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Xiaoqi Lai, Fengxian Luo, Yaping Wang, Xuxian Su, Jinbin Liu
The surface inert of luminescent gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) toward biomolecules set a challenge to further exploit their bioanalytical applications using the direct luminescence response. Herein, we report a novel approach to induce significant luminescence quenching of the AuNPs upon the interaction with a metal coordination ligand tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP), providing a strategy for the detection of H2O2 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 14 nM through the reaction between H2O2 and TCEP to protect the luminescence quenching of the AuNPs...
December 8, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
P Kocurek, K Kolomazník, M Bařinová, J Hendrych
This paper deals with the problem of chromium recovery from chrome-tanned waste and thus with reducing the environmental impact of the leather industry. Chrome-tanned waste was transformed by alkaline enzymatic hydrolysis promoted by magnesium oxide into practically chromium-free, commercially applicable collagen hydrolysate and filtration cake containing a high portion of chromium. The crude and magnesium-deprived chromium cakes were subjected to a process of thermal decomposition at 650°C under oxygen-free conditions to reduce the amount of this waste and to study the effect of magnesium removal on the resulting products...
December 8, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Shuilai Qiu, Xin Wang, Bin Yu, Xiaming Feng, Xiaowei Mu, Richard K K Yuen, Yuan Hu
The structure of polyphosphazene nanotubes (PZS) is similar to that of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) before modification. For applications of CNTs in polymer composites, surface wrapping is an economically attractive route to achieve functionalized nanotubes. Based on this idea, functionalized polyphosphazene nanotubes (FR@PZS) wrapped with a cross-linked DOPO-based flame retardant (FR) were synthesized via one-step strategy and well characterized. Then, the obtained FR@PZS was introduced into epoxy resin (EP) to investigate flame retardancy and smoke toxicity suppression performance...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hangjuan Ren, Pramod Koshy, Wen-Fan Chen, Shaohua Qi, Charles Christopher Sorrell
Since there is increasing concern for the impact of air quality on human health, the present work surveys the materials and technologies for air purification using photocatalytic materials. The coverage includes (1) current photocatalytic materials for the decomposition of chemical contaminants and disinfection of pathogens present in air and (2) photocatalytic air purification systems that are used currently and under development. The present work focuses on five main themes. First, the mechanisms of photodegradation and photodisinfection are explained...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
E M Brinda, J Attermann, U G Gerdtham, U Enemark
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to measure socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health (SRH) and healthcare visits and to identify factors contributing to health inequalities among older people aged 50-plus years. STUDY DESIGN: This study is based on a population-based, cross-sectional survey. METHODS: We accessed data of 7150 older adults from the World Health Organization's Study on Global AGEing and adult health Indian survey...
December 2016: Public Health
R B Brennan, E Clifford, C Devroedt, L Morrison, M G Healy
Landfill leachate is the result of water percolating through waste deposits that have undergone aerobic and anaerobic microbial decomposition. In recent years, increasingly stringent wastewater discharge requirements have raised questions regarding the efficacy of co-treatment of leachate in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study aimed to (1) examine the co-treatment of leachate with a 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5): chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio less than or slightly greater than 0...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Saied M Soliman, Assem Barakat
Intermolecular interactions play a vital role in crystal structures. Therefore, we conducted a topological study, using Hirshfeld surfaces and atom in molecules (AIM) analysis, to decompose and analyze, respectively, the different intermolecular interactions in six hydrazone-diacetyl platinum(II) complexes. Using AIM and natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses, we determined the type, nature, and strength of the interactions. All the studied complexes contain C-H⋯O interactions, and the presence of bond critical points along the intermolecular paths underlines their significance...
December 6, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jan Řezáč, Aurélien de la Lande
The role of charge transfer in halogen bonding is the subject of an ongoing debate and controversy. It is clear from experimental data that charge transfer occurs in halogen bonds, but its contribution to the energetics of the interaction can be evaluated only computationally. Since the charge transfer is not a physically well-defined property, there are multiple computational approaches, which could yield very different results. In this work, we investigate this topic using our recently developed method based on constrained DFT, which allows the quantification of net charge transfer and the associated interaction energy component [Řezáč et al...
December 8, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
V I Borovkov
In disagreement with the common concept of primary radiation-induced events in liquid carbonates, an analysis of the fluorescence response of irradiated luminophore solutions in propylene carbonate to magnetic fields reveals the presence of radical cations formed from the solvent. On the basis of their magnetic resonance characteristics, the radical cations are proposed to be ionised dimeric complexes with the spin density delocalised over two antiparallel carbonyl groups. The finding suggests that the basic models underlying the application of radiolysis to study the mechanisms of the oxidative decomposition of carbonates should be reexamined...
December 8, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Nikita A Butakov, Jon A Schuller
Dielectric resonators form the building blocks of nano-scale optical antennas and metamaterials. Due to their multipolar resonant response and low intrinsic losses they offer design flexibility and high-efficiency performance. These resonators are typically described in terms of a spherical harmonic decomposition with Mie theory. In experimental realizations however, a departure from spherical symmetry and the use of high-index substrates leads to new features appearing in the multipolar response. To clarify this behavior, we present a systematic experimental and numerical characterization of Silicon disk resonators...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
Roselinde Kessels, Guido Erreygers
We present a flexible structural equation modeling (SEM) framework for the regression-based decomposition of rank-dependent indicators of socioeconomic inequality of health and compare it with simple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. The SEM framework forms the basis for a proper use of the most prominent one- and two-dimensional decompositions and provides an argument for using the bivariate multiple regression model for two-dimensional decomposition. Within the SEM framework, the two-dimensional decomposition integrates the feedback mechanism between health and socioeconomic status and allows for different sets of determinants of these variables...
December 2016: Health Economics Review
Yu M Barabash, A K Lyamets
The structural and dynamical properties of biological macromolecules under non-equilibrium conditions determine the kinetics of their basic reaction to external stimuli. This kinetics is multiexponential in nature. This is due to the operation of various subsystems in the structure of macromolecules, as well as the effect of the basic reaction on the structure of macromolecules. The situation can be interpreted as a manifestation of the stationary states of macromolecules, which are represented by monoexponential components of the basic reaction (Monod-Wyman-Changeux model) Monod et al...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Leila Karami, Ali Akbar Saboury, Elham Rezaee, Sayyed Abbas Tabatabai
The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzyme plays an important role in the metabolism of endogenous chemical mediators involved in the regulation of blood pressure and inflammation. Inhibition of sEH provides a new approach to the treatment of inflammation, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In this study, the binding modes and inhibition mechanisms of the new oxadiazole-based amide inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase were investigated by molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation followed by the MM-GBSA method to calculate the binding free energy of each inhibitor to sEH...
December 7, 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Wang Wan, Xiaoyan Yang, Rhett C Smith
A P-C bond-forming reaction has been applied to the convenient preparation of tetraarylphosphonium polyelectrolytes (TPELs) from aryl dihalides and diphenylphosphine. A TPEL having a thermal decomposition temperature of 460 °C that is also stable to heating at 65 °C in 6 M NaOH(aq) for at least 24 h has been prepared by this method.
December 8, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Matt Vogel, Lauren C Porter
OBJECTIVES: Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present study examines the extent to which differences in age structure account for incarceration disparities across racial and ethnic groups. METHODS: We apply two techniques commonly employed in the field of demography, age-standardization and decomposition, to data provided by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the 2010 decennial census to assess the contribution of age structure to racial and ethnic disparities in incarceration...
2016: Journal of Quantitative Criminology
Bhagwan Shamrao Patil, Agnes Anto C, Devendra Narain Singh
Municipal solid waste generation is huge in growing cities of developing nations such as India, owing to the rapid industrial and population growth. In addition to various methods for treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste (landfills, composting, bio-methanation, incineration and pyrolysis), aerobic/anaerobic bioreactor landfills are gaining popularity for economical and effective disposal of municipal solid waste. However, efficiency of municipal solid waste bioreactor landfills primarily depends on the municipal solid waste decomposition rate, which can be accelerated through monitoring moisture content and temperature by using the frequency domain reflectometry probe and thermocouples, respectively...
December 6, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Brian D Holt, Anne M Arnold, Stefanie A Sydlik
Synthetic biomaterials are poised to transform medicine; however, current synthetic options have yet to ideally recapitulate the desirable properties of native tissue. Thus, the development of new synthetic biomaterials remains an active challenge. Due to its excellent properties, including electrical conductivity, water dispersibility, and capacity for functionalization, graphene oxide (GO) holds potential for myriads of applications, including biological devices. While many studies have evaluated the compatibility of freshly prepared GO, understanding the compatibility of GO as it ages in an aqueous environment is crucial for its safe implementation in long-term biological applications...
December 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Mikel Oregui Bengoechea, Iñaki Gandarias, Pedro Luis Arias, Tanja Barth
The role of formic acid together with the effect of the solvent type and their synergic interactions with a NiMo catalyst were studied for the conversion of lignin into bio-oil in an alcohol/formic acid media. Replacing formic acid with molecular hydrogen or isopropanol decreased the oil yield to a considerable degree, increased the solid yield and altered the nature of the bio-oil. The differences induced by the presence of molecular hydrogen were comparable to the ones observed in the isopropanol system, suggesting similar lignin conversion mechanisms for both systems...
December 7, 2016: ChemSusChem
Douglas W Crandell, Haiyang Zhu, Xiaofan Yang, John Hochmuth, Mu-Hyun Baik
The copper-exchanged aluminosilicate zeolite SSZ-13 is a leading catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO. Density functional theory calculations are used to construct a complete catalytic cycle of this process paying special attention to the coordination geometries and redox states of copper. N2 can be produced in the reduction half-cycle via a nitrosamine intermediate generated from the reaction of the additive reductant NH3 with a NO(+) intermediate stabilized by the zeolite lattice. The decomposition of this nitrosamine species can be assisted by incipient Brønsted acid sites generated during catalysis...
December 7, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Shiqi Huang, Wenzhun Huang, Ting Zhang
The most distinctive characteristic of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is that it can acquire data under all weather conditions and at all times. However, its coherent imaging mechanism introduces a great deal of speckle noise into SAR images, which makes the segmentation of target and shadow regions in SAR images very difficult. This paper proposes a new SAR image segmentation method based on wavelet decomposition and a constant false alarm rate (WD-CFAR). The WD-CFAR algorithm not only is insensitive to the speckle noise in SAR images but also can segment target and shadow regions simultaneously, and it is also able to effectively segment SAR images with a low signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR)...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
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