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# Decomposition

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#1
David J S Patinha, Liliana C Tomé, Mehmet Isik, David Mecerreyes, Armando J D Silvestre, Isabel M Marrucho
Crosslinked pyrrolidinium-based poly(ionic liquids) (Pyrr-PILs) were synthesized through a fast, simple, and solventless photopolymerization scheme, and tested as solid phase microextraction (SPME) sorbents. A series of Pyrr-PILs bearing three different alkyl side chain lengths with two, eight, and fourteen carbons was prepared, characterized, and homogeneously coated on a steel wire by using a very simple procedure. The resulting coatings showed a high thermal stability, with decomposition temperatures above 350 °C, excellent film stability, and lifetime of over 100 injections...
September 18, 2017: Materials
#2
Nantian Huang, Jiajin Qi, Fuqing Li, Dongfeng Yang, Guowei Cai, Guilin Huang, Jian Zheng, Zhenxin Li
In order to improve the classification accuracy of recognizing short-circuit faults in electric transmission lines, a novel detection and diagnosis method based on empirical wavelet transform (EWT) and local energy (LE) is proposed. First, EWT is used to deal with the original short-circuit fault signals from photoelectric voltage transformers, before the amplitude modulated-frequency modulated (AM-FM) mode with a compactly supported Fourier spectrum is extracted. Subsequently, the fault occurrence time is detected according to the modulus maxima of intrinsic mode function (IMF₂) from three-phase voltage signals processed by EWT...
September 16, 2017: Sensors
#3
Lei Li, Christa Pohl, Jing-Ling Ren, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Xiu-Hong Cao, Günther Nausch, Jing Zhang
With the increase in anthropogenic environmental disruption, the behavior of arsenic in the Baltic Sea has received more scientific attention because of its complex forms and toxicity, and was re-visited to determine if there have been measurable changes recently. A cruise was conducted in 10-19 May 2011 to investigate the species and distribution of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs: [TDIAs]=[As(V)]+[As(III)]) revealing links between the hydrographic dynamics and biological/chemical reactions in the Baltic Sea...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
#4
Mia R Maltz, Kathleen K Treseder, Krista L McGuire
Habitat fragmentation is widespread across ecosystems, detrimentally affecting biodiversity. Although most habitat fragmentation studies have been conducted on macroscopic organisms, microbial communities and fungal processes may also be threatened by fragmentation. This study investigated whether fragmentation, and the effects of fragmentation on plants, altered fungal diversity and function within a fragmented shrubland in southern California. Using fluorimetric techniques, we assayed enzymes from plant litter collected from fragments of varying sizes to investigate enzymatic responses to fragmentation...
2017: PloS One
#5
Rolf Symons, Daniel S Reich, Mohammadhadi Bagheri, Tyler E Cork, Bernhard Krauss, Stefan Ulzheimer, Steffen Kappler, David A Bluemke, Amir Pourmorteza
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality of a spectral photon-counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT) system for evaluation of major arteries of the head and neck compared with conventional single-energy CT scans using energy-integrating detectors (EIDs). METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved study, 16 asymptomatic subjects (7 men) provided informed consent and received both PCD and EID contrast-enhanced CT scans of the head and neck (mean age, 58 years; range, 46-75 years)...
#6
Caleb A Smith, Blanton R Gillespie, George L Heard, Donald W Setser, Bert E Holmes
The recombination of CF3 and CHF2 radicals in a room temperature bath gas was used to prepare CF3CHF2* molecules with 101 kcal mol-1 of vibrational energy. The subsequent 1,2-H-atom transfer, 1,1-HF elimination and 1,2-HF elimination reactions were observed as a function of bath gas pressure by following the CHF3, CF3(F)C: and C2F4 product concentrations by gas chromatography using a mass spectrometer as the detector. The singlet CF3(F)C: concentration was measured by trapping the carbene with trans-2-butene...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
#7
Elixabete Rezabal, Jesus M M Ugalde, Gernot Frenking
Palladium phosphine sulfonate complexes constitute an efficient family of catalysts for both homopolymerization of ethylene and copolymerization of ethylene with a number of polar monomers. Their catalytic mechanism have been extensively studied but not fully understood at the electronic structure level. The Energy Decomposition Analysis (EDA), complemented with the inspection of the Natural Orbitals for Chemical Valence (NOCV), reveals that their catalytic activity can be rationalized in terms of the co-called ${\it trans}$ ${\it effect}$...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
#8
Maria Koifman Khristosov, Shiri Dishon, Imrit Noi, Alex Katsman, Boaz Pokroy
Nanoporous gold is widely used in research and nanotechnology because of its diverse properties, including high surface area and catalytic activity. The ligament size is usually considered as one of the main parameters controlling thermal stability and mechanical properties of nanoporous gold. Recently we developed a method for creating nanoporous single crystal gold particles using eutectic decomposition of Au-Ge, followed by selective etching of Ge. Here, we used this novel method to create nanoporous gold particles with controlled ligament sizes by changing the initial sample's relative concentrations of gold and germanium...
September 19, 2017: Nanoscale
#9
Artem M Rumyantsev, Elena Yu Kramarenko
The phenomenon of spinodal decomposition in weakly charged polyelectrolyte solutions is studied theoretically within the random phase approximation. A novel feature of the theoretical approach is that it accounts for the effects of ionic association, i.e. ion pair and multiplet formation between counterions and ions in polymer chains, as well as the dependence of local dielectric permittivity on the polymer volume fraction Φ. The main focus is on the spinodal instability of polyelectrolyte solutions towards microscopic phase separation...
September 19, 2017: Soft Matter
#10
Tim Kohlmann, Robert Naumann, Christoph Kerzig, Martin Goez
The hydrated electron represents a "super-reductant" in water, providing 2.9 eV of reductive power, which suffices to decompose nonactivated aliphatic halides. We show that 3-amino-perylene in SDS micelles, when combined with the bioavailable ascorbate as an extramicellar sacrificial donor, sustainably produces hydrated electrons through photoredox catalysis with green light, from a metal-free system, and at near-physiological pH. Photoionization of the amine with a 532 nm laser yields an extremely long-lived radical cation as the by-product, and a subsequent reaction of the latter with the sacrificial donor across the micelle/water interface regenerates the catalyst...
September 19, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
#11
G M Verkhivker
The overarching goal of delineating molecular principles underlying differentiation of the activation mechanisms in cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is important for understanding regulatory divergences among closely related kinases which can be exploited in drug discovery of targeted and allosteric inhibitors. To systematically characterize dynamic, energetic and network signatures of the activation mechanisms, we combined atomistic simulations and elastic network modeling with the analysis of the residue interaction networks and rigidity decomposition of the CDK2-cyclin A and CDK4-cyclin D1/D3 complexes...
September 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
#12
H-P Dong, M-Z Tan, Q-J Liu, J Wang, S-B Zhong
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we adopted maternal diabetes model on rats, which induced by streptozotocin to explore the metabolism changes of rat adipose tissue during the neonatal period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The female rats were induced as diabetes models by streptozotocin (STZ), and mated with the normal male rats when they entered into adulthood. The chosen male offspring rats were executed at week 12 and the epididymis and subcutaneous fat pad were obtained...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
#13
Arnab Gupta, John C Duke
In health monitoring applications of composite materials, the health state of specimens is often evaluated using naturally occurring and simulated Acoustic Emission stress waves. For such applications, identifying the arrival times of the extensional and flexural wave modes from acquired signals is a crucial step, and must be performed reliably and potentially on large sets of signals. This article proposes using the wavelet decomposition of a signal to develop a fast, algorithmic and automated approach to estimate the arrival times of the extensional and flexural wave modes...
September 9, 2017: Ultrasonics
#14
Jochen P Zubrod, Rebecca Bundschuh, Dominic Englert, Markus Rohrberg, Matthias V Wieczorek, Nikita Bakanov, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh
Invertebrate-mediated leaf litter decomposition is frequently used to assess stress-related implications in stream ecosystem integrity. In situ measures such as the mass loss from leaf bags or the feeding of caged invertebrates deployed for days or weeks may, however, fail to detect transient effects due to recovery or compensatory mechanisms. We assessed the relevance of transient effects using the peak exposure towards an insecticide (i.e., etofenprox) as a model scenario at three levels of complexity. These were 1) the assessment of the decomposition realised by invertebrate communities in stream mesocosms over 21 days via leaf bags, 2) 7-days lasting in situ bioassays quantifying the leaf consumption of Gammarus fossarum, and 3) a laboratory experiment determining the daily feeding rate of the same species over 7 days...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
#15
Janice Ryan
This exploratory, evidence-based practice research study focuses on presenting a plausible mesoscopic brain dynamics hypothesis for the benefits of treating clients with psychosocial and cognitive challenges using a mindful therapeutic approach and multi-sensory environments. After an extensive neuroscientific review of the therapeutic benefits of mindfulness, a multi-sensory environment is presented as a window of therapeutic opportunity to more quickly and efficiently facilitate the neurobiological experience of becoming more mindful or conscious of self and environment...
October 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
#16
Lucia Žifčáková, Tomáš Větrovský, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Adina Howe, Petr Baldrian
BACKGROUND: Evergreen coniferous forests contain high stocks of organic matter. Significant carbon transformations occur in litter and soil of these ecosystems, making them important for the global carbon cycle. Due to seasonal allocation of photosynthates to roots, carbon availability changes seasonally in the topsoil. The aim of this paper was to describe the seasonal differences in C source utilization and the involvement of various members of soil microbiome in this process. RESULTS: Here, we show that microorganisms in topsoil encode a diverse set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, including glycoside hydrolases and auxiliary enzymes...
September 18, 2017: Microbiome
#17
Shweta Jain, Varun Bajaj, Anil Kumar
Electrocardiograph (ECG) denoising is the most important step in diagnosis of heart related diseases, as the diagnosis gets influenced with noises. In this paper, a new method for ECG denoising is proposed, which incorporates empirical mode decomposition algorithm and Riemann Liouvelle (RL) fractional integral filtering. In the proposed method, noisy ECG signal is decomposed into its intrinsic mode functions (IMFs); from which noisy IMFs are identified by proposed noisy-IMFs identification methodology. RL fractional integral filtering is applied on noisy IMFs to get denoised IMFs; ECG signal is reconstructed with denoised IMFs and remaining signal dominant IMFs to obtain noise-free ECG signal...
September 18, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
#18
Carolyn E Carr, Luis A Marky
Intramolecular four-way junctions are structures present during homologous recombination, repair of double stranded DNA breaks and integron recombination, in addition to many others. Because of the wide range of biological processes four-way junctions are involved in, understanding how and under what conditions these structures form is critical. In this work, we used a combination of spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques to present a complete thermodynamic description of the unfolding of a DNA four-way junction (FWJ) and its appropriate control stem-loop motifs (Dumbbell, GAAATT-Hp, CTATC-Hp, GTGC-Hp, and GCGC-Hp)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
#19
Lauren T Bennett, Matthew J Bruce, Josephine Machunter, Michele Kohout, Saravanan Jangammanaidu Krishnaraj, Cristina Aponte
The carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests is often assumed but less frequently assessed, limiting potential to anticipate threats to forest carbon posed by predicted increases in forest fire activity. Assessing the carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests requires multi-indicator approaches that recognise the myriad of ways that fires influence the carbon balance including combustion, deposition of pyrogenic material, and tree death, post-fire decomposition, recruitment, and growth. Five years after a large-scale wildfire in south-eastern Australia, we assessed the impacts of low- and high-severity wildfire, with and without prescribed fire (≤ 10 years before), on carbon stocks in multiple pools, and on carbon stability indicators (carbon stock percentages in live trees and in small trees, and carbon stocks in char and fuels) in fire-tolerant eucalypt forests...
September 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
#20
Masahiro Kinoshita, Tomohiko Hayashi
The association of nonpolar solutes is generally believed to be entropy driven, which has been shown to be true for the contact of small molecules, ellipsoids, and plates. However, it has been reported with surprise that a model cavity-ligand binding is entropy opposed. How can these apparently conflicting behaviors be elucidated? Here, we calculate the potential of mean force between hard-sphere solutes with various diameters in water and its entropic and enthalpic components using a statistical-mechanical theory for molecular liquids...
September 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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