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Core Strength

Hien Van Nguyen, Van Hong Nguyen, Beom-Jin Lee
The objectives of the present study were to develop a controlled-release bilayered tablet of aceclofenac (AFN) 200mg with dual release and to gain a mechanistic understanding of the enhanced sustained release capability achieved by utilizing a binary mixture of the sustained release materials. Different formulations of the sustained-release layer were formulated by employing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as the major retarding polymers. The in vitro dissolution studies of AFN bilayered tablets were carried out in intestinal fluid (pH 6...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Valerie Michaelson, William Pickett, Eleanor Vandemeer, Brian Taylor, Colleen Davison
Health perceptions adopted during childhood lay foundations for adult health trajectories and experiences. This study used a sequential mixed methods design to generate new evidence about child perceptions of health in two samples of Canadian children. A core qualitative study was followed by a complementary quantitative analysis to aid interpretation. Generational theory was used as a lens through which to interpret all data. Findings suggested that good health is perceived as customized and subjective. The strengths and liabilities of these perceptions are discussed, as well as implications for health promotion and prevention strategies...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Ado Van Assche, Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, Anna de Breij, Joseph De Brabanter, Kris A Willems, Lenie Dijkshoorn, Bart Lievens
A common belief is that the phylogeny of bacteria may reflect molecular functions and phenotypic characteristics, pointing towards phylogenetic conservatism of traits. Here, we tested this hypothesis for a large set of Acinetobacter strains. Members of the genus Acinetobacter are widespread in nature, demonstrate a high metabolic diversity and are resistant to several environmental stressors. Notably, some species are known to cause opportunistic human infections. A total of 133 strains belonging to 33 species with validly published names, two genomic species and species of an as-yet unknown taxonomic status were analyzed using the GENIII technology of Biolog, which allows high-throughput phenotyping...
October 12, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Liliana R Cisneros Castillo, Andrei-Dumitru Oancea, Christian Stüllein, Anne Régnier-Vigouroux
Multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTSs) embedded in a matrix are re-emerging as a powerful alternative to monolayer-based cultures. The primary information gained from a three-dimensional model is the invasiveness of treatment-exposed MCTSs through the acquisition of light microscopy images. The amount and complexity of the acquired data and the bias arisen by their manual analysis are disadvantages calling for an automated, high-throughput analysis. We present a universal algorithm we developed with the scope of being robust enough to handle images of various qualities and various invasion profiles...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Felix Muerdter, Alexander Stark
A recent study visualizes nascent RNAs in live Drosophila embryos to establish a connection between enhancer strength and the frequency of transcriptional bursts. Interestingly, one enhancer can simultaneously activate two core promoters, challenging models of enhancer-core-promoter communication via direct protein-protein contacts.
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Matthieu Koepf, Christopher Koenigsmann, Wendu Ding, Arunbah Batra, Christian F A Negre, Latha Venkataraman, Gary W Brudvig, Victor S Batista, Charles A Schmuttenmaer, Robert H Crabtree
The development of molecular components functioning as switches, rectifiers or amplifiers is a great challenge in molecular electronics. A desirable property of such components is functional robustness, meaning that the intrinsic functionality of components must be preserved regardless of the strategy used to integrate them into the final assemblies. Here, this issue is investigated for molecular diodes based on N-phenylbenzamide (NPBA) backbones. The transport properties of molecular junctions derived from NPBA are characterized while varying the nature of the functional groups interfacing the backbone and the gold electrodes required for break-junction measurements...
September 15, 2016: Nanoscale
Shengnan Yu, Lei Zhang, Zhi-Jian Zhao, Jinlong Gong
For the large-scale commercial application of Pt-based catalysts, minimizing the usage of Pt while retaining the high catalytic activity is crucial. The fabrication of Pd@Pt core-shell structures, good control of surface atom arrangement, and the formation of an alloy structure with 3d transition metals have been approved as efficient approaches to address this issue; however, it remains a challenge to meet all these three requirements. This paper describes a facile green route for preparing concave Pd@PtNi catalysts with controllable structural evolution...
September 22, 2016: Nanoscale
Catarina Luís, Nazzareno Cannella, Rainer Spanagel, Georg Köhr
High rates of relapse after prolonged abstinence are often triggered by exposure to drug-associated cues that induce drug craving. Incubation of drug craving is a phenomenon that consists of time-dependent increases in cue-induced drug craving during withdrawal. Plasticity mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) underlie drug-seeking responses and involve changes in excitatory synaptic transmission's efficacy. In particular, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) glutamatergic input to the NAc core has been well characterized regarding cocaine-evoked plasticity following non-contingent versus contingent exposure to cocaine or alternatively after protracted abstinence...
October 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Cheryl Tatano Beck, Carrie Morgan Eaton, Robert K Gable
OBJECTIVE: To investigate vicarious posttraumatic growth in labor and delivery nurses who cared for women during traumatic births. DESIGN: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 467 labor and delivery nurses who completed the quantitative portion and 295 (63%) who completed the qualitative portion of this mixed-methods study via the Internet. METHODS: The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses sent out e-mails to members who were labor and delivery nurses with a link to the electronic survey...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
Claire Le Dorze, Pascale Gisquet-Verrier
Intrusive re-experiencing of a trauma is a core symptom in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and is often triggered by contextual cues associated with the event. It is not yet established if intrusive re-experiencing is the consequence of PTSD, or if it could contribute to the development of PTSD following a traumatic event. The present study (1) examined the impact of repeated brief re-exposures to trauma reminders on the strength of PTSD-like symptoms, as well as on their time-development and (2) investigated the reactivity over time to these cues in trauma resilient and vulnerable rats, defined on the basis of the PTSD-like symptoms they demonstrated...
October 4, 2016: Brain Research
Junhua Luo, Guangcui Yuan, Charles C Han
In this study, the attraction between large hard polystyrene (PS) spheres is studied by using three types of small microgels as bridging agents. One is a purely soft poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel, the other two have a non-deformable PS hard core surrounded by a soft PNIPAM shell but are different in the core-shell ratio. The affinity for bridging the large PS spheres is provided and thus affected by the PNIPAM constituent in the microgels. The bridging effects caused by the microgels can be indirectly incorporated into their influence on the effective attraction interaction between the large hard spheres, since the size of the microgels is very small in comparison to the size of the PS hard spheres...
September 20, 2016: Soft Matter
Dominika Załubiniak, Maciej Zakrzewski, Piotr Piątek
Compounds 2 and 3 were designed and prepared as heteroditopic ion-pair receptors. The design features a 2,2-bis(aminomethyl)propionic acid core to connect and pre-organize binding groups. The cation binding is provided by a sodium selective N-acyl aza-18-crown-6 subunit whereas for anion complexation, two urea groups (receptor 2) or two squaramide groups (receptor 3) were introduced. Beyond acting as anion binding sites, the urea and squaramide groups were used to support sodium cation complexation through metal carbonyl oxygen lone pair interactions...
October 4, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Bernard Silvi, Henryk Ratajczak
Delocalization of the electron density in the proton donor fragment has been studied for 21 complexes, A-HB (A = F, Cl; B = Ne, Ar, CO2, N2, FH, ClH, H2O, PH3, NH3, Cl(-), F(-), covering the whole range of hydrogen bond strength. The proton donor and proton acceptor fragments are defined by a minimum variance principle achieved by the ELF partition. It is shown that the variance of the proton donor population as well as the charge transfer between the fragments calculated from the ELF partition is always smaller than that evaluated within the QTAIM framework...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Hao Wang, Yanlin Ke, Ningsheng Xu, Runze Zhan, Zebo Zheng, Jinxiu Wen, Jiahao Yan, Pu Liu, Jun Chen, Juncong She, Yu Zhang, Fei Liu, Huanjun Chen, Shaozhi Deng
Due to their optical magnetic and electric resonances associated with the high refractive index, dielectric silicon nanoparticles have been explored as novel nanocavities that are excellent candidates for enhancing various light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. Here, from both of theoretical and experimental aspects, we explored resonance coupling between excitons and magnetic/electric resonances in heterostructures composed of the silicon nanoparticle coated with molecular J-aggregate shell. The resonance coupling was originated from coherent energy transfer between the exciton and magnetic/electric modes, which was manifested by quenching dips on the scattering spectrum due to formation of hybrid modes...
October 4, 2016: Nano Letters
Joanne Jordan, Louise Rose, Katie N Dainty, Jane Noyes, Bronagh Blackwood
BACKGROUND: Prolonged mechanical ventilation is associated with a longer intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay and higher mortality. Consequently, methods to improve ventilator weaning processes have been sought. Two recent Cochrane systematic reviews in ICU adult and paediatric populations concluded that protocols can be effective in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation, but there was significant heterogeneity in study findings. Growing awareness of the benefits of understanding the contextual factors impacting on effectiveness has encouraged the integration of qualitative evidence syntheses with effectiveness reviews, which has delivered important insights into the reasons underpinning (differential) effectiveness of healthcare interventions...
October 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Andrea Farkas Patenaude, Katherine A Schneider
The defining difference between genetic and traditional medicine is that genetic findings have implications not just for the patient, but also for their relatives. Discussion of a test result between parent and child is both a transformative and a translational moment in the life of a family. Parents report wanting help in talking to their children. The challenge for genetic counselors and other providers is to be able to recognize which issues are at the core of parental distress and be able to offer recommendations to empower and support parents...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Fon-Yih Tsuang, Chia-Hsien Chen, Lien-Chen Wu, Yi-Jie Kuo, Shang-Chih Lin, Chang-Jung Chiang
BACKGROUND: Failure of pedicle screw is a major concern in spinal surgery. The threaded and unthreaded portions of the pedicle screw provide the ability to anchor and squeeze the surrounding bone, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the anchoring and squeezing effects of different design of the threaded/unthreaded portions of a pedicle screw to vertebrae. METHODS: Four variations (one fully and three partially threaded, with a 1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 unthreaded designs at the proximal portion) of screws were used to measure pullout strength and withdrawn energy using synthetic and porcine specimens...
September 23, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Yu-Tao Jian, Tian-Yu Tang, Michael V Swain, Xiao-Dong Wang, Ke Zhao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of core ceramic grinding on the fracture behaviour of bilayered zirconia under two loading schemes. METHODS: Interfacial surfaces of sandblasted zirconia disks (A) were ground with 80 (B), 120 (C) and 220 (D) grit diamond discs, respectively. Surface roughness and topographic analysis were performed using a confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) and a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Relative monoclinic content was evaluated using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) then reevaluated after simulated veneer firing...
September 29, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Ajit S Narang, Lydia Breckenridge, Hang Guo, Jennifer Wang, Abraham Avi Wolf, Divyakant Desai, Sailesh Varia, Sherif Badawy
Surface erosion of uncoated tablets results in processing problems such as dusting and defects during coating and is governed by the strength of particle bonding on tablet surface. In this study, the correlation between dusting tendency of tablets in a coating pan with friability and laser ablation surface hardness was assessed using tablets containing different concentrations of magnesium stearate and tartaric acid. Surface erosion propensity of different batches was evaluated by assessing their dusting tendency in the coating pan...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Aljosha-Rakim Jochem, Genesis Ngwa Ankah, Lars-Arne Meyer, Stephan Elsenberg, Christoph Johann, Tobias Kraus
Flow field-flow fractionation is a powerful method for the analysis of nanoparticle size distributions, but its widespread use has been hampered by large analyte losses, especially of metal nanoparticles. Here, we report on the colloidal mechanisms underlying the losses. We systematically studied gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) during asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) by systematic variation of the particle properties and the eluent composition. Recoveries of AuNPs (core diameter 12 nm) stabilized by citrate or polyethylene glycol (PEG) at different ionic strengths were determined...
October 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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