Read by QxMD icon Read

Disruptive behavior

Jocelyn M Richard, Nakura Stout, Deanna Acs, Patricia H Janak
Despite its being historically conceptualized as a motor expression site, emerging evidence suggests the ventral pallidum (VP) plays a more active role in integrating information to generate motivation. Here, we investigated whether rat VP cue responses would encode and contribute similarly to the vigor of reward-seeking behaviors trained under Pavlovian versus instrumental contingencies, when these behavioral responses consist of superficially similar locomotor response patterns but may reflect distinct underlying decision-making processes...
March 22, 2018: ELife
Meng-Yi Xu, Albert H C Wong
Schizophrenia is considered primarily as a cognitive disorder. However, functional outcomes in schizophrenia are limited by the lack of effective pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for cognitive impairment. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) interneurons are the main inhibitory neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), and they play a critical role in a variety of pathophysiological processes including modulation of cortical and hippocampal neural circuitry and activity, cognitive function-related neural oscillations (eg, gamma oscillations) and information integration and processing...
March 22, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Meredith M Course, Anna I Scott, Carmen Schoor, Chung-Han Hsieh, Amanda M Papakyrikos, Dominic Winter, Tina M Cowan, Xinnan Wang
PINK1 is a mitochondria-targeted kinase, whose mutations are a cause of Parkinson's disease. We set out to better understand PINK1's effects on mitochondrial proteins in vivo Using an unbiased phosphoproteomic screen in Drosophila , we found that PINK1 mediates the phosphorylation of MCAD, a mitochondrial matrix protein critical to fatty acid metabolism. By mimicking phosphorylation of this protein in a PINK1 null background, we restored PINK1 null's climbing, flight, thorax, and wing deficiencies. Due to MCAD's role in fatty acid metabolism, we examined the metabolic profile of PINK1 null flies, where we uncovered significant disruptions in both acylcarnitines and amino acids...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Brant Gracia, Hashim M Al-Hashimi, Namita Bisaria, Rhiju Das, Daniel Herschlag, Rick Russell
Large-scale, cooperative rearrangements underlie the functions of RNA in RNA-protein machines and gene regulation. To understand how such rearrangements are orchestrated, we used high-throughput chemical footprinting to dissect a seemingly concerted rearrangement in P5abc RNA, a paradigm of RNA folding studies. With mutations that systematically disrupt or restore putative structural elements, we found that this transition reflects local folding of structural modules, with modest and incremental cooperativity that results in concerted behavior...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Brandon P Vasquez, Jennifer C Tomaszczyk, Bhanu Sharma, Brenda Colella, Robin E A Green
BACKGROUND: Executive control deficits are deleterious and enduring consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) that disrupt everyday functioning. Clinically, such impairments can manifest as behavioural inconsistency, measurable experimentally by the degree of variability across trials of a reaction time (RT) task (also known as intraindividual variability [IIV]). Growing research on cognition after TBI points to cognitive deterioration in the chronic stages postinjury...
March 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
David A Ross, Benjamin J Tamber-Rosenau, Thomas J Palmeri, JieDong Zhang, Yaoda Xu, Isabel Gauthier
Visual object expertise correlates with neural selectivity in the fusiform face area (FFA). Although behavioral studies suggest that visual expertise is associated with increased use of holistic and configural information, little is known about the nature of the supporting neural representations. Using high-resolution 7-T functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded the multivoxel activation patterns elicited by whole cars, configurally disrupted cars, and car parts in individuals with a wide range of car expertise...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Jozef Dingemans, Hanneke Eyns, Julie Willekens, Pieter Monsieurs, Rob Van Houdt, Pierre Cornelis, Anne Malfroot, Aurélie Crabbé
High levels of shear stress can prevent and disrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in vitro. Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) could be used to introduce shear stress into the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients to disrupt biofilms in vivo. We performed a first-of-its-kind pilot clinical study to evaluate short-term IPV therapy at medium (200 bursts per minute, bpm) and high frequency (400 bpm) as compared to autogenic drainage (AD) on lung function and the behavior of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung in four patients who are chronically colonized by P...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
María Lázaro-Peña, Carlos Díaz-Balzac, Hannes Bülow, Scott Emmons
The nervous system regulates complex behaviors through a network of neurons interconnected by synapses. How specific synaptic connections are genetically determined is still unclear. Male mating is the most complex behavior in C. elegans It is composed of sequential steps that are governed by more than 3,000 chemical connections. Here we show that heparan sulfates (HS) play a role in the formation and function of the male neural network. HS, sulfated in position 3 by the HS modification enzyme HST-3.1 / HS 3- O -sulfotransferase and attached to the HSPG glypicans LON-2/glypican and GPN-1/glypican, functions cell-autonomously and non-autonomously for response to hermaphrodite contact during mating...
March 20, 2018: Genetics
Anthony N Oliveri, Erica Ortiz, Edward D Levin
Human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) is widespread, including pregnant women and young children with whom developmental neurotoxic risk is a concern. Given similarities of OPFRs to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, research into the possible neurotoxic impacts of developmental OPFR exposure has been growing. Building upon research implicating exposure to OP pesticides in dopaminergic (DA) dysfunction, we exposed developing zebrafish to the OPFR tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), during the first 5 days following fertilization...
March 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Kimberly S Chiew, Jordan Hashemi, Lee K Gans, Laura Lerebours, Nathaniel J Clement, Mai-Anh T Vu, Guillermo Sapiro, Nicole E Heller, R Alison Adcock
Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Patty Leijten, G J Melendez-Torres, Frances Gardner, Jolien van Aar, Susanne Schulz, Geertjan Overbeek
Parenting programs for reducing disruptive child behavior are built on two main perspectives: relationship enhancement (i.e., unconditional sensitivity diminishes disruptiveness) and behavior management (i.e., conditional rewards diminish disruptiveness). Two meta-analyses (156 and 41 RCTs; Ntotal  = 15,768; Mchildage  = 1-11 years) tested the theoretical model that integrating relationship enhancement with behavior management is superior to behavior management alone. The integrative approach showed no overall superiority...
March 20, 2018: Child Development
Karen Müller Smith
GABAergic interneuron loss, maturational delay or imbalance of glutamatergic to GABAergic signaling has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In schizophrenia, decreases in parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (Sst) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) RNA have been observed and seem to indicate a failure in maturation in PV and Sst neurons. In Tourette syndrome, which has a high level of comorbid ADHD, reduced numbers of parvalbumin expressing neurons have been observed in the basal ganglia of affected patients...
March 19, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Magalie S Leduc, Marianne Mcguire, Suneeta Madan-Khetarpal, Damara Ortiz, Susan Hayflick, Kory Keller, Christine M Eng, Yaping Yang, Weimin Bi
PRR12 encodes a proline-rich protein nuclear factor suspected to be involved in neural development. Its nuclear expression in fetal brains and in the vision system supports its role in brain and eye development more specifically. However, its function and potential role in human disease has not been determined. Recently, a de novo t(10;19) (q22.3;q13.33) translocation disrupting the PRR12 gene was detected in a girl with intellectual disability and neuropsychiatric alterations. Here we report on three unrelated patients with heterozygous de novo apparent loss-of-function mutations in PRR12 detected by clinical whole exome sequencing: c...
March 19, 2018: Human Genetics
Nikita M Bajwa, Chandrasekhar Kesavan, Subburaman Mohan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to long-term cognitive, behavioral, affective deficits, and increase neurodegenerative diseases. It is only in recent years that there is growing awareness that TBI even in its milder form poses long-term health consequences to not only the brain but to other organ systems. Also, the concept that hormonal signals and neural circuits that originate in the hypothalamus play key roles in regulating skeletal system is gaining recognition based on recent mouse genetic studies. Accordingly, many TBI patients have also presented with hormonal dysfunction, increased skeletal fragility, and increased risk of skeletal diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Martha A Zepeda-Rivera, Christina C Saak, Karine A Gibbs
The bacterium Proteus mirabilis can communicate identity through the secretion of the self-identity protein, IdsD, via the type VI secretion (T6S) system. IdsD secretion is essential for self versus non-self recognition behaviors in these populations. Here we provide an answer to the unresolved question of how the activity of a T6S substrate, such as IdsD, is regulated before secretion. We demonstrate that IdsD is found in clusters that form independently of the T6S machinery and activity. We show that the protein IdsC, which is a member of the proposed DUF4123 chaperone family, is essential for the maintenance of these clusters as well as the IdsD protein itself...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Nivedita Rai, R Muthukumaran, R Amutha
The HtrA protease of Helicobacter pylori, which efficiently colonizes at the gastric epithelial of host cells, disrupts the mucosal integrity of E-cadherin and spreads inflammatory diseases including gastric cancer by cleaving the cell-cell adhesion of the host. The lack of knowledge on the molecular diversity, structural and functional behavior of HpHtrA necessitated the present study to explore its inhibition mechanism. At first, the similarity of HpHtrA with other gastro-intestinal pathogenic HtrA bacteria and its remote relationship with the Human HtrA homologs were ensured by the phylogenetic analysis and hence was identified as a novel therapeutic target for further design of inhibitors...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Adam M Goodman, Nathaniel G Harnett, Muriah D Wheelock, Danielle R Hurst, Tyler R Orem, Ethan W Gossett, Chelsea A Dunaway, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Excessive stress exposure often leads to emotional dysfunction, characterized by disruptions in healthy emotional learning, expression, and regulation processes. A prefrontal cortex (PFC)-amygdala circuit appears to underlie these important emotional processes. However, limited human neuroimaging research has investigated whether these brain regions underlie the altered emotional function that develops with stress. Therefore, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate stress-induced changes in PFC-amygdala function during Pavlovian fear conditioning...
March 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Ana Carolina Issy, Maurício Dos-Santos-Pereira, João Francisco Cordeiro Pedrazzi, Regina Celia Cussa Kubrusly, Elaine Del-Bel
Pharmacological manipulation of nitric oxide (NO) has been suggested as a promising treatment for schizophrenia symptoms. A single infusion of sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor with short half-life, was found to improve schizophrenia symptoms. However, an increasing number of preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential beneficial effects of both NO donors and inhibitors. We investigated the potential synergistic effect of sub-effective doses of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or the NO inhibitor 7-Nitroindazole (7NI) combined with clozapine, a standard atypical antipsychotic, on counteracting amphetamine or MK-801-induced psychosis-like behaviors...
March 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Hannah Klaassen, Yongfu Wang, Kay Adamski, Nicolas Rohner, Johanna E Kowalko
Understanding the genetic basis of trait evolution is critical to identifying the mechanisms that generated the immense amount of diversity observable in the living world. However, genetically manipulating organisms from natural populations with evolutionary adaptations remains a significant challenge. Astyanax mexicanus, the blind Mexican cavefish, exists in two interfertile forms, a surface-dwelling form and multiple independently evolved cave-dwelling forms. Cavefish have evolved a number of morphological and behavioral traits and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses have been performed to identify loci underlying these traits...
March 16, 2018: Developmental Biology
Marina Bentivoglio, Giuseppe Bertini
Rijo-Ferreira et al. report alterations of circadian rhythmicity at the behavioral, tissue, cellular, and molecular levels in mice after Trypanosoma brucei infection, showing that targeting cell clocks is a specific feature of these parasites. Thus, African trypanosomes cause a severe disease by disrupting time-keeping mechanisms and their synchrony.
March 16, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"