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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203453/association-of-osteoprotegerin-with-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#1
Meltem Erol, Ozlem Bostan Gayret, Hikmet Tekin Nacaroglu, Ozgul Yigit, Oguzhan Zengi, Mehmet Salih Akkurt, Mehmet Tasdemir
BACKGROUND: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. Reduced OPG levels are related to obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OPG levels, obesity, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in pediatric patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, controlled study that was conducted in the department of pediatrics at Bagcilar training and research hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, between April and August 2015...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202586/waveform-sensitivity-of-electroreceptors-in-the-pulse-weakly-electric-fish-gymnotus-omarorum
#2
Alejo Rodríguez-Cattaneo, Pedro A Aguilera, Angel A Caputi
As in most sensory systems electrosensory images in weakly electric fish are encoded in two parallel pathways, fast and slow. From the work on wave type electric fish these pathways are thought to encode the time and amplitude of electrosensory signals respectively. This article focuses on the primary afferents giving origin to the slow path of the pulse type weakly electric fish Gymnotus omarorum We found that burst duration coders respond with a high-frequency train of spikes to each electric organ discharge...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183816/two-weeks-of-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-but-not-high-intensity-interval-training-increases-insulin-stimulated-intestinal-glucose-uptake
#3
Kumail Kumar Motiani, Anna M Savolainen, Jari-Joonas Eskelinen, Jussi Toivanen, Tamiko Ishizu, Minna Yli-Karjanmaa, Kirsi A Virtanen, Riitta Parkkola, Jukka Kapanen, Tove J Gronroos, Merja Haaparanta-Solin, Olof Solin, Nina Savisto, Markku Ahotupa, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Juhani Knuuti, Pirjo Nuutila, Kari K Kalliokoski, Jarna C Hannukainen
Similar to muscles, the intestine is also insulin resistant in obese subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Exercise training improves muscle insulin sensitivity, but its effects on intestinal metabolism are not known. We studied the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on intestinal glucose and free fatty acid uptake from circulation in humans. Twenty-eight healthy middle-aged sedentary men were randomized for two weeks of HIIT or MICT...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163011/aerobic-endurance-training-improves-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-features-via-mir-33-dependent-autophagy-induction-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#4
Parvin Ghareghani, Mehrnoosh Shanaki, Saeideh Ahmadi, Ali Reza Khoshdel, Neda Rezvan, Reza Meshkani, Maryam Delfan, Sattar Gorgani-Firuzjaee
Due to changes in life style, obesity and obesity related complication such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease caused worldwide health problems. Regular exercise has been frequently prescribed to combat metabolic complication of obesity but its molecular mechanism has not been fully illustrated. We investigated molecular mechanism of lipid lowering effect of exercise training in high fat diet fed mice by focusing on miR-33 expression and autophagy pathway. 24 mice were assigned to normal chow (NC) (n=8), high-fat diet (HFD) (n=16) group and subjected to NC and HFD for 13-weeks...
February 2, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153946/effects-and-prevalence-of-non-responders-after-12weeks-of-high-intensity-interval-or-resistan-training-in-adult-woman-with-insulin-resistance-a-randomized-trial
#5
Cristian Alvarez, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Mikel Izquierdo
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our aim was to investigate the effects and prevalence of non-responders (NR) to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and resistant training (RT)in adult woman with insulin resistance on cardiometabolic health parameters. METHODS: Sedentary overweight/obese insulin resistant adult women (age = 33.5 ±6.5 years;BMI=29.9 ± 3.7kg/m2) were randomly assigned to a tri-weekly HIIT program(HIIT;n=18) or resistant training (RT;n=17).Anthropometry (body mass, fat mas, muscle mass, waist circumference and skinfolds thickness),cardiovascular(blood pressure), metabolic (fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR),as well muscle strength, and endurance performance co-variables were measured before and after 12 weeks in both intervention groups...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151781/acute-effects-of-eccentric-overload-on-concentric-front-squat-performance
#6
Cameron N Munger, David C Archer, Whitney D Leyva, Megan A Wong, Jared W Coburn, Pablo B Costa, Lee E Brown
Eccentric overload is used to enhance performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of eccentric overload on concentric front squat performance. Twenty resistance-trained males (age=23.80±1.82yrs, ht=176.95±5.21cm, mass=83.49±10.43kg, 1 Repetition Maximum [1RM] front squat=131.02±21.32kg) volunteered. A dynamic warm-up and warm-up sets of front squat were performed. Eccentric hooks were added to the barbell. They descended for 3 seconds, until eccentric hooks released, and performed the concentric phase as fast as possible...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121802/delayed-effect-of-blood-flow-restricted-resistance-training-on-rapid-force-capacity
#7
Jakob Lindberg Nielsen, Ulrik Frandsen, Tatyana Prokhorova, Rune Dueholm Bech, Tobias Nygaard, Charlotte Suetta, Per Aagaard
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and time course of high-frequent low-load resistance training with blood-flow restriction (BFR) on rapid force capacity (i.e. rate of torque development (RTD)). METHODS: Ten male subjects (22.8±2.3 years) performed four sets of knee extensor exercise (20%1RM) to concentric failure during concurrent BFR of the thigh (100mmHg), while eight work-matched controls (21.9±3.0 years) trained without BFR (CON)...
January 23, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108648/reduced-firing-rates-of-high-threshold-motor-units-in-response-to-eccentric-overload
#8
Tom G Balshaw, Madhu Pahar, Ross Chesham, Lewis J Macgregor, Angus M Hunter
Acute responses of motor units were investigated during submaximal voluntary isometric tasks following eccentric overload (EO) and constant load (CL) knee extension resistance exercise. Ten healthy resistance-trained participants performed four experimental test sessions separated by 5 days over a 20 day period. Two sessions involved constant load and the other two used eccentric overload. EO and CL used both sessions for different target knee eccentric extension phases; one at 2 sec and the other at 4 sec...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105573/effect-of-movement-velocity-during-resistance-training-on-dynamic-muscular-strength-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Timothy B Davies, Kenny Kuang, Rhonda Orr, Mark Halaki, Daniel Hackett
BACKGROUND: Movement velocity is an acute resistance-training variable that can be manipulated to potentially optimize dynamic muscular strength development. However, it is unclear whether performing faster or slower repetitions actually influences dynamic muscular strength gains. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of movement velocity during resistance training on dynamic muscular strength. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched using terms related to movement velocity and resistance training...
January 20, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096757/effects-of-ingesting-a-pre-workout-dietary-supplement-with-and-without-synephrine-for-8%C3%A2-weeks-on-training-adaptations-in-resistance-trained-males
#10
Y Peter Jung, Conrad P Earnest, Majid Koozehchian, Minye Cho, Nick Barringer, Dillon Walker, Christopher Rasmussen, Mike Greenwood, Peter S Murano, Richard B Kreider
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine whether ingesting a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without synephrine (S) during training affects training responses in resistance-trained males. METHODS: Resistance-trained males (N = 80) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet in a double-blind manner with either a flavored placebo (PLA); a PWS containing beta-alanine (3 g), creatine nitrate as a salt (2 g), arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (2 g), N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (300 mg), caffeine (284 mg), Mucuna pruiriens extract standardized for 15% L-Dopa (15 mg), Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid (500 mg), niacin (60 mg), folate as folic acid (50 mg), and Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin (70 mg); or, the PWS supplement with Citrus aurantium extract containing 20 mg of synephrine (PWS + S) once per day for 8-weeks during training...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068193/the-improvement-in-walking-speed-induced-by-resistance-training-is-associated-with-increased-muscular-strength-but-not-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-older-women
#11
Leandro Santos, Alex S Ribeiro, Brad J Schoenfeld, Matheus A Nascimento, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Mariana F Souza, Fábio L C Pina, Edilson S Cyrino
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to analyze whether improvements in fast walking speed induced by resistance training (RT) are associated with changes in body composition, muscle quality, and muscular strength in older women. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy older women (69.6 ± 6.4 years, 64.95 ± 12.9 kg, 1.55 ± 0.07 m, 27.06 ± 4.6 kg/m²) performed a RT program for 8 weeks consisting of 8 exercises for the whole body, 3 sets of 10-15 repetitions maximum, 3 times a week...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049238/the-curves-exercise-suppresses-endotoxemia-in-korean-women-with-obesity
#12
Seon Ah Jin, Sun Kyeong Kim, Hee Jung Seo, Mijoo Kim, Kye Taek Ahn, Jun Hyung Kim, Jae Hyeong Park, Jae Hwan Lee, Si Wan Choi, Jin Ok Jeong
Obesity and metabolic syndrome is a worldwide pandemic and associated with high cardiovascular risk. Metabolic endotoxemia (ME) is thought to be an underlying molecular mechanism. It triggers toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory adipokines and causes a chronic low grade inflammatory status, which results in cardiovascular risk increase. Exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment to improve prognosis. In this study, we examined the circulating endotoxin level in Korean obese women and investigated effects of exercise on it...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028076/inorganic-nitrate-mimics-exercise-stimulated-muscular-fiber-type-switching-and-myokine-and-gaba-release
#13
Lee D Roberts, Tom Ashmore, Ben D McNally, Steven A Murfitt, Bernadette O Fernandez, Martin Feelisch, Ross Lindsay, Mario Siervo, Elizabeth A Williams, Andrew J Murray, Julian L Griffin
Exercise is an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle combines multiple signals contributing to the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health. Inorganic nitrate increases exercise efficiency, tolerance and performance. The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ coactivator1α (PGC1α) coordinates the exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle fiber-type switch from glycolytic fast-twitch (type IIb) to oxidative slow-twitch (type I) and intermediate (type IIa) fibers; an effect reversed in insulin resistance and diabetes...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999852/effect-of-a-high-protein-energy-restricted-diet-combined-with-resistance-training-on-metabolic-profile-in-older-individuals-with-metabolic-impairments
#14
T Amamou, E Normandin, J Pouliot, I J Dionne, M Brochu, E Riesco
Adequate protein intake and resistance training are effective strategies to maintain muscle mass, but the effect of their combination on metabolic profile during weight loss remains to be determined in older adults. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of a 16-week high-protein caloric restriction combined with resistance training on chronic disease risk factors in obese older individuals with metabolic impairments. A total of 26 overweight adults aged between 60 and 75 years (BMI 32...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996378/fast-early-recovery-after-transabdominal-preperitoneal-repair-in-athletes-with-sportsman-s-groin-a-prospective-clinical-cohort-study
#15
Herwig Pokorny, Christoph Resinger, Ines Fischer, Veit Lorenz, Helge Noske, Stefan Podar, Friedrich Längle, Rudolf Schrittwieser
BACKGROUND: Current literature on chronic groin pain suggests that laparoscopic mesh repair on athletes enables a faster recovery and subsequent return to unrestricted athletic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) mesh repair in athletes resistant to conservative therapy. METHODS: A multidisciplinary approach with tailored physiotherapy. Thirty-nine professional athletes with chronic groin pain were referred to surgery at a single clinic...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984439/skeletal-muscle-fatigability-and-myosin-heavy-chain-fiber-type-in-resistance-trained-men
#16
James R Bagley, Kathryn A McLeland, Jose A Arevalo, Lee E Brown, Jared W Coburn, Andrew J Galpin
Bagley, JR, McLeland, KA, Arevalo, JA, Brown, LE, Coburn, JW, and Galpin, AJ. Skeletal muscle fatigability and myosin heavy chain fiber type in resistance trained men. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 602-607, 2017-Forty years ago, Thorstensson and Karlsson in 1976 described the link between muscle fatigability and fiber type, finding that more fast-twitch fibers were associated with a quicker onset of quadriceps fatigue. This provided the foundation for the Classic Thorstensson Test of fatigability and subsequent noninvasive fiber type prediction equation...
March 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977518/effects-of-2-years-of-exercise-on-gait-impairment-in-people-with-parkinson-disease-the-pret-pd-randomized-trial
#17
Miriam R Rafferty, Janey Prodoehl, Julie A Robichaud, Fabian J David, Cynthia Poon, Lisa C Goelz, David E Vaillancourt, Wendy M Kohrt, Cynthia L Comella, Daniel M Corcos
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study presents a secondary analysis from the Progressive Resistance Exercise Training in Parkinson Disease (PRET-PD) trial investigating the effects of progressive resistance exercise (PRE) and a Parkinson disease (PD)-specific multimodal exercise program, modified Fitness Counts (mFC), on spatial, temporal, and stability-related gait impairments in people with PD. METHODS: Forty-eight people with PD were randomized to participate in PRE or mFC 2 times a week for 24 months; 38 completed the study...
January 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976687/manufacture-of-patient-specific-vascular-replicas-for-endovascular-simulation-using-fast-low-cost-method
#18
Naoki Kaneko, Toshihiro Mashiko, Taihei Ohnishi, Makoto Ohta, Katsunari Namba, Eiju Watanabe, Kensuke Kawai
Patient-specific vascular replicas are essential to the simulation of endovascular treatment or for vascular research. The inside of silicone replica is required to be smooth for manipulating interventional devices without resistance. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of patient-specific silicone vessels with a low-cost desktop 3D printer. We show that the surface of an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) model printed by the 3D printer can be smoothed by a single dipping in ABS solvent in a time-dependent manner, where a short dip has less effect on the shape of the model...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955950/resistive-training-and-molecular-regulators-of-vascular-metabolic-risk-in-chronic-stroke
#19
Alice S Ryan, Guoyan Li, Charlene Hafer-Macko, Frederick M Ivey
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator (PGC-1α) gene and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) respond to physiological stimuli and regulate insulin resistance. Inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the soluble forms of intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and vascular CAM-1 (sVCAM-1) are associated with increased risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Resistive training (RT) reduces hyperinsulinemia and improves insulin action in chronic stroke...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951413/immunometabolic-parameters-in-overweight-dogs-during-weight-loss-with-or-without-an-exercise-program
#20
A D Vitger, B M Stallknecht, J E Miles, S L Hansen, A Vegge, C R Bjørnvad
The influence of physical activity on metabolic health in overweight dogs is unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate biomarkers of immunometabolic health in relation to changes in physical activity and adiposity. Client-owned overweight dogs participated in a 12-wk intervention based on caloric restriction combined with a training program (fitness and diet [FD] group, n = 8), or caloric restriction alone (diet-only [DO] group, n = 8). Physical activity was monitored by accelerometry. All dogs were fed the same diet and achieved similar weight loss...
November 11, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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