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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338950/non-replicative-rna-recombination-of-an-animal-plus-strand-rna-virus-in-the-absence-of-efficient-translation-of-viral-proteins
#1
Maximiliane Kleine Büning, Denise Meyer, Sophia Austermann-Busch, Gleyder Roman-Sosa, Tillmann Rümenapf, Paul Becher
RNA recombination is a major driving force for the evolution of RNA viruses and is significantly implicated in the adaptation of viruses to new hosts, changes of virulence, as well as in the emergence of new viruses including drug-resistant and escape mutants. However, the molecular details of recombination in animal RNA viruses are only poorly understood. In order to determine whether viral RNA recombination depends on translation of viral proteins, a non-replicative recombination system was established which is based on cotransfection of cells with synthetic bovine viral diarrhea virus (family Flaviviridae) RNA genome fragments either lacking the internal ribosome entry site required for cap-independent translation or lacking almost the complete polyprotein coding region...
March 11, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335454/porcine-rotaviruses-epidemiology-immune-responses-and-control-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Anastasia N Vlasova, Joshua O Amimo, Linda J Saif
Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species become resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and gut physiological changes. Of the 9 RV genogroups (A-I), RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are associated with diarrhea in piglets. Although discovered decades ago, porcine genogroup E RVs (RVE) are uncommon and their pathogenesis is not studied well...
March 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328696/enterocolitis-in-a-child-with-hirschsprung-disease
#3
Alexander W D Guillaume, Andrew C Miller, Michael C Nguyen
Hirschsprung disease is a congenital abnormality that can be surgically corrected. However, Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis can be a life-threatening sequela. Very little has been published in the emergency medicine literature about the risk of enterocolitis and shock in patients with a history of Hirschsprung disease. We describe the case of a 6-month-old male infant with a history of multiple surgeries for Hirschsprung disease who presented to the emergency department with a seemingly benign viral gastrointestinal illness...
March 21, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322925/il-22-suppresses-the-infection-of-porcine-enteric-coronaviruses-and-rotavirus-by-activating-stat3-signal-pathway
#4
Mei Xue, Jing Zhao, Lan Ying, Fang Fu, Lin Li, Yanlong Ma, Hongyan Shi, Jiaoer Zhang, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
Interleukin-22 (IL-22), a member of the IL-10 superfamily, plays essential roles in fighting against mucosal microbial infection and maintaining mucosal barrier integrity within the intestine. However, little knowledge exists on the ability of porcine IL-22 (pIL-22) to fight against viral infection in the gut. In this study, we found that recombinant mature pIL-22 (mpIL-22) inhibited the infection of multiple diarrhea viruses, including alpha coronavirus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and porcine rotavirus (PoRV), in the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2) cells...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295914/development-of-a-gastric-carcinoid-tumor-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-early-t-cell-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#5
Tsung-Yen Chang, Jin-Yao Lai, Chao-Jan Wang, Shih-Yen Chen, Tang-Her Jaing, Chuen Hsueh, Lee-Yung Shih, Shih-Hsiang Chen
Gastric carcinoid tumor is rarely diagnosed in children. We report a case of gastric carcinoid tumor that occurred after allogeneic HSCT. A 13-year-old girl with ETP acute lymphoblastic leukemia underwent allogeneic HSCT from a 7/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor. She presented with rashes, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which were suggestive of GVHD, 7 months after HSCT. Immunosuppressive agents failed to resolve these symptoms well. After a series of evaluations, carcinoid syndrome caused by a gastric carcinoid tumor was diagnosed...
March 11, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294087/a-large-outbreak-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-shippensburg-pennsylvania-1972-revisited-evidence-for-common-source-exposure-to-a-recombinant-gii-pg-gii-3-norovirus
#6
J A Johnson, G I Parra, E A Levenson, K Y Green
Historical outbreaks can be an important source of information in the understanding of norovirus evolution and epidemiology. Here, we revisit an outbreak of undiagnosed gastroenteritis that occurred in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania in 1972. Nearly 5000 people fell ill over the course of 10 days. Symptoms included diarrhea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and fever, lasting for a median of 24 h. Using current techniques, including next-generation sequencing of full-length viral genomic amplicons, we identified an unusual norovirus recombinant (GII...
March 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293985/immortalized-sheep-microglial-cells-are-permissive-to-a-diverse-range-of-ruminant-viruses
#7
James B Stanton, Beryl Swanson, Edith Orozco, Juan F Muñoz-Gutiérrez, James F Evermann, Julia F Ridpath
BACKGROUND: Ruminants, including sheep and goats (small ruminants), are key agricultural animals in many parts of the world. Infectious diseases, including many viral diseases, are significant problems to efficient production of ruminants. Unfortunately, reagents tailored to viruses of ruminants, and especially small ruminants, are lacking compared to other animals more typically used for biomedical research. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the permissibility of a stably immortalized, sheep microglial cell line to viruses that are reported to infect ruminants: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292642/quantitative-reverse-transcription-pcr-to-determine-the-inactivation-of-human-rotavirus-by-chlorine
#8
Bin Xue, Chenyu Li, Bin Zhang, Tianyu Zhao, Zhiqiang Shen, Zhigang Qiu, Min Jin, Jingfeng Wang, Junwen Li
Human rotaviruses (HRVs) are the major cause of acute diarrhea in infants and young children. Here, a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the rotaviral VP4 gene (VP4-RT-qPCR) was established to evaluate the inactivation of HRV upon chlorine disinfection, based on a previous report that damage to the 1227-2354bp region of the VP4 gene was associated with eliminated HRV infectivity by chlorine. In this study, inactivation of HRV by 0.6mg/L free chlorine was assessed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287727/michael-acceptor-based-peptidomimetic-inhibitor-of-main-protease-from-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#9
Fenghua Wang, Cheng Chen, Kailin Yang, Yang Xu, Xiaomei Liu, Fan Gao, He Liu, Xia Chen, Qi Zhao, Xiang Liu, Yan Cai, Haitao Yang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes high mortality in pigs. PEDV main protease (Mpro) plays an essential role in viral replication. We solved the structure of PEDV Mpro complexed with peptidomimetic inhibitor N3 carrying a Michael acceptor warhead, revealing atomic level interactions. We further designed a series of 17 inhibitors with altered side groups. Inhibitors M2 and M17 demonstrated enhanced specificity against PEDV Mpro. These compounds have potential as future therapeutics to combat PEDV infection...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271162/immune-response-of-gilts-to-single-and-double-infection-with-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#10
Anchalee Srijangwad, Christopher James Stott, Gun Temeeyasen, Raweewan Senasuthum, Wanchai Chongcharoen, Angkana Tantituvanont, Dachrit Nilubol
Immune response of gilts following single and double infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) at gilt acclimatization and prepartum were investigated. One hundred PEDV-naïve gilts were divided into two groups: negative (Neg) and feedback (FB) groups. Antibody responses in serum, colostrum, and milk samples were measured by IgG/IgA ELISA and virus neutralization assay (VN). Fecal shedding was investigated using RT-PCR. In summary, a single infection at gilt acclimatization resulted in slightly increased serum antibody titers as determined by VN assay and IgG ELISA, but not by IgA ELISA...
March 7, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260462/dicrocoelium-dentriticum-in-explanted-liver-report-of-an-unusual-finding
#11
Farid Azmoudeh-Ardalan, Vahid Soleimani, Behnaz Jahanbin
Dicrocoelium dentriticum, a member of trematode type helminths, is a liver parasite of ruminants. Humans are infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate host, through infected ants via eating of raw vegetables or drinking of contaminated water. Infection is often asymptomatic or results in subtle symptoms; therefore, infections are usually unrecognized. However, it can produce chronic cholangitis and swelling or adenomatous proliferation in the bile ducts and lead to abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, jaundice, and other symptoms...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255929/rotavirus-i-in-feces-of-a-cat-with-diarrhea
#12
Tung G Phan, Christian M Leutenegger, Roxanne Chan, Eric Delwart
A divergent rotavirus I was detected using viral metagenomics in the feces of a cat with diarrhea. The eleven segments of rotavirus I strain Felis catus encoded non-structural and structural proteins with amino acid identities ranging from 25 to 79% to the only two currently sequenced members of that viral species both derived from canine feces. No other eukaryotic viral sequences nor bacterial and protozoan pathogens were detected in this fecal sample suggesting the involvement of rotavirus I in feline diarrhea...
March 2, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246411/prospective-case-control-study-of-toe-tip-necrosis-syndrome-ttns-in-western-canadian-feedlot-cattle
#13
Chad Paetsch, Kent Fenton, Tye Perrett, Eugene Janzen, Ted Clark, Jan Shearer, Murray Jelinski
A case-control study was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for toe tip necrosis syndrome (TTNS) in western Canadian feedlot cattle. Feedlot veterinarians provided hooves from 222 animals that died of either TTNS ("cases") or from all other causes ("controls"). The claws were sectioned by researchers to confirm the diagnoses; there was very good agreement between the practitioners' field diagnosis and that of the researchers (Cohen's kappa = 0.81; P < 0.001). The sole thickness of the apical white line region was thinner (P < 0...
March 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236170/pathogen-safety-of-a-new-intravenous-immune-globulin-10-liquid
#14
Kai Uwe Radomski, Georg Lattner, Torben Schmidt, Jürgen Römisch
BACKGROUND: The manufacturing process of a new intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) 10% liquid product incorporates two dedicated pathogen safety steps: solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment and nanofiltration (20 nm). Ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) during protein purification also contributes to pathogen safety. The ability of these three process steps to inactivate/remove viruses and prions was evaluated. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the virus and prion safety of the new IVIG 10% liquid...
February 24, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228493/hepatitis-e-virus-detection-and-quantification-by-an-rt-qpcr-assay-calibrated-to-the-world-health-organization-standard-for-hev-rna
#15
Jeffrey J Germer, Irina Ankoudinova, Yevgeniy S Belousov, Walt Mahoney, Chen Dong, Jihong Meng, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Joseph D Yao
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as a cause of chronic hepatitis among immunocompromised patients. Molecular assays have become important tools for the diagnosis and management of these chronically-infected patients. A reverse transcription, real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) assay utilizing Pleiades probe chemistry and an RNA internal control for simultaneous detection and quantification of HEV RNA in human serum was developed based on adaptation of a previously described and broadly reactive primer set targeting the overlapping open reading frame (ORF) 2/3 nucleotide sequence of HEV...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223146/identification-of-a-novel-cosavirus-species-in-feces-of-children-and-its-relationship-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-china
#16
Jie-Mei Yu, Yuan-Yun Ao, Li-Li Li, Zhao-Jun Duan
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of human cosavirus (HCosV) in China and to determine the association of a novel HCosV (Cosa-CHN) with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) . METHODS: A case-control study with 461 paired stool samples from diarrhea and healthy children was conducted. Real-time PCR and nested PCR were used to detect the HCosVs. Rapid-amplification of cDNA ends was employed to obtain the ends of the Cosa-CHN. RESULTS: Known HCosVs were detected in two control samples, while Cosa-CHN was detected in eight (1...
February 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213954/human-herpes-virus-6-infection-in-pediatric-organ-transplant-patients
#17
Elisa Ylinen, Silja Lehtinen, Timo Jahnukainen, Teemu Karlsson, Raisa Loginov, Laura Mannonen, Irmeli Lautenschlager, Hannu Jalanko
Transplant patients need lifelong immunosuppressive medication, but this reduces their defense mechanisms, making them prone to viral infections and reactivations. We aimed to clarify the prevalence and clinical manifestations of the human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) infection in children after pediatric solid organ transplants. Clinical findings and viral loads were compared between primary HHV-6 infections and reactivations. The study comprised 47 kidney, 25 liver, and 12 heart transplant patients who underwent surgery from 2009 to 2014...
February 18, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202026/an-indirect-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-the-identification-of-antibodies-to-senecavirus-a-in-swine
#18
Cheryl M T Dvorak, Zeynep Akkutay-Yoldar, Suzanne R Stone, Steven J P Tousignant, Fabio A Vannucci, Michael P Murtaugh
BACKGROUND: Senecavirus A (SVA), a member of the family Picornaviridae, genus Senecavirus, is a recently identified single-stranded RNA virus closely related to members of the Cardiovirus genus. SVA was originally identified as a cell culture contaminant and was not associated with disease until 2007 when it was first observed in pigs with Idiopathic Vesicular Disease (IVD). Vesicular disease is sporadically observed in swine, is not debilitating, but is significant due to its resemblance to foreign animal diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), whose presence would be economically devastating to the United States...
February 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198551/prevalence-and-clinical-profile-of-human-bocavirus-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-chengdu-west-china-2012-2013
#19
Tao Zhou, Yuhang Chen, Jiayi Chen, Pengwei Hu, Tianli Zheng, Xin Xu, Xiaofang Pei
Viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of mortality in childhood and leads to hospitalization in developing countries. Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly described virus associated with gastroenteritis. However, little is known about the clinical and epidemiological profile of human bocavirus (HBoV) in pediatric population in Chengdu, China. Between January 2012 and December 2013, 346 fecal samples from children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis were tested for the presence of HBoV as well as other gastroenteritis viruses...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178907/investigation-of-agid-and-two-commercial-elisas-for-the-detection-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-specific-antibodies-in-sheep-serum
#20
Caitlin A Evans, Sasha R Lanyon, Michael P Reichel
Effective control and the eventual eradication of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from cattle populations depend on the accurate identification of infected animals. Although typically a disease agent of cattle, BVDV is known to infect a wide variety of nonbovine species, including sheep. However, validation of serologic tests in these nonbovine species, particularly sheep, is lacking. We analyzed 99 sheep sera (57 samples from Pestivirus-naive sheep, and 42 samples from BVDV-inoculated sheep) in order to investigate 3 serologic tests: the agarose gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and 2 commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for detection of BVDV antibodies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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