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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812416/role-of-branchiomotor-neurons-in-controlling-food-intake-of-zebrafish-larvae
#1
James R Allen, Kiran D Bhattacharyya, Emilia Asante, Badr Almadi, Kyle Schafer, Jeremy Davis, Jane Cox, Mark Voigt, John A Viator, Anand Chandrasekhar
The physical act of eating or feeding involves the coordinated action of several organs like eyes and jaws, and associated neural networks. Moreover, the activity of the neural networks controlling jaw movements (branchiomotor circuits) is regulated by the visual, olfactory, gustatory and hypothalamic systems, which are largely well characterized at the physiological level. By contrast, the behavioral output of the branchiomotor circuits and the functional consequences of disruption of these circuits by abnormal neural development are poorly understood...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812266/oxytocin-and-social-relationships-from-attachment-to-bond-disruption
#2
Oliver J Bosch, Larry J Young
Social relationships throughout life are vital for well-being and physical and mental health. A significant amount of research in animal models as well as in humans suggests that oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in the development of the capacity to form social bonds, the mediation of the positive aspects of early-life nurturing on adult bonding capacity, and the maintenance of social bonding. Here, we focus on the extensive research on a socially monogamous rodent model organism, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812265/oxytocin-and-olfaction
#3
Lars-Lennart Oettl, Wolfgang Kelsch
Social signals are identified through processing in sensory systems to trigger appropriate behavioral responses. Social signals are received primarily in most mammals through the olfactory system. Individuals are recognized based on their unique blend of odorants. Such individual recognition is critical to distinguish familiar conspecifics from intruders and to recognize offspring. Social signals can also trigger stereotyped responses like mating behaviors. Specific sensory pathways for individual recognition and eliciting stereotyped responses have been identified both in the early olfactory system and its connected cortices...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811267/app-a%C3%AE-structural-diversity-and-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Alex E Roher, Tyler A Kokjohn, Steven G Clarke, Michael R Sierks, Chera L Maarouf, Geidy E Serrano, Marwan S Sabbagh, Thomas G Beach
The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) proposes amyloid- β (Aβ) is a chief pathological element of dementia. AD therapies have targeted monomeric and oligomeric Aβ 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. However, alternative APP proteolytic processing produces a complex roster of Aβ species. In addition, Aβ peptides are subject to extensive posttranslational modification (PTM). We propose that amplified production of some APP/Aβ species, perhaps exacerbated by differential gene expression and reduced peptide degradation, creates a diverse spectrum of modified species which disrupt brain homeostasis and accelerate AD neurodegeneration...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810562/anti-depressant-like-effects-of-jieyu-chufan-capsules-in-a-mouse-model-of-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress
#5
Hui Zhao, Bingyu Liang, Linjie Yu, Yun Xu
Jieyu chufan (JYCF) is a well-known Chinese traditional medicine used for depression; however, the molecular mechanism underlying its anti-depressant action has remained elusive. In the present study, the anti-depressant effects of JYCF and the potential mechanisms were investigated in a mouse model. Five groups of 12 C57BL/6 mice each were used in the study, including a normal control group (NC group), a model control group (MC group) and three groups, which received different doses of JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) orally for 21 days (JYCF groups)...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809509/tailoring-parent-child-interaction-therapy-pcit-for-older-children-a-case-study
#6
Wolfgang Briegel
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an evidence-based intervention designed for families of 2- to 6-year-old children with disruptive behavior disorders. This article illustrates the application of PCIT in a 10-year-old boy with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Both parents and the patient attended PCIT sessions. The course of therapy included minor changes to the PCIT protocol. After 13 PCIT sessions, the patient displayed disruptive behaviors within normal limits, and 12 months later he no longer met diagnostic criteria for ODD...
August 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808832/factor-structure-of-teacher-ratings-of-the-odd-symptoms-in-children
#7
Rapson Gomez, Vasileios Stavropoulos, George Van Doorn
This study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine the best model for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms in children aged 3 to 15 years, as presented in the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale. Teachers' ratings of the ODD symptoms of 213 children from general community schools in Australia were obtained. The findings provided most support for a bifactor model based on Stringaris and Goodman's [1] three-factor model (primary factors for irritable, hurtful, and headstrong). The general factor, but not the group factors in the model, showed high omega hierarchical and explained common variance...
August 15, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807790/the-functional-domains-for-bax%C3%A2-2-aggregate-mediated-caspase-8-dependent-cell-death
#8
Adriana Mañas, Sheng Wang, Adam Nelson, Jiajun Li, Yu Zhao, Huaiyuan Zhang, Aislinn Davis, Bingqing Xie, Natalia Maltsev, Jialing Xiang
Bax∆2 is a functional pro-apoptotic Bax isoform having alterations in its N-terminus, but sharing the rest of its sequence with Baxα. Bax∆2 is unable to target mitochondria due to the loss of helix α1. Instead, it forms cytosolic aggregates and activates caspase 8. However, the functional domain(s) responsible for BaxΔ2 behavior have remained elusive. Here we show that disruption of helix α1 makes Baxα mimic the behavior of Bax∆2. However, the other alterations in the Bax∆2 N-terminus have no significant impact on aggregation or cell death...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806580/the-eco-toxic-effects-of-pesticide-and-heavy-metal-mixtures-towards-earthworms-in-soil
#9
REVIEW
Herman Uwizeyimana, Meie Wang, Weiping Chen, Kifayatullah Khan
Earthworms are the key soil organisms, contribute to many positive ecological services that could be degraded by pesticides and other soil pollutants such as heavy metals. Chemicals usually occur as mixtures in the environmental systems which can lead synergistic effects. The assessment and characterization of soil pollutants that effects risks are very difficult due to the complexity of soil matrix, poor understanding about the fate and effects of chemical combinations like pesticide and metal mixtures in terrestrial systems, and scarcity of toxicological data on mixtures of pollutants...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806075/reversible-on-off-switching-of-a-single-molecule-magnet-via-a-crystal-to-crystal-chemical-transformation
#10
Dong-Qing Wu, Dong Shao, Xiao-Qin Wei, Fu-Xing Shen, Le Shi, David Kempe, Yuan-Zhu Zhang, Kim R Dunbar, Xin-Yi Wang
Dynamic molecular crystals are of great interest due to their potential applications. Herein we report the reversible on-off switching of single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior in a [Mo(CN)7](4-) based molecular compound. Upon dehydration and rehydration, the trinuclear Mn2Mo molecule [Mn(L)(H2O)]2[Mo(CN)7]·2H2O (1) undergoes reversible crystal-to-crystal transformation to a hexanuclear Mn4Mo2 compound [Mn(L)(H2O)]2[Mn(L)]2[Mo(CN)7]2 (2). This structural transformation involves the breaking and reforming of coordination bonds which leads to significant changes in the color and magnetic properties...
August 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805663/yap-taz-regulates-sprouting-angiogenesis-and-vascular-barrier-maturation
#11
Jongshin Kim, Yoo Hyung Kim, Jaeryung Kim, Do Young Park, Hosung Bae, Da-Hye Lee, Kyun Hoo Kim, Seon Pyo Hong, Seung Pil Jang, Yoshiaki Kubota, Young-Guen Kwon, Dae-Sik Lim, Gou Young Koh
Angiogenesis is a multistep process that requires coordinated migration, proliferation, and junction formation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) to form new vessel branches in response to growth stimuli. Major intracellular signaling pathways that regulate angiogenesis have been well elucidated, but key transcriptional regulators that mediate these signaling pathways and control EC behaviors are only beginning to be understood. Here, we show that YAP/TAZ, a transcriptional coactivator that acts as an end effector of Hippo signaling, is critical for sprouting angiogenesis and vascular barrier formation and maturation...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805580/tourette-syndrome-and-chronic-tic-disorders-the-clinical-spectrum-beyond-tics
#12
Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Tamara M Pringsheim
The clinical surveillance and active management of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other primary chronic tic disorders cannot be limited to tics, as these patients manifest a spectrum of sensory-, behavioral-, cognitive-, and sleep-related problems that have a major impact on their functioning and quality of life, influencing enormously clinical decision making on a routine basis. The sensory phenomena of primary tic disorders consist of premonitory urges and heightened sensitivity to external somatosensory and interoceptive stimuli...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805534/health-behaviors-related-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-the-associated-factors-of-adolescent-korean-girls
#13
SoMi Park, ChaeWeon Chung
In this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationships among knowledge about endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), recognition of EDCs-related female reproductive illnesses, concern for the environment, perceived susceptibility to EDCs-related diseases, self- appraisal of exposure to EDCs and health behaviors related to EDCs in adolescent Korean girls. A convenience sample of 218 girls was recruited during July and August 2015 from middle and high schools located in a city in Korea. The self-administered questionnaire incorporated four characteristics of the participants, five related factors, and a dependent variable of health behaviors...
August 14, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803557/altered-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-cingulate-cortex-in-children-with-severe-temper-outbursts
#14
Amy Krain Roy, Randi Bennett, Jonathan Posner, Leslie Hulvershorn, F Xavier Castellanos, Rachel G Klein
Severe temper outbursts (STO) in children are associated with impaired school and family functioning and may contribute to negative outcomes. These outbursts can be conceptualized as excessive frustration responses reflecting reduced emotion regulation capacity. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in negative affect as well as emotional control, and exhibits disrupted function in children with elevated irritability and outbursts. This study examined the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of a region of the ACC, the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), in 5- to 9-year-old children with STO (n = 20), comparing them to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) without outbursts (ADHD; n = 18)...
August 14, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802958/interaction-of-erythromycin-and-ketoconazole-on-the-neurological-biochemical-and-behavioral-responses-in-crucian-carp
#15
Jianchao Liu, Yuanfei Cai, Guanghua Lu, Xiaoxiang Dan, Donghai Wu, Zhenhua Yan
The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has received great attention due to their potential impacts on public health. The single, as well as the combined toxicities of erythromycin (ERY) and ketoconazole (KCZ) on the bioaccumulation, biochemical and behavioral responses, were examined in crucian carp. This study focused on the uptake of contaminants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain, swimming and shoaling behavior of fish. After 14days of binary exposure, the addition of KCZ at nominal concentrations of 0...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802575/military-experience-can-influence-women-s-eating-habits
#16
Jessica Y Breland, Rosemary Donalson, Andrea Nevedal, Julie V Dinh, Shira Maguen
BACKGROUND: Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. OBJECTIVE: To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014...
August 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802560/traumatic-brain-injuries-during-development-disrupt-dopaminergic-signaling
#17
Kate Karelina, Kristopher R Gaier, Zachary M Weil
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) sustained during peri-adolescent development produce lasting neuro-behavioral changes that render individuals at an increased risk for developing substance abuse disorders. Experimental and clinical evidence of a prolonged period of hypodopaminergia after TBI have been well documented, but the effect of juvenile TBI on dopaminergic dysfunction and its relationship with substance abuse have not been investigated. In order to determine the effect of juvenile brain injury on dopaminergic signaling, female mice were injured at 21days of age and then beginning seven weeks later were assessed for behavioral sensitization to amphetamine, a drug that increases synaptic dopamine availability...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802102/pnipaam-co-jeffamine-%C3%A2-pnj-scaffolds-as-in%C3%A2-vitro-models-for-niche-enrichment-of-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells
#18
John M Heffernan, James B McNamara, Sabine Borwege, Brent L Vernon, Nader Sanai, Shwetal Mehta, Rachael W Sirianni
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common adult primary brain tumor, and the 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. GBM malignancy is driven in part by a population of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) that exhibit indefinite self-renewal capacity, multipotent differentiation, expression of neural stem cell markers, and resistance to conventional treatments. GSCs are enriched in specialized niche microenvironments that regulate stem phenotypes and support GSC radioresistance. Therefore, identifying GSC-niche interactions that regulate stem phenotypes may present a unique target for disrupting the maintenance and persistence of this treatment resistant population...
May 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802042/orco-mutagenesis-causes-loss-of-antennal-lobe-glomeruli-and-impaired-social-behavior-in-ants
#19
Waring Trible, Leonora Olivos-Cisneros, Sean K McKenzie, Jonathan Saragosti, Ni-Chen Chang, Benjamin J Matthews, Peter R Oxley, Daniel J C Kronauer
Life inside ant colonies is orchestrated with diverse pheromones, but it is not clear how ants perceive these social signals. It has been proposed that pheromone perception in ants evolved via expansions in the numbers of odorant receptors (ORs) and antennal lobe glomeruli. Here, we generate the first mutant lines in the clonal raider ant, Ooceraea biroi, by disrupting orco, a gene required for the function of all ORs. We find that orco mutants exhibit severe deficiencies in social behavior and fitness, suggesting they are unable to perceive pheromones...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801194/medial-septum-modulates-hippocampal-gamma-activity-and-prepulse-inhibition-in-an-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-model-of-schizophrenia
#20
L Stan Leung, Jingyi Ma
We reviewed the participation of the septohippocampal system in an animal model of schizophrenia that was acutely induced by systemic injection of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist such as phencyclidine, MK-801 and ketamine. The NMDA receptor antagonist-induced model of schizophrenia is characterized by behavioral and electrophysiological disruptions, including a decrease in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI), hyperlocomotion, decrease in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials and robust increase in hippocampal gamma (30-100Hz) oscillations...
August 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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