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Matthew Ballard, Ki T Wolf, Zhanna Nepiyushchikh, J Brandon Dixon, Alexander Alexeev
The lymphatic system is vital to the circulatory and immune systems, performing a range of important functions such as transport of interstitial fluid, fatty acid, and immune cells. Lymphatic vessels are composed of contractile walls and lymphatic valves, allowing them to pump lymph against adverse pressure gradients and to prevent backflow. Despite the importance of the lymphatic system, the contribution of mechanical and geometric changes of lymphatic valves and vessels in pathologies of lymphatic dysfunction, such as lymphedema, is not well understood...
May 26, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Chamteut Oh, Sangwoo Ji, Youngwook Cheong, Giljae Yim
In this research, an electrochemical wastewater treatment system, powered through the conversion of temperature difference into energy, was designed. The wastewater treatment system was applied to drainage flowing from two different mines, one contaminated by arsenic (As), the other ferrous iron (Fe2+ ). Arsenic was adsorbed on, or co-precipitated with, iron hydroxide generated from iron electrodes. A pseudo second order model well described the tendency for As removal. Ferrous iron oxidation occurred directly on graphite electrodes and followed a first order reaction model...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Cèlia Marrasé, Ana Muñoz-Fernández, M Montserrat Sala, Rafel Simó, Josep M Gasol
Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEPs) are a subclass of organic particles with high impact in biogeochemical and ecological processes, such as the biological carbon pump, air-sea interactions, or the microbial loop. However, the complexity in production and consumption makes TEP dynamics hardly predictable, calling for the need of descriptive studies about the in situ dynamics of these particles. We followed monthly TEP dynamics and combined them with a dataset of environmental variables during three years in a coastal site of the oligotrophic North Western Mediterranean (Blanes Bay)...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kyo Nakajima, Yasumasa Joti, Tetsuo Katayama, Shigeki Owada, Tadashi Togashi, Toshinori Abe, Takashi Kameshima, Kensuke Okada, Takashi Sugimoto, Mitsuhiro Yamaga, Takaki Hatsui, Makina Yabashi
X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses from SPring-8 Ångstrom Compact free-electron LAser (SACLA) with a temporal duration of <10 fs have provided a variety of benefits in scientific research. In a previous study, an arrival-timing monitor was developed to improve the temporal resolution in pump-probe experiments at beamline 3 by rearranging data in the order of the arrival-timing jitter between the XFEL and the synchronized optical laser pulses. This paper presents Timing Monitor Analyzer (TMA), a software package by which users can conveniently obtain arrival-timing data in the analysis environment at SACLA...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Laurène Dufayet, Chantal Médernach, Clément Bassi, Robert Garnier, Jérôme Langrand
INTRODUCTION: Heavy rainfall in May 2016 caused large-scale flooding of the Seine and its tributaries. Analysis of this unusual event showed that it could recur on an even larger scale. The sanitary consequences were less frequently assessed in this analysis, particularly the risk of accidental collective carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning caused by the use of combustion engine drainage pumps. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of acute accidental carbon monoxide exposure observed in the Ile-de-France region, related to the use of drainage pumps in spring and summer 2016 and notified to the Ile-de-France CO poisoning surveillance network...
November 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Ho Gyun Lee, Joon Yub Kwon, Doo Soo Chung
The World Health Organization (WHO) guideline states that the total arsenic concentration in drinking water must not exceed 10 ppb. However, arsenic toxicity varies significantly, with inorganic arsenic species being more toxic than organic species. Arsenic speciation is therefore important for evaluating the health risks from arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Capillary electrophoresis provides the necessary high performance separation to determine arsenic species in water, but its sensitivity with absorbance detection is far below than needed...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
Michael A Mallin, Matthew R McIver
Concentrated (or confined) animal feed operations (CAFOs) are the principal means of livestock production in the United States, and such facilities pollute nearby waterways because of their waste management practices; CAFO waste is pumped from the confinement structure into a cesspit and sprayed on a field. Stocking Head Creek is located in eastern North Carolina, a state with >9,000,000 head of swine confined in CAFOs. This watershed contains 40 swine CAFOs; stream water quality was investigated at seven sites during 2016, with five sampling dates in early spring and five in summer...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Takahiro Moriyama, Michinari Kamiya, Kent Oda, Kensho Tanaka, Kab-Jin Kim, Teruo Ono
Spin interaction in antiferromagnetic materials is of central interest in the recently emerging antiferromagnetic spintronics. In this Letter, we explore the spin current interaction in antiferromagnetic FeMn by the spin pumping effect. Exchange biased FeNi/FeMn films, in which the Néel vector can be presumably controlled via the exchange spring effect, are employed to investigate the damping enhancement depending on the relative orientation between the Néel vector and the polarization of the pumped spin current...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Brian Cole, Lew Goldberg, A D Hays
We describe a compact, highly efficient, diode-pumped, mechanically Q-switched Tm:YAP laser operating near 2 μm. The Q-switch, based on a torsion spring resonant mirror scanner, had negligible optical loss and required very low electrical drive power. At a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency, the laser generated an average output power of 10.5 W at 1.94 μm, Q-switched pulse energy of 1.05 mJ, a pulse length of 31 ns, and a peak power of 34 kW. The Q-switched laser exhibited maximum optical and electrical efficiencies of 51% and 26%, respectively...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Svein Rune Erga, Stig Bjarte Haugen, Gunnar Bratbak, Jorun Karin Egge, Mikal Heldal, Kjell Arne Mork, Svein Norland
The aim of this study was to reveal the relative content of C, N, Ca, Si, P, Mg, K, S and Fe in seston particles in Norwegian coastal water (NCW), and how it relates to biological and hydrographic processes during seasonal cycles from October 2009-March 2012. The following over all stoichiometric relationship for the time series was obtained: C66 N11 Si3.4 Ca2.3 P1 Mg0.73 S0.37 K0.35 Fe0.30 , which is novel for marine waters. A record-breaking (187-year record) negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index caused extreme physical forcing on the Norwegian Coastal Current Water (NCCW) during the winter 2009-2010, and the inflow and upwelling of saline Atlantic water (AW) in the fjord was thus extraordinary during late spring-early summer in 2010...
November 20, 2017: Marine Chemistry
Parmeshwar Prasad, Nishta Arora, A K Naik
Parametric amplification is widely used in diverse areas from optics to electronic circuits to enhance low level signals by varying relevant system parameters. Parametric amplification has also been performed in several micro-nano resonators including nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) resonators based on a two-dimensional (2D) material. Here, we report the enhancement of mechanical response in a MoS2 drum resonator using degenerate parametric amplification. We use parametric pumping to modulate the spring constant of the MoS2 resonator and achieve a 10 dB amplitude gain...
November 30, 2017: Nanoscale
Venkataramana Sridhar, Mirza M Billah, John W Hildreth
Many current watershed modeling efforts now incorporate surface water and groundwater for managing water resources since the exchanges between groundwater and surface water need a special focus considering the changing climate. The influence of groundwater dynamics on water and energy balance components is investigated in the Snake River Basin (SRB) by coupling the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and MODFLOW models (VIC-MF) for the period of 1986 through 2042. A 4.4% increase in base flows and a 10.3% decrease in peak flows are estimated by VIC-MF compared to the VIC model in SRB...
November 9, 2017: Ground Water
Arnold De Loof
Cells are powerful miniature electrophoresis chambers, at least during part of their life cycle. They die at the moment the voltage gradient over their plasma membrane, and their ability to drive a self-generated electric current carried by inorganic ions through themselves irreversibly collapses. Senescence is likely due to the progressive, multifactorial damage to the cell's electrical system. This is the essence of the "Fading electricity theory of aging" (De Loof et al., Aging Res. Rev. 2013;12:58-66)...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Frances Hellman, Axel Hoffmann, Yaroslav Tserkovnyak, Geoffrey S D Beach, Eric E Fullerton, Chris Leighton, Allan H MacDonald, Daniel C Ralph, Dario A Arena, Hermann A Dürr, Peter Fischer, Julie Grollier, Joseph P Heremans, Tomas Jungwirth, Alexey V Kimel, Bert Koopmans, Ilya N Krivorotov, Steven J May, Amanda K Petford-Long, James M Rondinelli, Nitin Samarth, Ivan K Schuller, Andrei N Slavin, Mark D Stiles, Oleg Tchernyshyov, André Thiaville, Barry L Zink
This article reviews static and dynamic interfacial effects in magnetism, focusing on interfacially-driven magnetic effects and phenomena associated with spin-orbit coupling and intrinsic symmetry breaking at interfaces. It provides a historical background and literature survey, but focuses on recent progress, identifying the most exciting new scientific results and pointing to promising future research directions. It starts with an introduction and overview of how basic magnetic properties are affected by interfaces, then turns to a discussion of charge and spin transport through and near interfaces and how these can be used to control the properties of the magnetic layer...
April 2017: Reviews of Modern Physics
Laurenz Thomsen, Jacopo Aguzzi, Corrado Costa, Fabio De Leo, Andrea Ogston, Autun Purser
The oceanic biological pump is responsible for the important transfer of CO2-C as POC "Particulate Organic Carbon" to the deep sea. It plays a decisive role in the Earth's carbon cycle and significant effort is spent to quantify its strength. In this study we used synchronized daily time-series data of surface chlorophyll-a concentrations from the NASA's MODIS satellite in combination with hourly to daily observations from sea surface buoys and from an Internet Operated Vehicle (IOV) on the seafloor within Barkley Canyon (Northeast Pacific) to investigate the importance of winter processes in the export of fresh phytodetritus...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Minoru Kubo, Eriko Nango, Kensuke Tono, Tetsunari Kimura, Shigeki Owada, Changyong Song, Fumitaka Mafuné, Ken Miyajima, Yoshihiro Takeda, Jun Ya Kohno, Naoya Miyauchi, Takanori Nakane, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Takashi Nomura, Jan Davidsson, Rie Tanaka, Michio Murata, Takashi Kameshima, Takaki Hatsui, Yasumasa Joti, Richard Neutze, Makina Yabashi, So Iwata
X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) have opened new opportunities for time-resolved X-ray crystallography. Here a nanosecond optical-pump XFEL-probe device developed for time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography (TR-SFX) studies of photo-induced reactions in proteins at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser (SACLA) is reported. The optical-fiber-based system is a good choice for a quick setup in a limited beam time and allows pump illumination from two directions to achieve high excitation efficiency of protein microcrystals...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Tip W Loo, David M Clarke
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent drug pump that protects us from toxic agents and confers multidrug resistance. It has a tweezer-like structure with each arm consisting of a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates bind to sites within the TMDs to activate ATPase activity by promoting a tweezer-like closing of the gap between the NBDs. The catalytic carboxylates may be critical for NBD movements because the E556Q(NBD1) or E1201Q(NBD2) mutation inhibited drug-stimulated ATPase activity...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
Mark P Christiansen, Satish K Garg, Ronald Brazg, Bruce W Bode, Timothy S Bailey, Robert H Slover, Ashley Sullivan, Suiying Huang, John Shin, Scott W Lee, Francine R Kaufman
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the accuracy and performance of a fourth-generation subcutaneous glucose sensor (Guardian™ Sensor 3) in the abdomen and arm. METHODS: Eighty-eight subjects (14-75 years of age, mean ± standard deviation [SD] of 42.0 ± 19.1 years) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes participated in the study. Subjects wore two sensors in the abdomen that were paired with either a MiniMed™ 640G insulin pump, or an iPhone® or iPod® touch® running a glucose monitoring mobile application (Guardian Connect system) and a third sensor in the arm, which was connected to a glucose sensor recorder (GSR)...
August 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Yuqiang Tao, Jing Yu, Guoliang Lei, Bin Xue, Fengju Zhang, Shuchun Yao
How eutrophication affects biogeochemical processes of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in aquatic environments is a pending challenge. Although the direct influence of eutrophication on biogeochemical processes of HOCs in waters has been well addressed, the indirect influence of eutrophication on biogeochemical processes of HOCs remains largely unknown. Here we take the large shallow eutrophic Lake Taihu in China and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as examples to provide novel knowledge on the indirect influence of eutrophication on air - water exchange fluxes, sinking fluxes, and occurrence of HOCs...
October 1, 2017: Water Research
Samaneh Shahsavani, Mohammad Hoseini, Mansooreh Dehghani, Mohammad Fararouei
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a generally hazardous class of organic compounds that are identified as toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic, and are considered to be a concern for human health because of their potential for causing adverse health effects. The present study aims to determine the atmospheric concentration and potential sources of particulate-bound PAHs in urban and suburban atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) in Shiraz, Iran. Ambient air samples were collected from urban and suburban areas using a SKC sampling pump equipped with a size-selective air intake during the spring of 2015...
September 2017: Chemosphere
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