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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879161/implementation-of-quality-management-systems-and-progress-towards-accreditation-of-national-tuberculosis-reference-laboratories-in-africa
#1
Heidi Albert, Jean de Dieu Iragena, Kekeletso Kao, Donatelle Erni, Teferi Mekonen, Philip C Onyebujoh
BACKGROUND: Laboratory services are essential at all stages of the tuberculosis care cascade, from diagnosis and drug resistance testing to monitoring response to treatment. Enabling access to quality services is a challenge in low-resource settings. Implementation of a strong quality management system (QMS) and laboratory accreditation are key to improving patient care. OBJECTIVES: The study objective was to determine the status of QMS implementation and progress towards accreditation of National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratories (NTRLs) in the African Region...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846611/high-intensity-exercise-can-it-protect-you-from-a-fast-food-diet
#2
Christian Duval, Marc-Antoine Rouillier, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Antony D Karelis
The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of high intensity exercise to counteract the deleterious effects of a fast food diet on the cardiometabolic profile of young healthy men. Fifteen men were subjected to an exclusive fast food diet from a popular fast food restaurant chain (three extra value meals/day + optional snack) for 14 consecutive days. Simultaneously, participants were asked to perform each day high intensity interval training (HIIT) (15 × 60 sec sprint intervals (~90% of maximal heart rate)) on a treadmill...
August 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832427/resistance-training-reduces-inflammation-and-fatigue-and-improves-physical-function-in-older-breast-cancer-survivors
#3
Monica C Serra, Alice S Ryan, Heidi K Ortmeyer, Odessa Addison, Andrew P Goldberg
OBJECTIVE: Resistance training (RT) reduces fatigue and improves physical function and quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors (BCS). This may be related to reductions in systemic and tissue-specific inflammation. This pilot study examines the hypothesis that RT induces changes in systemic and tissue-specific inflammation that contribute to improvements in physical and behavioral function in postmenopausal BCS. METHODS: Eleven BCS (60 ± 2 years old, body mass index 30 ± 1 kg/m, mean ± SEM) underwent assessments of fatigue (Piper Fatigue Scale), physical function, QOL (SF-36), glucose and lipid metabolism, and systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue inflammation (n = 9) before and after 16 weeks of moderate-intensity whole-body RT...
August 21, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816922/nil-whey-protein-effect-on-glycaemic-control-after-intense-mixed-mode-training-in-t2d
#4
Kim A Gaffney, Adam Lucero, Lee Stoner, James Faulkner, Patricia Whitfield, Jeremy Krebs, David S Rowlands
While intense endurance and resistance exercise training and whey protein supplementation have both been shown to independently improve glycaemic control, no known studies have examined the effect of high-intensity mixed-mode interval training (MMIT) and whey supplementation in adults with Type-2 diabetes (T2D). PURPOSE: To determine if peri-training whey protein supplementation combined with MMIT can improve glycaemic control. METHODS: In a double-blind randomised controlled trial, 24 men (55...
August 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811774/effects-of-supervised-structured-aerobic-exercise-training-program-on-fasting-blood-glucose-level-plasma-insulin-level-glycemic-control-and-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Syed Shakil-Ur-Rehman, Hossein Karimi, Syed Amir Gillani
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of supervised structured aerobic exercise training (SSAET) program on fasting blood glucose level (FBGL), plasma insulin level (PIL), glycemic control (GC), and insulin resistance (IR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Riphah Rehabilitation and Research Centre (RRRC) was the clinical setting for this randomized controlled trial, located at Pakistan Railways General Hospital (PRGH), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Study duration was 18 months from January 1, 2015 to June 30, 2016...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804047/effect-of-resistance-training-volume-on-walking-speed-performance-in-postmenopausal-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Paulo R P Nunes, Anselmo A Oliveira, Fernanda M Martins, Aletéia P Souza, Fábio L Orsatti
Low muscle strength and high abdominal fatness play an important role in fast and usual walking speeds decrement in postmenopausal women (PW). Low-volume resistance training (RT) improves muscle strength. However, high-volume RT has shown to improve muscle strength and abdominal fatness in PW. Thus, high-volume RT would elicit greater improvement in fast and usual walking speeds than low-volume RT. OBJECTIVE: To confirm whether the high-volume RT is better than the low-volume RT, we performed a randomized controlled trial (clinical trial registration: RBR-8SBBVP) study to investigated the effects of two different RT volumes (three sets vs...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803675/the-yale-fitness-intervention-trial-in-female-cancer-survivors-cardiovascular-and-physiological-outcomes
#7
M Tish Knobf, Sangchoon Jeon, Barbara Smith, Lyndsay Harris, Siobhan Thompson, Mitchel R Stacy, Karl Insogna, Albert J Sinusas
BACKGROUND: Induced premature menopause and cardio-toxic therapy increase cardiovascular disease risk in female cancer survivors. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a 12 month aerobic-resistance fitness center intervention to home based physical activity on cardiovascular function and metabolic risk factors. METHODS: Subjects (N = 154) who had completed primary and/or adjuvant chemotherapy (past 3 years) were randomized to a fitness center intervention or a home based group...
August 10, 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793243/few-shot-learning-in-deep-networks-through-global-prototyping
#8
Sebastian Blaes, Thomas Burwick
Training a deep convolution neural network (CNN) to succeed in visual object classification usually requires a great number of examples. Here, starting from such a pre-learned CNN, we study the task of extending the network to classify additional categories on the basis of only few examples ("few-shot learning"). We find that a simple and fast prototype-based learning procedure in the global feature layers ("Global Prototype Learning", GPL) leads to some remarkably good classification results for a large portion of the new classes...
July 24, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771628/exploring-factors-related-to-changes-in-body-composition-insulin-sensitivity-and-aerobic-capacity-in-response-to-a-12-week-exercise-intervention-in-overweight-and-obese-women-with-and-without-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#9
David Scott, Cheryce L Harrison, Samantha Hutchison, Barbora de Courten, Nigel K Stepto
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with differential changes in body fat, insulin resistance and aerobic capacity following a 12-week exercise intervention in overweight and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: 16 overweight and obese women (9 PCOS; 7 without PCOS) completed a supervised progressive 12-week exercise program. Primary outcomes included changes in indicators of insulin sensitivity (including glucose infusion rate relative to fat-free mass [GIR/FFM]), body composition, and aerobic capacity (VO2 peak; 12 participants only)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763003/short-term-effects-of-a-ready-to-drink-pre-workout-beverage-on-exercise-performance-and-recovery
#10
Patrick B Collins, Conrad P Earnest, Ryan L Dalton, Ryan J Sowinski, Tyler J Grubic, Christopher J Favot, Adriana M Coletta, Christopher Rasmussen, Mike Greenwood, Richard B Kreider
In a double-blind, randomized and crossover manner, 25 resistance-trained participants ingested a placebo (PLA) beverage containing 12 g of dextrose and a beverage (RTD) containing caffeine (200 mg), β-alanine (2.1 g), arginine nitrate (1.3 g), niacin (65 mg), folic acid (325 mcg), and Vitamin B12 (45 mcg) for 7-days, separated by a 7-10-day. On day 1 and 6, participants donated a fasting blood sample and completed a side-effects questionnaire (SEQ), hemodynamic challenge test, 1-RM and muscular endurance tests (3 × 10 repetitions at 70% of 1-RM with the last set to failure on the bench press (BP) and leg press (LP)) followed by ingesting the assigned beverage...
August 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753161/impact-of-exercise-on-cardiometabolic-component-risks-in-spinal-cord-injured-humans
#11
Tom E Nightingale, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Dylan Thompson, James L J Bilzon
PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) creates a complex pathology, characterised by low levels of habitual physical activity and an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. This study aimed to assess the impact of a moderate-intensity upper-body exercise training intervention on, biomarkers of cardiometabolic component risks, adipose tissue metabolism and cardiorespiratory fitness in persons with SCI. METHODS: Twenty-one inactive men and women with chronic (>1 year) SCI (all paraplegic injuries), aged 47 ± 8 years (mean ± S...
July 28, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738109/are-glucose-and-insulin-metabolism-and-diabetes-associated-with-migraine-a-community-based-case-control-study
#12
Xin Wang, Xin Li, YanBo Diao, ShuHan Meng, YuHang Xing, HaiBo Zhou, Dan Yang, JiaMei Sun, Hong Chen, YaShuang Zhao
AIMS: To investigate the association between glucose and insulin metabolism and migraine, as well as between diabetes mellitus (DM) and migraine, at a Chinese community level. METHODS: A community-based, case-control study was performed in Heihe City, China. A survey was conducted door to door by eight trained investigators. Migraine was diagnosed using the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III) beta criteria. A total of 2,023 participants completed a questionnaire, underwent a physical examination, and donated fasting blood...
July 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729841/prevalence-of-non-responders-for-glucose-control-markers-after-10-weeks-of-high-intensity-interval-training-in-adult-women-with-higher-and-lower-insulin-resistance
#13
Cristian Álvarez, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Mikel Izquierdo
Background: Exercise training improves performance and biochemical parameters on average, but wide interindividual variability exists, with individuals classified as responders (R) or non-responders (NRs), especially between populations with higher or lower levels of insulin resistance. This study assessed the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and the prevalence of NRs in adult women with higher and lower levels of insulin resistance. Methods: Forty adult women were assigned to a HIIT program, and after training were analyzed in two groups; a group with higher insulin resistance (H-IR, 40 ± 6 years; BMI: 29...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713534/low-load-high-velocity-resistance-exercises-improve-strength-and-functional-capacity-in-diabetic-patients
#14
Rodrigo Celes, Martim Bottaro, Eduardo Cadore, Jane Dullius, Fabiano Schwartz, Filipe Luzine
This study investigated the effects of low-load high-velocity resistance exercises on neuromuscular and functional outcomes in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) during the early-phase of resistance training. Thirty participants with T2D performed 18 training sessions (6 weeks - 3x week) in one of two groups: low-load high-velocity exercises (LLHV, n=15, 62.1±10.5 years) or recreational activities (RA, n=15 56.7 ± 19.4 years). LLHV performed resistance exercises with 3x 8reps as fast as possible with 50-60% 1RM...
June 24, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706490/effects-of-6-weeks-high-intensity-interval-training-in-schoolchildren-with-insulin-resistance-influence-of-biological-maturation-on-metabolic-body-composition-cardiovascular-and-performance-non-responses
#15
Cristian Alvarez, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Mikel Izquierdo
Background: Previous studies have observed significant heterogeneity in the magnitude of change in measures of metabolic response to exercise training. There are a lack of studies examining the prevalence of non-responders (NRs) in children while considering other potential environmental factors involved such as biological maturation. Aim: To compare the effects and prevalence of NRs to improve the insulin resistance level (by HOMA-IR), as well as to other anthropometric, cardiovascular, and performance co-variables, between early (EM) and normal maturation (NM) in insulin-resistance schoolchildren after 6-weeks of HIIT...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690546/repeated-excessive-exercise-attenuates-the-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-exercise-in-older-men
#16
Ronni E Sahl, Peter R Andersen, Katja Gronbaek, Thomas H Morville, Mads Rosenkilde, Hanne K Rasmusen, Steen S Poulsen, Clara Prats, Flemming Dela, Jørn W Helge
Introduction/Purpose: A number of studies have investigated the effect of training with a moderate exercise dose (3-6 h/weekly) on the inflammatory profile in blood, and the data are inconsistent. Cross-sectional studies indicate a positive effect of physical activity level on inflammation levels and risk of metabolic disease. However, it is not clear whether this may be dose dependent and if very prolonged repeated exercise therefore may be beneficial for low-grade inflammation. Based on this we studied how excessive repeated prolonged exercise influenced low-grade inflammation and adipose tissue anti-inflammatory macrophage content in six older male recreationally trained cyclists...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687542/skeletal-muscle-microvascular-linked-improvements-in-glycemic-control-from-resistance-training-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Ryan D Russell, Donghua Hu, Timothy Greenaway, Sarah J Blackwood, Renee M Dwyer, James E Sharman, Graeme Jones, Kathryn A Squibb, Aascha A Brown, Petr Otahal, Meg Boman, Hayder Al-Aubaidy, Dino Premilovac, Christian K Roberts, Samuel Hitchins, Stephen M Richards, Stephen Rattigan, Michelle A Keske
OBJECTIVE: Insulin increases glucose disposal in part by enhancing microvascular blood flow (MBF) and substrate delivery to myocytes. Insulin's microvascular action is impaired with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Resistance training (RT) improves glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, but whether this improvement is linked to augmented skeletal muscle microvascular responses in type 2 diabetes is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventeen (11 male and 6 female; 52 ± 2 years old) sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes underwent 6 weeks of whole-body RT...
September 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685860/exercise-mediated-modulation-of-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscle
#18
REVIEW
Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Jose A L Calbet
Although exercise exerts multiple beneficial health effects, it may also damage cellular structures. Damaged elements are continuously degraded and its constituents recycled to produce renovated structures through a process called autophagy, which is essential for the adaptation to training. Autophagy is particularly active in skeletal muscle, where it can be evaluated by using specific molecular markers of activation (unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) phosphorylation) and specific proteins indicating increased autophagosome content (increased total LC3, LC3-II, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio)...
July 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683146/visceral-fat-reference-values-derived-from-healthy-european-men-and-women-aged-20-30-years-using-ge-healthcare-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#19
Tomasz Miazgowski, Robert Kucharski, Marta Sołtysiak, Aleksandra Taszarek, Bartosz Miazgowski, Krystyna Widecka
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established technique used in clinical and research settings to evaluate total and regional fat. Additionally, recently developed software allow to quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Currently, there are no reference values available for GE Healthcare DXA systems for VAT. The aim of this study was to develop reference values for VAT in healthy European adults aged 20-30 years using a GE Healthcare Prodigy densitometer along with the dedicated CoreScan application...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663372/muscle-hypertrophy-in-pre-diabetic-men-after-sixteen-weeks-of-resistance-training
#20
Charles A Stuart, Michelle L Lee, Mark A South, Mary E A Howell, Michael H Stone
Resistance training of healthy young men typically results in muscle hypertrophy and a shift in vastus lateralis composition away from type IIx fibers to an increase in IIa fiber content. Our previous studies of eight weeks of resistance training found many metabolic syndrome men and women paradoxically increased IIx fibers with a decrease in IIa fibers. To confirm the hypothesis that obese subjects might have muscle remodeling after resistance training very different from healthy lean subjects, we subjected a group of nine obese men volunteers to progressive resistance training for a total of sixteen weeks...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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