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Viral diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915438/variations-in-clinical-presentation-and-anatomical-distribution-of-gross-lesions-of-african-swine-fever-in-domestic-pigs-in-the-southern-highlands-of-tanzania-a-field-experience
#1
Maulilio John Kipanyula, Solomon Wilson Nong'ona
African swine fever is a contagious viral disease responsible for up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs. A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the clinical presentation and anatomical distribution of gross lesions in affected pigs in Mbeya region, Tanzania during the 2010 to 2014 outbreaks. Data were collected during clinical and postmortem examination by field veterinarians and using a structured questionnaire. A total of 118 respondents (100%) showed awareness about African swine fever. During previous outbreaks, the mortality rate was almost 100%, while in 2014 it was estimated to be less than 50%...
December 3, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912886/medicinal-plants-and-natural-molecules-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-against-rotavirus-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Paula Gurgel Barreto, Bruno Dos Santos Lima, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo Jose Quintans-Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses can cause life-threatening health disorders, such as severe dehydrating gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children. Vaccination is the main preventive strategy to reduce rotavirus diarrhea and the severity of episodes, but vaccines are not fully effective and new episodes may occur, even in vaccinated children. The WHO recommends oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation for rotavirus-induced diarrhea management. There is little preclinical evidence to support the use of phytotherapeutics in the management of rotaviral infections...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905939/causes-of-death-in-vanuatu
#3
Karen Carter, Viran Tovu, Jeffrey Tila Langati, Michael Buttsworth, Lester Dingley, Andy Calo, Griffith Harrison, Chalapati Rao, Alan D Lopez, Richard Taylor
BACKGROUND: The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death...
March 15, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898956/effect-of-timing-of-challenge-following-short-term-natural-exposure-to-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-type-1b-on-animal-performance-and-immune-response-in-beef-steers
#4
L Carlos-Valdez, B K Wilson, L O Burciaga-Robles, D L Step, B P Holland, C J Richards, M A Montelongo, A W Confer, R W Fulton, C R Krehbiel
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common and economically detrimental disease of beef cattle during the postweaning period, causing the majority of morbidity and mortality in feedlots. The pathogenesis of this disease often includes an initial viral infection, which can predispose cattle to a secondary bacterial infection. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of timing of an intratracheal (MH) challenge relative to 72 h of natural exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1b persistently infected (PI) calves on performance, serum antibody production, total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count, rectal temperature, clinical severity score (CS), and haptoglobin (Hp)...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898919/altering-the-time-of-vaccination-against-respiratory-pathogens-to-enhance-antibody-response-and-performance-of-feeder-cattle
#5
K D Lippolis, R F Cooke, K M Schubach, A P Brandão, L G T da Silva, R S Marques, D W Bohnert
Ninety Angus × Hereford calves were ranked by sex, BW, and age and assigned to 1 of 3 vaccination schemes against the bovine respiratory disease complex: 1) vaccination at weaning (d 0) and a booster at feedlot entry (d 30; CON; = 30), 2) vaccination 15 d before weaning (d -15) and a booster 15 d before feedlot entry (d 15; EARLY; = 30), and 3) vaccination 15 d after weaning (d 15) and a booster 15 d after feedlot entry (d 45; DELAYED; = 30). From d -15 to 7, calves were maintained as a single group on pasture...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891182/case-control-study-of-diarrheal-disease-etiology-in-individuals-over-5%C3%A2-years-in-southwest-china
#6
Shun-Xian Zhang, Chun-Li Yang, Wen-Peng Gu, Lin Ai, Emmanuel Serrano, Pin Yang, Xia Zhou, Shi-Zhu Li, Shan Lv, Zhi-Sheng Dang, Jun-Hu Chen, Wei Hu, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Most of studies on acute diarrhea have been made on infants aged below 5 years and few efforts have been made to identify the etiological agents of acute diarrhea in people over five, especially in China. METHODS: 271 diarrhea cases and 149 healthy controls over 5 years were recruited from four participating hospitals between June 2014 and July 2015. Each stool specimen was collected to detect a series of enteric pathogens, involving five viruses (Rotavirus group A, RVA; Norovirus, NoV; Sapovirus, SaV; Astrovirus, As; and Adenovirus, Ad), seven bacteria (diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, DEC; non-typhoidal Salmonella, NTS; Shigella spp...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886032/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-different-pathogens-of-acute-diarrhea-in-adults-in-beijing-china
#7
Lei Jia, Changying Lin, Zhiyong Gao, Mei Qu, Junyong Yang, Jingyi Sun, He Chen, Quanyi Wang
INTRODUCTION: Only a small proportion of patients with diarrhea are diagnosed with laboratory tests in China, and most are diagnosed based on clinical symptoms. Therefore, understanding the prevalence of different diarrheal pathogens and their specific symptoms is important. METHODOLOGY: Data from a prospective study in Beijing of acute diarrhea and the related pathogens were used to study the association between different pathogen groups and the infected patients' characteristics...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872722/production-of-monoclonal-antibody-against-recombinant-ns3-protein-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-nadl-strain
#8
Masood Reza Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Maryam Ekhtelat, Masood Ghorbanpoor Najaf Abadi, Mohsen Lotfi, Mohamad Rashno
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. in ewes in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Molecular characterization of isolated Staphylococcus spp. from diseased ewes were performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap) gene. Also, antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal isolates against different antibiotics was investigated...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866318/pig-bvdv-2-non-structural-protein-n-pro-links-to-cellular-antiviral-response-in-vitro
#9
Jie Tao, Jinhu Liao, Jianye Wang, Xinjun Zhang, Qian Zhang, Liqian Zhu, Weiping Zhang, Huili Liu, Guoqiang Zhu
In this study, we constructed for the first time a full-length cDNA clone of pig-original bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strain SH-28, modified the cDNA clone (pASH28) for mutant pASHΔN(pro) and derived virus strain vASHΔN(pro) by deleting the genomic region encoding the N(pro) polypeptide, and examined significance of protein N(pro) for antiviral responses in vitro. Data showed that N(pro)-deletion mutant virus vASHΔN(pro) led to significant overexpression of oligo adenylate synthetase (OAS), myxovirus-resistant protein 1 (Mx1), and ubiquitin-like protein 15 (ISG15)...
November 19, 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865267/occurrence-of-pseudocowpox-virus-associated-to-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-1-brazilian-amazon
#10
Pedro A Alves, Poliana O Figueiredo, Cairo H S de Oliveira, José D Barbosa, Danillo H S Lima, Henrique A Bomjardim, Natália S Silva, Karinny F Campos, Carlos Magno C Oliveira, Edel Figueiredo Barbosa-Stancioli, Jônatas S Abrahão, Erna G Kroon, Giliane de Souza Trindade
In 2011, an outbreak of severe vesicular disease occurred in the state of Pará, Amazon region. Besides proliferative or verrucous lesions, cattle showed atypical clinical signs such as diarrhea and leading to death. The animals were submitted to clinical, pathological and molecular diagnosis, and laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), a Parapoxvirus genus member, and have also found Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), probably causing persistent infection. The results of molecular diagnostics, followed by sequencing data demonstrated the circulation of both viruses (PCPV and BVDV-1) in an area previously affected by another poxvirus, as Vaccinia virus...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865262/soluble-forms-of-cd46-are-detected-in-bos-taurus-plasma-and-neutralize-bvdv-the-bovine-pestivirus
#11
Nidal Alzamel, Calixte Bayrou, Annabelle Decreux, Daniel Desmecht
The pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is known to bind to the CD46 molecule, which subsequently promotes entry of the virus. Mapping of the BVD-virion-binding site has shown that two peptides, 66EQIV69 and 82GQVLAL87, located on antiparallel beta sheets in the most distal complement control protein module (CCP1), provide the attachment platform. In the present study, we reveal new CD46-encoding transcripts that are predicted to encode CCP1-containing soluble forms. Further, we show that the serum of most adult cattle contains soluble CD46 (sCD46) and that a recombinant soluble isoform neutralizes BVDV infectivity in an in vitro assay...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864728/variation-in-pestivirus-growth-in-testicle-primary-cell-culture-is-more-dependent-on-the-individual-cell-donor-than-cattle-breed
#12
Matheus N Weber, Fernando V Bauermann, Ninnet Gómez-Romero, Andy D Herring, Cláudio W Canal, John D Neill, Julia F Ridpath
The causes of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) are multifactorial and include infection with both viral and bacterial pathogens. Host factors are also involved as different breeds of cattle appear to have different susceptibilities to BRDC. Infection with bovine pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV1), BVDV2 and 'HoBi'-like viruses, is linked to the development of BRDC. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth of different bovine pestiviruses in primary testicle cell cultures obtained from taurine, indicine and mixed taurine and indicine cattle breeds...
November 18, 2016: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863543/reduced-humoral-immunity-and-atypical-cell-mediated-immunity-in-response-to-vaccination-in-cows-naturally-infected-with-bovine-leukemia-virus
#13
Meredith C Frie, Kelly R Sporer, Joseph C Wallace, Roger K Maes, Lorraine M Sordillo, Paul C Bartlett, Paul M Coussens
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that is widely distributed across US dairy herds: over 83% of herds are BLV-infected and within-herd infection rates can approach 50%. BLV infection reduces both animal longevity and milk production and can interfere with normal immune health. With such a high prevalence of BLV infection in dairy herds, it is essential to understand the circumstances by which BLV negatively affects the immune system of infected cattle. To address this question, BLV- and BLV+ adult, lactating Holstein dairy cows were vaccinated with Bovi-Shield GOLD(®) FP(®) 5 L5 HB and their immune response to vaccination was measured over the course of 28days...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856597/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-subgenotype-1e-strain-slo-2407-2006-isolated-in-slovenia
#14
Ivan Toplak, Urška Kuhar, Darja Kušar, Bojan Papić, Simon Koren, Nataša Toplak
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) subgenotype 1e was isolated for the first time in Slovenia in 2006. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of BVDV-1e, strain SLO/2407/2006. The published genome will increase our understanding of the molecular characteristics of the BVDV-1e strains circulating in Europe.
November 17, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853451/high-protective-efficacy-of-probiotics-and-rice-bran-against-human-norovirus-infection-and-diarrhea-in-gnotobiotic-pigs
#15
Shaohua Lei, Ashwin Ramesh, Erica Twitchell, Ke Wen, Tammy Bui, Mariah Weiss, Xingdong Yang, Jacob Kocher, Guohua Li, Ernawati Giri-Rachman, Nguyen Van Trang, Xi Jiang, Elizabeth P Ryan, Lijuan Yuan
Probiotics have been recognized as vaccine adjuvants and therapeutic agents to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. We previously showed that rice bran (RB) reduced human rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major pathogens causing non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) were first screened for their ability to bind HuNoV P particles and virions derived from clinical samples containing HuNoV genotype GII...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847670/postrenal-failure-due-to-urinary-stones-associated-with-acute-viral-gastroenteritis-three-case-reports
#16
Satoru Kira, Takahiko Mitsui, Hidenori Zakoji, Tadashi Aoki, Norifumi Sawada, Tatsuya Miyamoto, Masayuki Takeda
Acute gastroenteritis with viral infection in infants causes severe diarrhea and often results in acute renal failure due to severe dehydration. However, a viral infection, particularly rotavirus, rarely induces postrenal failure due to bilateral stones in infants. Herein, we report three cases of postrenal failure in infants due to bilateral ureteral stones induced by acute gastroenteritis with rotavirus. Following immediately nephrostomy, chemical dissolution therapy succeeded to treat postrenal failure. Immediate nephrostomy for the release of upper urinary tract obstruction combined with urinary alkalization as a chemical dissolution therapy should be considered in such cases...
2016: Case Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845890/virus-inactivation-under-the-photodynamic-effect-of-phthalocyanine-zinc-ii-complexes
#17
Mimi Remichkova, Luchia Mukova, Lubomira Nikolaeva-Glomb, Nadya Nikolova, Lubka Doumanova, Vanya Mantareva, Ivan Angelov, Veselin Kussovski, Angel S Galabov
Various metal phthalocyanines have been studied for their capacity for photodynamic effects on viruses. Two newly synthesized water-soluble phthalocyanine Zn(II) complexes with different charges, cationic methylpyridyloxy-substituted Zn(II)- phthalocyanine (ZnPcMe) and anionic sulfophenoxy-substituted Zn(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS), were used for photoinactivation of two DNA-containing enveloped viruses (herpes simplex virus type 1 and vaccinia virus), two RNA-containing enveloped viruses (bovine viral diarrhea virus and Newcastle disease virus) and two nude viruses (the enterovirus Coxsackie B1, a RNA-containing virus, and human adenovirus 5, a DNA virus)...
November 15, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843559/genetic-diversity-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-viruses-from-the-galicia-region-of-spain
#18
C Factor, E Yus, C Eiras, M L Sanjuan, M Cerviño, I Arnaiz, F J Diéguez
This study examined the frequency and diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDVs) infecting cattle in Galicia (northwestern Spain). A total of 86 BVDV strains were typed in samples of serum from 79 persistently infected animals and 3 viraemic animals and of abomasal fluid from 4 fetuses. Samples came from 73 farms participating in a voluntary BVDV control programme. Typing was based on a 288-bp sequence from the 5' untranslated region amplified using primers 324 and 326. Of the 86 strains, 85 (98.8 per cent) belonged to species BVDV-1 and 1 (1...
2016: Veterinary Record Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834720/genome-sequence-of-a-subgenotype-1a-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-in-china
#19
Shandian Gao, Junzheng Du, Zhancheng Tian, Shanshan Xing, Jianxun Luo, Guangyuan Liu, Huiyun Chang, Hong Yin
A bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), GS5, of the BVDV-1a subgenotype was isolated from dairy cattle in Gansu Province, northwest China. Its near-full-length genome was determined to be closely related to an early Belgian BVDV-1a strain, WAX-N, but the relatedness to domestic strains is relatively low, indicating that different genetic evolution occurred between the viral strains in cattle in China.
November 10, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826361/viral-metagenomics-of-fecal-samples-from-non-human-primates-revealed-human-astrovirus-in-a-chimpanzee-china
#20
Xiaochun Wang, Jinxin Wang, Chenglin Zhou, Shixing Yang, Quan Shen, Wen Zhang, Dunwu Qi
BACKGROUND: Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are commonly identified worldwide as important aetiological agents of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups. More and more evidences challenged the paradigm that AstV infections are species-specific. Yet to date, AstVs associated with human infections have not been detected in any animal hosts. RESULTS: Viral metagenomics methods were used to detect viral nucleic acids in fecal samples from 69 captive non-human primates (NHPs) from three zoos in China...
2016: Gut Pathogens
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