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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330747/recent-advances-in-screening-for-barrett-s-esophagus
#1
REVIEW
Sarmed S Sami, Prasad G Iyer
OPINION STATEMENT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a pressing need for effective strategies to halt the increase in both the incidence and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Screening for Barrett's esophagus, which is the only known precursor of EAC, remains a ripe area for research, particularly with regard to identifying the target population, screening tools, and management of screen-detected populations. This review aims to explore in depth the rationale for screening for Barrett's esophagus, recent biotechnological advances which may have the potential of making screening feasible, and also highlight the challenges which will have to be overcome in order make screening for BE a realistic prospect...
January 13, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306986/d-dimer-as-a-marker-of-acute-pyelonephritis-in-infants-younger-than-24%C3%A2-months-with-urinary-tract-infection
#2
Jung Won Lee, Sun Mi Her, Ji Hong Kim, Keum Hwa Lee, Michael Eisenhut, Se Jin Park, Jae Il Shin
BACKGROUND: D-dimer, as well as other biomarkers related to coagulation, is significantly increased during severe bacterial infection and sepsis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of serum D-dimer as a biological marker in diagnosing acute pyelonephritis (APN) and in predicting vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) in infants with urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 177 young infants (<2 years) with febrile UTI between 2005 and 2014, grouped as APN and lower UTI groups...
January 6, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258183/the-lung-microbiome-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-promising-approach-for-targeted-therapies
#3
REVIEW
Fastrès Aline, Felice Florence, Roels Elodie, Moermans Catherine, Corhay Jean-Louis, Bureau Fabrice, Louis Renaud, Clercx Cécile, Guiot Julien
This review focuses on the role of the lung microbiome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Although historically considered sterile, bacterial communities have now been well documented in lungs both in healthy and pathological conditions. Studies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) suggest that increased bacterial burden and/or abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria may drive disease progression, acute exacerbations, and mortality. More recent work has highlighted the interaction between the lung microbiome and the innate immune system in IPF, strengthening the argument for the role of both host and environment interaction in disease pathogenesis...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238875/pepsin-in-saliva-as-a-diagnostic-biomarker-in-laryngopharyngeal-reflux-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Jing Wang, Yu Zhao, Jianjun Ren, Yang Xu
OBJECTIVE: Pepsin in saliva has been proposed as a biomarker for the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), but the results remain controversial. We assessed the diagnostic value of pepsin in saliva for LPR. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for studies in English that evaluated the utility of pepsin in saliva in the diagnosis of LPR, published up to 15 March 2017. We used Stata 12.0 to summarize the diagnostic indexes for the meta-analysis...
December 13, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071486/fragments-of-e-cadherin-as-biomarkers-of-non-erosive-reflux-disease
#5
Biljana Jovov, Craig C Reed, Nicholas J Shaheen, Amy Pruitt, Kathleen Ferrell, Geraldine S Orlando, Zorka Djukic, Roy C Orlando
BACKGROUND: Approximately, 20% of patients with heartburn and normal endoscopic findings do not symptomatically improve on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy making diagnosis and treatment uncertain. A biomarker distinguishing PPI-responsive from PPI-refractory heartburn is desirable. AIMS: We performed a pilot study assessing whether carboxy(C)-terminal fragments (CTFs) of e-cadherin in esophageal biopsies or amino(N)-terminal fragments (NTFs) of e-cadherin in serum could serve this purpose...
October 25, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041918/the-diagnostic-value-of-pepsin-detection-in-saliva-for-gastro-esophageal-reflux-disease-a-preliminary-study-from-china
#6
Xing Du, Feng Wang, Zhiwei Hu, Jimin Wu, Zhonggao Wang, Chao Yan, Chao Zhang, Juan Tang
BACKGROUND: None of current diagnostic methods has been proven to be a reliable tool for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Pepsin in saliva has been proposed as a promising diagnostic biomarker for gastro-esophageal reflux. We aimed to determine the diagnostic value of salivary pepsin detection for GERD. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty patients with symptoms suggestive of GERD and 35 asymptomatic healthy volunteers provided saliva on morning waking, after lunch and dinner for pepsin determination using the Peptest lateral flow device...
October 17, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952702/-reflux-nephropathy-in-children-early-diagnosis-and-monitoring
#7
REVIEW
O L Morozova, D A Morozov, D Y Lakomova, V V Iakovlev, V V Rostovskaya, I A Budnik, L D Maltseva
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the most common type of obstructive uropathy in children. Reflux nephropathy (RN) is one of the most common complications of VUR that inevitably leads to chronic kidney disease. Patients with end-stage kidney disease require costly treatment, and the only way to cure them is kidney transplantation. A timely institution of renoprotective therapy is a key factor helping to preserve the function of the native kidneys. Hence, it is necessary to devise new highly sensitive and minimally invasive methods for early diagnosis of RN...
September 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906318/nutritional-state-and-feeding-behaviors-of-children-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis-and-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#8
Pooja Mehta, Glenn T Furuta, Taryn Brennan, Michelle L Henry, Nancy Creskoff Maune, Shikha S Sundaram, Calies Menard-Katcher, Dan Atkins, Faith Takurukura, Sandra Giffen, Zhaoxing Pan, Angela M Haas
OBJECTIVE: Because both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are associated with malnutrition and feeding dysfunction, this study compares growth, nutrition and feeding behaviors in children with GERD and EoE. METHODS: Subjects aged 1-7 with GERD or EoE were enrolled in a prospective study. Assessments included length/height, weight, 3-day food diary, serum biomarkers of nutrition, and the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811703/barrett-s-oesophagus-current-controversies
#9
REVIEW
Chidi Amadi, Piers Gatenby
Oesophageal adenocarcinoma is rapidly increasing in Western countries. This tumour frequently presents late in its course with metastatic disease and has a very poor prognosis. Barrett's oesophagus is an acquired condition whereby the native squamous mucosa of the lower oesophagus is replaced by columnar epithelium following prolonged gastro-oesophageal reflux and is the recognised precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. There are multiple national and society guidelines regarding screening, surveillance and management of Barrett's oesophagus, however all are limited regarding a clear evidence base for a well-demonstrated benefit and cost-effectiveness of surveillance, and robust risk stratification for patients to best use resources...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756936/detecting-laryngopharyngeal-reflux-by-immunohistochemistry-of-pepsin-in-the-biopsies-of-vocal-fold-leukoplakia
#10
Xia Gong, Xiao-Yun Wang, Li Yang, Ming-Jun Sun, Jun Du, Wei Zhang
Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) may contribute to the development of laryngeal diseases including vocal fold leukoplakia. Clinical methods of determining LPR are limited. Pepsin, as an exogenous protein, is considered as a biomarker of LPR. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to detect pepsin by immunohistochemistry in the biopsies from patients with vocal fold leukoplakia, and by which, to determine the potential association of LPR and vocal leukoplakia. A total of 26 biopsies from patients with vocal fold leukoplakia were examined in comparison with 20 vocal fold biopsies from control subjects...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682989/the-role-of-esophageal-hypersensitivity-in-functional-heartburn
#11
Takashi Kondo, Hiroto Miwa
Functional heartburn (FH) is defined as a functional esophageal disorder characterized by symptoms of chronic heartburn with no apparent correlation to acid or nonacid reflux. In addition, its symptoms persist despite the lack of organic abnormalities or inflammation, esophageal motility disorders, or metabolic disorders. Although conditions presenting with esophageal symptoms without endoscopic abnormalities were previously categorized as nonerosive reflux disease, such conditions are now classified into 3 categories under Rome IV criteria: nonerosive reflux disease, reflux hypersensitivity, and FH...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650861/microbiome-in-interstitial-lung-disease-from-pathogenesis-to-treatment-target
#12
Margaret L Salisbury, MeiLan K Han, Robert P Dickson, Philip L Molyneaux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes current knowledge of the role of the lung microbiome in interstitial lung disease and poses considerations of the microbiome as a therapeutic target. RECENT FINDINGS: Although historically considered sterile, bacterial communities have now been well documented in lungs in health and disease. Studies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) suggest that increased bacterial burden and/or abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria may drive disease progression, acute exacerbations, and mortality...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620964/does-gene-expression-in-laryngeal-subsites-differ-between-patients-with-laryngopharyngeal-reflux-and-controls
#13
J M Wood, D J Hussey, C M Woods, D Astill, D I Watson, B Lee, A S Carney
OBJECTIVE: To identify laryngeal mRNA gene changes in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). METHOD: Laryngeal biopsies from non-smoking LPR patients (n=10; Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) >12 and a Reflux Finding Score (RFS) >6) and controls (n=9; RSI <12 and RFS <6) were collected from four subsites (true vocal cord, false vocal cord, medial arytenoid and posterior commissure) of the larynx. qRT-PCR analyses were conducted on 20 reflux- and inflammation-related genes, including interleukins 6 and 8, cytokeratins 8 and 14, mucin genes MUC1, MUC2, MUC3B, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC6 and MUC7 and carbonic anhydrase III...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612057/imaging-studies-and-biomarkers-to-detect-clinically-meaningful-vesicoureteral-reflux
#14
REVIEW
Michaella Maloney Prasad, Earl Y Cheng
The work-up of a febrile urinary tract infection is generally performed to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and its possible complications. The imaging modalities most commonly used for this purpose are renal-bladder ultrasound, voiding cystourethrogram and dimercapto-succinic acid scan. These studies each contribute valuable information, but carry individual benefits and limitations that may impact their efficacy. Biochemical markers are not commonly used in pediatric urology to diagnose or differentiate high-risk disease, but this is the emerging frontier, which will hopefully change our approach to VUR in the future...
June 2017: Investigative and Clinical Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577763/alternatives-to-traditional-per-oral-endoscopy-for-screening
#15
REVIEW
Judith Offman, Rebecca C Fitzgerald
Barrett's esophagus (BE) predisposes patients to esophageal adenocarcinoma. 3 to 6% of individuals with gastro-esophageal reflux disease are estimated to have BE but only 20 to 25% of BE patients are currently diagnosed. The current gold standard for diagnosis of BE is per-oral upper GI endoscopy. As this is not suitable for large-scale screening, a number of alternative methods are currently being investigated: transnasal and video capsule endoscopy, endomicroscopy, cell collection devices like the cytosponge and biomarkers...
July 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523029/evaluation-of-caspase-3-enzyme-and-tnf-alpha-as-biomarkers-in-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction-in-children-a-preliminary-report
#16
Mehdi Shirazi, Ali Eslahi, Vahidreza Sharifi, Fatemeh Rahimi, Alireza Safarpour
OBJECTIVE: To determine the applicability of urinary caspase 3 enzyme and TNF-α as biomarkers in children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). METHODS: In this study, 31 unilateral UPJO patients and 33 age- and sex-matched healthy childrens were enrolled. The patients with UPJO consisted of 11 female and 20 male children between the ages of 2 to 62 months old. All participants were evaluated regarding anterior-posterior(AP) diameter and cortical thickness of affected kidney by ultrasonography...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483464/urinary-albumin-excretion-and-chronic-kidney-disease-in-children-with-vesicoureteral-reflux
#17
Romaine de Sépibus, François Cachat, Blaise J Meyrat, Gezim Dushi, Ariane Boubaker, Mohamed Faouzi, Eric Girardin, Hassib Chehade
BACKGROUND: Albuminuria is a potential biomarker of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in various glomerular diseases. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) often progresses to CKD, and study is required of use of albuminuria as a biomarker for this condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or filtration fraction (FF) in children with VUR. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective study, renal parameters of 141 children with VUR were investigated, using inulin clearance, FF, and albuminuria...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422774/squamous-cellular-carcinoma-antigen-serum-determination-as-a-biomarker-of-barrett-esophagus-and-esophageal-cancer-a-phase-iii-study
#18
Gemma Maddalo, Matteo Fassan, Romilda Cardin, Marika Piciocchi, Filippo Marafatto, Massimo Rugge, Giovanni Zaninotto, Caterina Pozzan, Carlo Castoro, Alberto Ruol, Alessandra Biasiolo, Fabio Farinati
GOAL: To evaluate the potential role of the determination of the immunocomplexed form of squamous cell carcinoma antigen [SCCA-immunoglobulin (Ig)M] for the screening of Barrett esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). BACKGROUND: The cost-effectiveness of surveillance in BE is still debated and the use of biomarkers in screening and surveillance still not recommended. No information is available regarding SCCA-IgM determination in BE. STUDY: SCCA-IgM levels were determined (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in 231 patients prospectively recruited, 71 with BE, 53 with EAC, and 107 controls, including 42 blood donors and 65 patients with gastroesophageal reflux...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347199/the-use-of-cellular-and-molecular-biomarkers-to-manage-copd-exacerbations
#19
REVIEW
Terence Ho, Angira Dasgupta, Frederick E Hargreave, Parameswaran Nair
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are a common cause of respiratory morbidity and mortality, and have various etiologies. Multiple cellular and molecular biomarkers have been associated with exacerbations. Quantitative sputum cell counts are able to identify the presence and type of bronchitis, which is an important contributor to exacerbations. Their utility to monitor bronchitis and to help treat exacerbations has been evaluated, yet they are not used in routine clinical practice...
May 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280325/novel-route-synthesis-of-porous-and-solid-gold-nanoparticles-for-investigating-their-comparative-performance-as-contrast-agent-in-computed-tomography-scan-and-effect-on-liver-and-kidney-function
#20
Farooq Aziz, Ayesha Ihsan, Aalia Nazir, Ishaq Ahmad, Sadia Zafar Bajwa, Asma Rehman, Abdoulaye Diallo, Waheed S Khan
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with dimension in the range of 1-100 nm have a prominent role in a number of biomedical applications like imaging, drug delivery, and cancer therapy owing to their unique optical features and biocompatibility. In this work, we report a novel technique for the synthesis of two types of GNPs namely porous gold nanoparticles (PGNPs) and solid gold nanoparticles (SGNPs). PGNPs of size 35 nm were fabricated by reduction of gold (III) solution with lecithin followed by addition of L-ascorbic acid and tri-sodium citrate, whereas SGNPs with a dimension of 28 nm were prepared by reflux method using lecithin as a single reducing agent...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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