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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167595/seasonal-variations-in-c-n-si-ca-p-mg-s-k-fe-relationships-of-seston-from-norwegian-coastal-water-impact-of-extreme-offshore-forcing-during-winter-spring-2010
#1
Svein Rune Erga, Stig Bjarte Haugen, Gunnar Bratbak, Jorun Karin Egge, Mikal Heldal, Kjell Arne Mork, Svein Norland
The aim of this study was to reveal the relative content of C, N, Ca, Si, P, Mg, K, S and Fe in seston particles in Norwegian coastal water (NCW), and how it relates to biological and hydrographic processes during seasonal cycles from October 2009-March 2012. The following over all stoichiometric relationship for the time series was obtained: C66N11Si3.4Ca2.3P1Mg0.73S0.37K0.35Fe0.30, which is novel for marine waters. A record-breaking (187-year record) negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index caused extreme physical forcing on the Norwegian Coastal Current Water (NCCW) during the winter 2009-2010, and the inflow and upwelling of saline Atlantic water (AW) in the fjord was thus extraordinary during late spring-early summer in 2010...
November 20, 2017: Marine Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143000/parametric-amplification-in-mos2-drum-resonator
#2
Parmeshwar Prasad, Nishta Arora, A K Naik
Parametric amplification is widely used in diverse areas from optics to electronic circuits to enhance low level signals by varying relevant system parameters. Parametric amplification has also been performed in several micro-nano resonators including nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) resonators based on a two-dimensional (2D) material. Here, we report the enhancement of mechanical response in a MoS2 drum resonator using degenerate parametric amplification. We use parametric pumping to modulate the spring constant of the MoS2 resonator and achieve a 10 dB amplitude gain...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120480/coupled-surface-and-groundwater-hydrological-modeling-in-a-changing-climate
#3
Venkataramana Sridhar, Mirza M Billah, John W Hildreth
Many current watershed modeling efforts now incorporate surface water and groundwater for managing water resources since the exchanges between groundwater and surface water need a special focus considering the changing climate. The influence of groundwater dynamics on water and energy balance components is investigated in the Snake River Basin (SRB) by coupling the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and MODFLOW models (VIC-MF) for the period of 1986 through 2042. A 4.4% increase in base flows and a 10.3% decrease in peak flows are estimated by VIC-MF compared to the VIC model in SRB...
November 9, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919940/calcitox-aging-counterbalanced-by-endogenous-farnesol-like-sesquiterpenoids-an-undervalued-evolutionarily-ancient-key-signaling-pathway
#4
Arnold De Loof
Cells are powerful miniature electrophoresis chambers, at least during part of their life cycle. They die at the moment the voltage gradient over their plasma membrane, and their ability to drive a self-generated electric current carried by inorganic ions through themselves irreversibly collapses. Senescence is likely due to the progressive, multifactorial damage to the cell's electrical system. This is the essence of the "Fading electricity theory of aging" (De Loof et al., Aging Res. Rev. 2013;12:58-66)...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890576/interface-induced-phenomena-in-magnetism
#5
Frances Hellman, Axel Hoffmann, Yaroslav Tserkovnyak, Geoffrey S D Beach, Eric E Fullerton, Chris Leighton, Allan H MacDonald, Daniel C Ralph, Dario A Arena, Hermann A Dürr, Peter Fischer, Julie Grollier, Joseph P Heremans, Tomas Jungwirth, Alexey V Kimel, Bert Koopmans, Ilya N Krivorotov, Steven J May, Amanda K Petford-Long, James M Rondinelli, Nitin Samarth, Ivan K Schuller, Andrei N Slavin, Mark D Stiles, Oleg Tchernyshyov, André Thiaville, Barry L Zink
This article reviews static and dynamic interfacial effects in magnetism, focusing on interfacially-driven magnetic effects and phenomena associated with spin-orbit coupling and intrinsic symmetry breaking at interfaces. It provides a historical background and literature survey, but focuses on recent progress, identifying the most exciting new scientific results and pointing to promising future research directions. It starts with an introduction and overview of how basic magnetic properties are affected by interfaces, then turns to a discussion of charge and spin transport through and near interfaces and how these can be used to control the properties of the magnetic layer...
April 2017: Reviews of Modern Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883465/the-oceanic-biological-pump-rapid-carbon-transfer-to-depth-at-continental-margins-during-winter
#6
Laurenz Thomsen, Jacopo Aguzzi, Corrado Costa, Fabio De Leo, Andrea Ogston, Autun Purser
The oceanic biological pump is responsible for the important transfer of CO2-C as POC "Particulate Organic Carbon" to the deep sea. It plays a decisive role in the Earth's carbon cycle and significant effort is spent to quantify its strength. In this study we used synchronized daily time-series data of surface chlorophyll-a concentrations from the NASA's MODIS satellite in combination with hourly to daily observations from sea surface buoys and from an Internet Operated Vehicle (IOV) on the seafloor within Barkley Canyon (Northeast Pacific) to investigate the importance of winter processes in the export of fresh phytodetritus...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862633/nanosecond-pump-probe-device-for-time-resolved-serial-femtosecond-crystallography-developed-at-sacla
#7
Minoru Kubo, Eriko Nango, Kensuke Tono, Tetsunari Kimura, Shigeki Owada, Changyong Song, Fumitaka Mafuné, Ken Miyajima, Yoshihiro Takeda, Jun Ya Kohno, Naoya Miyauchi, Takanori Nakane, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Takashi Nomura, Jan Davidsson, Rie Tanaka, Michio Murata, Takashi Kameshima, Takaki Hatsui, Yasumasa Joti, Richard Neutze, Makina Yabashi, So Iwata
X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) have opened new opportunities for time-resolved X-ray crystallography. Here a nanosecond optical-pump XFEL-probe device developed for time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography (TR-SFX) studies of photo-induced reactions in proteins at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser (SACLA) is reported. The optical-fiber-based system is a good choice for a quick setup in a limited beam time and allows pump illumination from two directions to achieve high excitation efficiency of protein microcrystals...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837794/a-short-cross-linker-activates-human-p-glycoprotein-missing-a-catalytic-carboxylate
#8
Tip W Loo, David M Clarke
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent drug pump that protects us from toxic agents and confers multidrug resistance. It has a tweezer-like structure with each arm consisting of a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates bind to sites within the TMDs to activate ATPase activity by promoting a tweezer-like closing of the gap between the NBDs. The catalytic carboxylates may be critical for NBD movements because the E556Q(NBD1) or E1201Q(NBD2) mutation inhibited drug-stimulated ATPase activity...
August 29, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700272/accuracy-of-a-fourth-generation-subcutaneous-continuous-glucose-sensor
#9
Mark P Christiansen, Satish K Garg, Ronald Brazg, Bruce W Bode, Timothy S Bailey, Robert H Slover, Ashley Sullivan, Suiying Huang, John Shin, Scott W Lee, Francine R Kaufman
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the accuracy and performance of a fourth-generation subcutaneous glucose sensor (Guardian(™) Sensor 3) in the abdomen and arm. METHODS: Eighty-eight subjects (14-75 years of age, mean ± standard deviation [SD] of 42.0 ± 19.1 years) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes participated in the study. Subjects wore two sensors in the abdomen that were paired with either a MiniMed(™) 640G insulin pump, or an iPhone(®) or iPod(®) touch(®) running a glucose monitoring mobile application (Guardian Connect system) and a third sensor in the arm, which was connected to a glucose sensor recorder (GSR)...
August 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624734/indirect-influence-of-eutrophication-on-air-water-exchange-fluxes-sinking-fluxes-and-occurrence-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#10
Yuqiang Tao, Jing Yu, Guoliang Lei, Bin Xue, Fengju Zhang, Shuchun Yao
How eutrophication affects biogeochemical processes of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in aquatic environments is a pending challenge. Although the direct influence of eutrophication on biogeochemical processes of HOCs in waters has been well addressed, the indirect influence of eutrophication on biogeochemical processes of HOCs remains largely unknown. Here we take the large shallow eutrophic Lake Taihu in China and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as examples to provide novel knowledge on the indirect influence of eutrophication on air - water exchange fluxes, sinking fluxes, and occurrence of HOCs...
October 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570899/characterisation-and-potential-source-identification-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-atmospheric-particles-pm10-from-urban-and-suburban-residential-areas-in-shiraz-iran
#11
Samaneh Shahsavani, Mohammad Hoseini, Mansooreh Dehghani, Mohammad Fararouei
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a generally hazardous class of organic compounds that are identified as toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic, and are considered to be a concern for human health because of their potential for causing adverse health effects. The present study aims to determine the atmospheric concentration and potential sources of particulate-bound PAHs in urban and suburban atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) in Shiraz, Iran. Ambient air samples were collected from urban and suburban areas using a SKC sampling pump equipped with a size-selective air intake during the spring of 2015...
September 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558433/testing-the-usefulness-of-222-rn-to-complement-conventional-hydrochemical-data-to-trace-groundwater-provenance-in-complex-multi-layered-aquifers-application-to-the-%C3%A3-beda-aquifer-system-ja%C3%A3-n-se-spain
#12
L Ortega, M Manzano, J Rodríguez-Arévalo
The Úbeda aquifer system is a multi-layered aquifer intensively exploited for irrigation. It covers 1100km(2) and consists of piled up sedimentary aquifer and aquitard layers from Triassic sandstones and clays at the bottom, to Jurassic carbonates (main exploited layer) in the middle, and Miocene sandstones and marls at the top. Flow network modification by intense exploitation and the existence of deep faults favour vertical mixing of waters from different layers and with distinct chemical composition. This induces quality loss and fosters risk of quantity restrictions...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488188/spring-bud-growth-depends-on-sugar-delivery-by-xylem-and-water-recirculation-by-phloem-m%C3%A3-nch-flow-in-juglans-regia
#13
Aude Tixier, Or Sperling, Jessica Orozco, Bruce Lampinen, Adele Amico Roxas, Sebastian Saa, J Mason Earles, Maciej A Zwieniecki
During spring, bud growth relies on long-distance transport of remotely stored carbohydrates. A new hypothesis suggests this transport is achieved by the interplay of xylem and phloem. During the spring, carbohydrate demand of developing buds often exceeds locally available storage, thus requiring the translocation of sugars from distant locations like limbs, stems and roots. Both the phloem and xylem have the capacity for such long-distance transport, but their functional contribution is unclear. To address this ambiguity, the spatial and temporal dynamics of carbohydrate availability in extension shoots of Juglans regia L...
May 9, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460755/-snorkel-lice-barrier-technology-reduced-two-co-occurring-parasites-the-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-and-the-amoebic-gill-disease-causing-agent-neoparamoeba-perurans-in-commercial-salmon-sea-cages
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
D W Wright, L H Stien, T Dempster, T Vågseth, V Nola, J-E Fosseidengen, F Oppedal
Diverse chemical-free parasite controls are gaining status in Atlantic salmon sea-cage farming. Yet, the intricacies of their use at commercial scale, including effects on co-occurring parasites, are seldom reported. A new salmon lice prevention method involves installing a deep net roof and 'snorkel' lice barrier in cages to shelter salmon from free-living infective larvae which concentrate at shallow depths, and allows salmon to jump and re- inflate their buoyancy-regulating swim bladder by swallowing air...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452746/development-of-optical-choppers-for-time-resolved-measurements-at-soft-x-ray-synchrotron-radiation-beamlines
#15
Hitoshi Osawa, Takuo Ohkochi, Masami Fujisawa, Shigeru Kimura, Toyohiko Kinoshita
Two types of optical choppers for time-resolved measurements at synchrotron radiation soft X-ray beamlines have been developed. One type uses an air-spindle-type rotation mechanism with a two-stage differential pumping system to maintain the ultra-high vacuum of the X-ray beamline, and the other uses a magnetic bearing. Both can be installed at the soft X-ray beamlines at SPring-8, greatly improving the accessibility of pump-and-probe spectroscopy. The combination of X-ray chopper and pump-and-probe photoemission electron microscope at SPring-8 provides drastic improvements in signal-to-noise ratio and resolution compared with techniques using high-voltage gating of channel plate detectors...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221823/evaluation-of-a-predictive-low-glucose-management-system-in-clinic
#16
Bruce A Buckingham, Timothy S Bailey, Mark Christiansen, Satish Garg, Stuart Weinzimer, Bruce Bode, Stacey M Anderson, Ronald Brazg, Trang T Ly, Francine R Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Predictions based on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data are the basis for automatic suspension and resumption of insulin delivery by a predictive low-glucose management feature termed "suspend before low," which is part of the Medtronic MiniMed(®) 640G combined insulin pump and CGM system. This study assessed the safety and performance characteristics of the system in an in-clinic setting at eight sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In-clinic standardized increases in basal insulin delivery rates were used to induce nocturnal hypoglycemia in subjects (14-75 years) with type 1 diabetes wearing the MiniMed 640G system...
May 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125113/a-dissipative-particle-dynamics-study-of-a-flexible-filament-in-confined-shear-flow
#17
D Vijay Anand, B S V Patnaik, Srikanth Vedantam
In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a tethered flexible filament due to fluid flow inside a microchannel. We use the finite sized dissipative particle dynamics (FDPD) approach to model this problem. The flexible filament is modeled as a bead-spring system with both extensional and flexural rigidity. The influence of flow rate and bending stiffness on the filament dynamics is studied in terms of the different conformational modes obtained. The competing effects of the hydrodynamic force and elastic force in the presence of Brownian thermal effects of comparable order influence the mode shapes of the filament...
February 15, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115676/the-effectiveness-of-sanitary-inspections-as-a-risk-assessment-tool-for-thermotolerant-coliform-bacteria-contamination-of-rural-drinking-water-a-review-of-data-from-west-bengal-india
#18
Christian Snoad, Corey Nagel, Animesh Bhattacharya, Evan Thomas
AbstractThe use of sanitary inspections combined with periodic water quality testing has been recommended in some cases as screening tools for fecal contamination. We conducted sanitary inspections and tested for thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs), a fecal indicator bacteria, among 7,317 unique water sources in West Bengal, India. Our results indicate that the sanitary inspection score has poor ability to identify TTC-contaminated sources. Among deep and shallow hand pumps, the area under curve (AUC) for prediction of TTC > 0 was 0...
April 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112659/the-response-of-phytoplankton-and-microlayer-adapted-bacteria-to-monolayer-application-in-a-humic-eutrophic-irrigation-dam
#19
P Pittaway, V Matveev
Repeat applications of artificial monolayers to farm irrigation dams to reduce evaporative loss may adversely affect water quality by enhancing populations of microlayer-adapted bacteria and blue-green algae. The microlayer, subsurface and water column of a 16 ha dam were monitored every two weeks for 18 months, to benchmark the seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton and microlayer-adapted bacteria prior to monolayer application. Results for Secchi depth, total P, total N, chlorophyll a, phytobiovolume and UV254 absorbance, characterise Logan's Dam as humic and hypereutrophic...
January 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025146/attachment-of-a-molecular-spring-restores-drug-stimulated-atpase-activity-to-p-glycoprotein-lacking-both-q-loop-glutamines
#20
Tip W Loo, David M Clarke
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump that is clinically important because it confers multidrug resistance. Drugs bind at the interface between the transmembrane domains to activate ATPase activity at the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. Recently, it was reported that the conserved glutamines residues (Gln475 in NBD1 and Gln1118 in NBD2) in the Q loops of P-gp when mutated to alanine completely inhibited the drug-stimulated ATPase activity...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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