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Intestinal failure in adult

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425133/fecal-microbiota-signatures-of-adult-patients-with-different-types-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#1
Yuhua Huang, Feilong Guo, Yousheng Li, Jian Wang, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a common cause of intestinal failure and can be divided into three types depending on intestinal anatomy. Gut dysbiosis has been observed in pediatric SBS patients and is associated with impaired outcome. Little is known about the changes in gut microbiota of adult SBS patients. Therefore, we aim to characterize the fecal microbiota of adult patients with different types of SBS. METHODS: Fifteen fecal samples from healthy controls and adult patients with type II or type III SBS were collected (five in each group)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391291/rejuvenation-of-mucosal-immunosenescence-by-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
Akitoshi Tsuruhara, Kazuyoshi Aso, Daisuke Tokuhara, Junichiro Ohori, Masaki Kawabata, Yuichi Kurono, Jerry R McGhee, Kohtaro Fujihashi
Age-associated alterations in the mucosal immune system are generally termed mucosal immunosenescence. The major change seen in the aged mucosa is a failure to elicit an antigen-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) antibody response, which is a central player for host defense from various pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this regard, it would be a first priority to compensate for mucosal dysregulation in the elderly in order to maintain their health in aging. We have successfully established antigen-specific SIgA antibody responses in aged (2 years old) mice, which provide protective immunity from Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza virus infections, by using a new adjuvant system consisting of a plasmid encoding Flt3 ligand (pFL) and CpG ODN...
January 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295657/severe-acute-cellular-rejection-after-intestinal-transplantation-is-associated-with-poor-patient-and-graft-survival
#3
Genevieve Huard, Thomas D Schiano, Jang Moon, Kishore Iyer
BACKGROUND: Severe acute cellular rejection (ACR) occurs frequently after intestinal transplantation (ITx). AIM: To evaluate the outcomes and the risk factors for graft failure and mortality in patients with severe ACR after ITx. METHODS: Retrospective study evaluating all ITx recipients who developed severe ACR between 01/2000 and 07/2014. Demographic and histologic data were reviewed. RESULTS: 20/126 (15.9%) ITx recipients developed severe ACR...
March 10, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293969/teduglutide-for-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#4
Lore Billiauws, Julie Bataille, Vanessa Boehm, Olivier Corcos, Francisca Joly
The European Society for Clinical Nutrition has published recommendations on the 'definition and classification of intestinal failure (IF)'. Two criteria must be present: a 'decreased absorption of macronutrients and/or water and electrolytes due to a loss of gut function' and the 'need for parenteral support'. Home parenteral support (HPS) is the primary treatment for chronic IF but is associated with complications. Areas covered: The principal cause of chronic IF is short bowel syndrome (SBS). The aim of treatment is to maximize intestinal absorption and reduce or eliminate the need for HPS to achieve the best possible quality of life...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270450/ssb1-and-ssb2-cooperate-to-regulate-mouse-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-by-resolving-replicative-stress
#5
Wei Shi, Therese Vu, Didier Boucher, Anna Biernacka, Jules Nde, Raj K Pandita, Jasmin Straube, Glen M Boyle, Fares Al-Ejeh, Purba Nag, Jessie Jeffery, Janelle L Harris, Amanda L Bain, Marta Grzelak, Magdalena Skrzypczak, Abhishek Mitra, Norbert Dojer, Nicola Crosetto, Nicole Cloonan, Olivier J Becherel, John Finnie, Jeffrey R Skaar, Carl R Walkley, Tej K Pandita, Maga Rowicka, Krzysztof Ginalski, Steven W Lane, Kum Kum Khanna
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are vulnerable to endogenous damage and defects in DNA repair can limit their function. The two single-stranded DNA binding proteins SSB1 and SSB2 are crucial regulators of the DNA damage response; however their overlapping roles during normal physiology are incompletely understood. We generated mice where both Ssb1 and Ssb2 were constitutively or conditionally deleted. Constitutive Ssb1/Ssb2 double knockout (DKO) caused early embryonic lethality, while conditional Ssb1/Ssb2 double knockout (cDKO) in adult mice resulted in acute lethality due to bone marrow failure and intestinal atrophy featuring stem and progenitor cell depletion, a phenotype unexpected from the previously reported single knockout models of Ssb1 or Ssb2 Mechanistically, cDKO HSPCs showed altered replication fork dynamics, massive accumulation of DNA damage, genome-wide double strand breaks (DSBs) enriched at Ssb binding regions and CpG islands, together with the accumulation of R-loops and cytosolic ssDNA...
March 7, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241392/the-high-incidence-of-severe-chronic-kidney-disease-after-intestinal-transplantation-and-its-impact-on-patient-and-graft-survival
#6
Geneviève Huard, Kishore Iyer, Jang Moon, John T Doucette, Vinay Nair, Thomas D Schiano
INTRODUCTION: Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR), cumulative incidence, risk factors for, and impact on survival of severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) in intestinal transplantation (ITx) recipients were assessed. METHODS: First-time adult ITx recipients transplanted in the United States between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2012 were included. Severe CKD after ITx was defined as: glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <30 mL/min/1...
February 27, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209419/a-safety-and-pharmacokinetic-dosing-study-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-in-infants-with-intestinal-failure
#7
David L Sigalet, Mary E Brindle, Dana Boctor, Bryan Dicken, Viona Lam, Lily Sia Lu, Elaine de Heuvel, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analogues are approved for adults with intestinal failure (IF), but no studies have included infants. This study examined the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and nutritional effects of GLP-2 in infants with IF. METHODS: With parental consent (Health Canada Protocol:150,979), parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent infants were treated with 5-20-μg/kg/day GLP-2 for 3days (phase 1), and if tolerated continued for 42days (phase 2)...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194723/teduglutide-a-review-in-short-bowel-syndrome
#8
Esther S Kim, Susan J Keam
Subcutaneous teduglutide (Revestive(®)), a glucagon-like peptide-2 analogue that increases intestinal absorption, is approved in the EU for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS) in patients aged ≥1 year who are stable following a period of postsurgical intestinal adaptation. In a phase III trial in adults with SBS intestinal failure (IF) dependent on parenteral support (PS), a significantly greater proportion of teduglutide 0.05 mg/kg/day than placebo recipients achieved a ≥20% reduction in weekly PS volume from baseline to week 20 and maintained it to week 24...
February 14, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191783/concise-review-the-potential-use-of-intestinal-stem-cells-to-treat-patients-with-intestinal-failure
#9
Sung Noh Hong, James C Y Dunn, Matthias Stelzner, Martín G Martín
Intestinal failure is a rare life-threatening condition that results in the inability to maintain normal growth and hydration status by enteral nutrition alone. Although parenteral nutrition and whole organ allogeneic transplantation have improved the survival of these patients, current therapies are associated with a high risk for morbidity and mortality. Development of methods to propagate adult human intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and pluripotent stem cells raises the possibility of using stem cell-based therapy for patients with monogenic and polygenic forms of intestinal failure...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081385/catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-in-adults-receiving-home-parenteral-nutrition
#10
Siri Tribler, Christopher F Brandt, Mark Hvistendahl, Michael Staun, Per Brøbech, Claus E Moser, Palle B Jeppesen
BACKGROUND: A common complication in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). The CRBSI incidence has been advocated as an outcome parameter assessing the quality of care. This study aimed to illustrate how the use of different CRBSI definitions affects the reported incidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an observational study based on the Copenhagen intestinal failure database, all clinically reported CRBSIs from 2002-2013 were compared with data from the affiliated microbiological database according to recommended CRBSI criteria...
January 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052602/optn-srtr-2015-annual-data-report-intestine
#11
J M Smith, M A Skeans, S P Horslen, E B Edwards, A M Harper, J J Snyder, A K Israni, B L Kasiske
Intestine and intestine-liver transplant remains important in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2015, 196 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list, with equal numbers waiting for intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2015, 63.3% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 36.7% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups...
January 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027797/corrigendum-to-espen-guidelines-on-chronic-intestinal-failure-in-adults-clin-nutr-35-2-2016-247-307
#12
Loris Pironi, Jann Arends, Federico Bozzetti, Cristina Cuerda, Lyn Gillanders, Palle Bekker Jeppesen, Francisca Joly, Darlene Kelly, Simon Lal, Michael Staun, Kinga Szczepanek, André Van Gossum, Geert Wanten, Stéphane Michel Schneider
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979490/is-om-3-synergistic-with-glp-2-in-intestinal-failure
#13
Avik Karmaker, Caitlyn M Costanzo, Marshall Z Schwartz
INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a known intestinal growth factor that enhances mucosal mass and function in residual small intestine after massive small bowel resection (MSBR). Luminal omega-3 (OM-3) has been shown to have some growth factor properties. It is possible that their mechanisms of action differ. Thus, we hypothesized that administering these two substances together may have a synergistic effect. METHODS: A total of 60 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 80% MSBR and divided as follows (n = 15/group): Saline (Control) + regular feeds; GLP-2 + regular feeds; Saline + OM-3 enriched feeds; and GLP-2 + OM-3 enriched feeds...
January 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942382/a-case-report-giant-intra-abdominal-liposarcoma-presenting-acute-renal-failure
#14
Kazim Duman, Mustafa Girgin, Gokhan Artas
INTRODUCTION: Liposarcomas represent 20-30% of adult soft tissue tumors and its abdominal localization occurs only in 5% of cases. Most are asymptomatic, but few present with abdominal mass and pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting. They infiltrate adjacent organs and cause intestinal obstruction, intestinal ischemia-perforation, hydronephrosis, ureteric fistula and even aortic rupture. Here we aimed to report a rare case of a giant liposarcoma which originated from mesentery. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 45-year-old male presented with slightly abdomen distention, urinary retention, oliguria since fifteen days...
December 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888039/total-midgut-volvulus-in-adults-with-intestinal-malrotation-report-of-eleven-patients
#15
H Kotobi, V Tan, J Lefèvre, F Duramé, G Audry, Y Parc
OBJECTIVE: Total small-intestinal volvulus with malrotation (TSIVM) classically presents in the neonatal period; it occurs much less frequently in the adult and is often misdiagnosed. Prognosis is directly related to the degree and duration of intestinal ischemia. Our goal is to describe our experience with TSIVM in the adult, to identify any specific findings and to discuss its management. METHOD: Eleven patients who had undergone surgery for TSIVM at three centers between 1992 and 2012 were included...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Visceral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875291/independence-from-parenteral-nutrition-and-intravenous-fluid-support-during-treatment-with-teduglutide-among-patients-with-intestinal-failure-associated-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#16
Kishore R Iyer, Marek Kunecki, Joseph I Boullata, Ken Fujioka, Francisca Joly, Simon Gabe, Ulrich-Frank Pape, Stéphane M Schneider, María Nuria Virgili Casas, Thomas R Ziegler, Benjamin Li, Nader N Youssef, Palle B Jeppesen
BACKGROUND: In phase III clinical studies, treatment with teduglutide was associated with clinically meaningful reductions (≥20% from baseline) in parenteral support (PS; parenteral nutrition and/or intravenous fluids) requirements in adult patients with intestinal failure associated with short bowel syndrome (SBS-IF). This analysis reports clinical characteristics of patients who achieved complete independence from PS during teduglutide treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Post hoc analysis of adult patients who achieved complete PS independence during treatment with teduglutide 0...
November 22, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875289/home-parenteral-nutrition-in-adult-patients-with-chronic-intestinal-failure-catheter-related-complications-over-4-decades-at-the-main-danish-tertiary-referral-center
#17
Christopher Filtenborg Brandt, Siri Tribler, Mark Hvistendahl, Rahim M Naimi, Per Brøbech, Michael Staun, Palle Bekker Jeppesen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Catheter-related complications (CRCs) cause mortality and morbidity in patients dependent on parenteral support at home (HPN) due to intestinal failure (IF). This study describes the incidences of CRCs in an adult IF cohort over 40 years. It illustrates the evolution and consequences of CRCs, their association to demographic characteristics, and potential risk factors in an effort to provide the rationale for preventive precautions to the relevant patients with IF at risk...
November 15, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829181/effect-of-thoracic-epidural-block-on-infection-induced-inflammatory-response-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Asha Tyagi, Anuradha Bansal, Shukla Das, Ashok Kumar Sethi, Aanchal Kakkar
PURPOSE: Epidural block decreases inflammation and oxidative stress in experimental models of sepsis as well as after surgery. There is, however, no clinical evidence evaluating its effect on infection-induced inflammatory process. The present trial evaluated the effect of thoracic epidural block (TEB) on systemic inflammatory response in patients with small intestinal perforation peritonitis. Outcome measures included systemic levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein and postoperative Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment scores...
April 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805515/posttransplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-manifesting-as-intestinal-epstein-barr-virus-positive-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-in-an-adult-renal-transplant-recipient
#19
Pelin Börcek, B Handan Özdemir, Gonca Özgün, Mehmet Haberal
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a relatively common posttransplant malignancy affecting as many as 10% of all solid-organ recipients. Most cases of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder are of B-cell origin, with common Epstein-Barr virus association. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders of T-cell origin are much rarer and less frequently associated with Epstein-Barr virus. Here, we report an unusual case of Epstein-Barr virus-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma causing an intestinal perforation in an adult renal transplant recipient...
2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784959/endocrine-manifestations-in-celiac-disease
#20
REVIEW
Hugh James Freeman
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid disease, particularly hypothyroidism, may commonly co-exist...
October 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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