme reactivity presents an impediment to structural characterization, but their biological importance and potential chemical utility have, nevertheless, motivated extensive efforts toward that end. Several such intermediates accumulate during activation of class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) β subunits, which self-assemble dimetal cofactors with stable one-electron oxidants that serve to initiate the enzyme's free-radical mechanism...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073076/spastic-diplegia-in-preterm-born-children-executive-function-impairment-and-neuroanatomical-correlates
#7
Maria Chiara Di Lieto, Paola Brovedani, Chiara Pecini, Anna Maria Chilosi, Vittorio Belmonti, Franco Fabbro, Cosimo Urgesi, Simona Fiori, Andrea Guzzetta, Silvia Perazza, Elisa Sicola, Giovanni Cioni
BACKGROUND: The neuropsychological literature on preterm-born children with spastic diplegia due to periventricular leukomalacia is convergent in reporting deficits in non-verbal intelligence and in visuo-spatial abilities. Nevertheless, other cognitive functions have found to be impaired, but data are scant and not correlated with neuroimaging findings. AIMS: This study analyzes the neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses in preterm-born children with spastic diplegia (pSD) and their relationships with neuroanatomical findings, investigated by a novel scale for MRI classification...
January 7, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067318/tensile-property-improvement-of-twip-cored-three-layer-steel-sheets-fabricated-by-hot-roll-bonding-with-low-carbon-steel-or-interstitial-free-steel
#8
Jaeyeong Park, Jung-Su Kim, Minju Kang, Seok Su Sohn, Won Tae Cho, Hyoung Seop Kim, Sunghak Lee
TWIP-cored three-layer steel sheets were newly fabricated by hot rolling of TWIP steel sheet surrounded by low-carbon (LC) or interstitial-free (IF) steel sheets. TWIP/LC or TWIP/IF interfaces were well bonded without pores or voids, while a few pearlites were thinly formed along the interfaces. The strengths and elongation of the TWIP-cored sheets increased as the volume fraction of TWIP-cored region increased, and were also well matched with the ones calculated by a rule of mixtures based on volume fraction or force fraction...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065833/standardizing-abortion-research-outcomes-star-a-protocol-for-developing-disseminating-and-implementing-a-core-outcome-set-for-medical-and-surgical-abortion
#9
Katherine C Whitehouse, Caron R Kim, Bela Ganatra, James M N Duffy, Jennifer Blum, Dalia Brahmi, Mitchell D Creinin, Teresa DePiñeres, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Daniel Grossman, Beverly Winikoff, A Metin Gülmezoglu
BACKGROUND: Abortion is one of the most common events in women's healthcare worldwide. Currently there is no standardization for the selection and reporting of outcomes in abortion clinical trials. This heterogeneity in clinical trials can make it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions across studies. OBJECTIVE: We aim to develop, disseminate, and implement a core outcome set (COS) for medical and surgical abortion trials. MATERIALS & METHODS: To guide this project, we have assembled a local study management team and an international advisory group including abortion providers, researchers, methodologists, and abortion clients...
January 5, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064094/influence-of-core-and-maltose-surface-modification-of-peis-on-their-interaction-with-plasma-proteins-human-serum-albumin-and-lysozyme
#10
Dominika Wrobel, Monika Marcinkowska, Anna Janaszewska, Dietmar Appelhans, Brigitte Voit, Barbara Klajnert-Maculewicz, Maria Bryszewska, Marcel Štofik, Regina Herma, Piotr Duchnowicz, Jan Maly
Regardless of the route of administration, some or all of a therapeutic agent will appear in the blood stream, where it can act on blood cells and other components of the plasma. Recently we have shown that poly(ethylene imines) (PEIs) which interact with plasma proteins are taken up into erythrocyte membranes. These observations led us to investigate the interactions between maltose functionalized hyperbranched PEIs (PEI-Mal) and plasma proteins. Two model proteins were chosen - human serum albumin (HSA) (albumins constitute ∼60% of all plasma proteins), and lysozyme...
January 2, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063860/could-objective-tests-be-used-to-measure-fatigue-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#11
Gustavo Schvartsman, Minjeong Park, Diane D Liu, Sriram Yennu, Eduardo Bruera, David Hui
CONTEXT: Assessment of cancer-related fatigue is currently based on patient-reported outcomes. We asked whether objective assessments such as muscle strength and nutritional markers can be used as surrogate measures of cancer-related fatigue. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association among three fatigue scales, muscle strength, and nutritional markers in patients with advanced cancer. METHODS: In this prospective study, we enrolled hospitalized cancer patients who had been seen in palliative care consultation at MD Anderson Cancer Center...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059150/core-shell-structured-titanium-nitrogen-alloys-with-high-strength-high-thermal-stability-and-good-plasticity
#12
Y S Zhang, Y H Zhao, W Zhang, J W Lu, J J Hu, W T Huo, P X Zhang
Multifunctional materials with more than two good properties are widely required in modern industries. However, some properties are often trade-off with each other by single microstructural designation. For example, nanostructured materials have high strength, but low ductility and thermal stability. Here by means of spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nitrided Ti particles, we synthesized bulk core-shell structured Ti alloys with isolated soft coarse-grained Ti cores and hard Ti-N solid solution shells. The core-shell Ti alloys exhibit a high yield strength (~1...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058570/self-management-education-interventions-for-patients-with-cancer-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Doris Howell, Tamara Harth, Judy Brown, Cathy Bennett, Susan Boyko
PURPOSE: This systematic review was intended to identify the effectiveness and inclusion of essential components of self-management education interventions to support patients with cancer in developing the skills needed for effective self-management of their disease and the acute or immediate, long-term, and late harmful effects of treatments. METHODS: Self-management education interventions were included if they were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing at least one of the eight core elements outlined by the research team...
January 5, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058230/outcomes-in-randomized-controlled-trials-of-exercise-interventions-in-solid-organ-transplant
#14
Tania Janaudis-Ferreira, Sunita Mathur, Stacey Konidis, Catherine M Tansey, Cecile Beaurepaire
AIM: To identify the outcome measures that have been used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise training in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and to link these outcomes to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. METHODS: Electronic literature searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science were performed. We sought RCTs that investigated the effect of exercise training in SOT recipients...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056388/aberrant-temporal-behavior-of-mismatch-negativity-generators-in-schizophrenia-patients-and-subjects-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#15
Minah Kim, Kang Ik Kevin Cho, Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Tae Young Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
OBJECTIVE: Although disconnection syndrome has been considered a core pathophysiologic mechanism of schizophrenia, little is known about the temporal behavior of mismatch negativity (MMN) generators in individuals with schizophrenia or clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. METHODS: MMN was assessed in 29 schizophrenia patients, 40 CHR subjects, and 47 healthy controls (HCs). Individual realistic head models and the minimum L2 norm algorithm were used to generate a current source density (CSD) model of MMN...
December 18, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053520/psychometric-properties-of-the-physical-activity-scale-for-the-elderly-in-chinese-patients-with-copd
#16
Yan-Xia Tao, Lan Wang, Xiao-Yan Dong, Hong Zheng, Ya-Shu Zheng, Xing-Yue Tang, Yue Zhao, Qing Zhang
BACKGROUND: For patients with COPD, physical activity (PA) is recommended as the core component of pulmonary rehabilitation, but there is lack of a validated questionnaire for assessing the PA effectively. AIM: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE-C) in patients with COPD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 167 outpatients aged 60 years or older with COPD...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053381/a-simple-method-for-fashioning-an-antibiotic-impregnated-cemented-rod-for-intramedullary-placement-in-infected-non-union-of-long-bones
#17
Ajay Bharti, Umesh Kumar Saroj, Vineet Kumar, Sanjay Kumar, Balram Ji Omar
The intramedullary insertion of antibiotic impregnated PMMA rods, beads or nails are widely used and accepted modality of treatment for chronic osteomyelitis of long bones. But at times it becomes difficult to insert and remove these antibiotic delivery systems owing to narrowed medullary canals. Here we present a technique for preparing PMMA rods with diameter ranging from 6 mm to 3 mm. These rods could easily be placed in narrow intramedullary canal of long bones with chronic osteomyelitis or infected non-union...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040543/interactions-between-the-default-network-and-dorsal-attention-network-vary-across-default-subsystems-time-and-cognitive-states
#18
Matthew L Dixon, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, R Nathan Spreng, Zachary C Irving, Caitlin Mills, Manesh Girn, Kalina Christoff
Anticorrelation between the default network (DN) and dorsal attention network (DAN) is thought to be an intrinsic aspect of functional brain organization reflecting competing functions. However, the effect size of functional connectivity (FC) between the DN and DAN has yet to be established. Furthermore, the stability of anticorrelations across distinct DN subsystems, different contexts, and time, remains unexplored. In study 1 we summarize effect sizes of DN-DAN FC from 20 studies, and in study 2 we probe the variability of DN-DAN interactions across six different cognitive states in a new data set...
December 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039373/a-model-of-the-superior-colliculus-predicts-fixation-locations-during-scene-viewing-and-visual-search
#19
Hossein Adeli, Françoise Vitu, Gregory J Zelinsky
: Modern computational models of attention predict fixations using saliency maps and target maps, which prioritize locations for fixation based on feature contrast and target goals, respectively. But while many such models are biologically plausible, none have looked to the oculomotor system for design constraints or parameter specification. Conversely, while most models of saccade programming are tightly coupled to underlying neurophysiology, none have been tested using real-world stimuli and tasks...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026935/thermoresponsive-semi-ipn-hydrogel-microfibers-from-continuous-fluidic-processing-with-high-elasticity-and-fast-actuation
#20
Yan Liu, Kaihuan Zhang, Jinghong Ma, G Julius Vancso
Hydrogels with rapid and strong response to external stimuli and possessing high elasticity and strength have been considered as platform materials for numerous applications, e.g., in biomaterials engineering. Thermoresponsive hydrogels based on semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPN) featuring N-isopropylacrylamide with copolymers of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) p(NIPAM-HEMA) chains are prepared and described. The copolymer was characterized by FTIR, NMR, and GPC. The semi-IPN structured hydrogel and its responsive properties were evaluated by dynamic mechanical measurements, SEM, DSC, equilibrium swelling ratio, and dynamic deswelling tests...
December 27, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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