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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055240/automatic-processing-of-emotional-facial-expressions-as-a-function-of-social-anhedonia
#1
Vivien Günther, Juliane Zimmer, Anette Kersting, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Donald Lobsien, Thomas Suslow
Anhedonia is an important feature of major depression and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Few neuroimaging studies have investigated neural alterations in high anhedonia, isolated from other psychopathological variables, by including only participants without clinical diagnoses. The present study examined healthy individuals scoring high (N = 18) vs. low (N = 19) in social anhedonia, who were carefully selected from a sample of N = 282 participants. To examine differences in automatic brain responses to social-affective stimuli between high vs...
October 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046359/androgens-trigger-different-growth-responses-in-genetically-identical-human-hair-follicles-in-organ-culture-that-reflect-their-epigenetic-diversity-in-life
#2
Benjamin H Miranda, Matthew R Charlesworth, Desmond J Tobin, David T Sharpe, Valerie A Randall
Male sex hormones-androgens-regulate male physique development. Without androgen signaling, genetic males appear female. During puberty, increasing androgens harness the hair follicle's unique regenerative ability to replace many tiny vellus hairs with larger, darker terminal hairs (e.g., beard). Follicle response is epigenetically varied: some remain unaffected (e.g., eyelashes) or are inhibited, causing balding. How sex steroid hormones alter such developmental processes is unclear, despite high incidences of hormone-driven cancer, hirsutism, and alopecia...
October 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044894/immediate-implant-placement-and-provisionalization-following-tumor-resective-surgery-in-the-midfacial-region-a-case-series
#3
Nelson Fernandes, Jacobus van den Heever, Leanne Sykes
Surgical and prosthodontic restoration of the midfacial region following tumor resection has always posed a considerable challenge, as this area serves crucial functional and esthetic roles. Being diagnosed and subsequently treated for facial tumors can have an immense psychosocial impact on a patient, as the resulting defects are often disfiguring, and lead to an inability to masticate, swallow, and speak clearly. Provision of an immediate facial and dental prosthesis at the time of surgery can limit these side effects and help reduce mental duress on these patients and their families, as well as aid in the process of rehabilitation...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043113/simultaneous-tracking-of-cardiorespiratory-signals-for-multiple-persons-using-a-machine-vision-system-with-noise-artifact-removal
#4
Ali Al-Naji, Javaan Chahl
Most existing non-contact monitoring systems are limited to detecting physiological signs from a single subject at a time. Still, another challenge facing these systems is that they are prone to noise artifacts resulting from motion of subjects, facial expressions, talking, skin tone, and illumination variations. This paper proposes an efficient non-contact system based on a digital camera to track the cardiorespiratory signal from a number of subjects (up to six persons) at the same time with a new method for noise artifact removal...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042636/dysfunctional-early-processing-of-facial-expressions-in-hazardous-drinkers-evidence-from-an-erp-study
#5
Hui Zhang, Yi Jin, John S Y Chan, Feng-Chi Yang, Fang Cui
Chronic alcohol intoxication impairs multiple cognitive functions. According to the dual system model (DSM), the development of alcohol dependence (AD) involves the imbalance between the automatic-affective system and the reflective system. However, the cognitive functions of non-AD hazardous drinkers (HDs) remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore how the HDs process facial expressions differently from the healthy subjects. Sixteen HDs and seventeen control subjects (CSs) completed an emotional working memory (WM) task while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040780/fear-boosts-the-early-neural-coding-of-faces
#6
Maria Teresa Turano, Junpeng Lao, Anne-Raphaëlle Richoz, Peter de Lissa, Sarah Belinda Aimée Degosciu, Maria Pia Viggiano, Roberto Caldara
The rapid extraction of facial identity and emotional expressions is critical for adapted social interactions. These biologically relevant abilities have been associated with early neural responses on the face sensitive N170 component. However, whether all facial expressions uniformly modulate the N170, and whether this effect occurs only when emotion categorization is task-relevant, is still unclear. To clarify this issue, we recorded high-resolution electrophysiological signals while 22 observers perceived the six basic expressions plus neutral...
October 10, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040750/cool-callous-and-in-control-superior-inhibitory-control-in-frequent-players-of-video-games-with-violent-content
#7
Laura Stockdale, Robert G Morrison, Robert Palumbo, James Garbarino, Rebecca L Silton
Research on the effects of media violence exposure has shown robust associations among violent media exposure, increased aggressive behavior, and decreased empathy. Preliminary research indicates that frequent players of violent video games may have differences in emotional and cognitive processes compared to infrequent or non-players, yet research examining the amount and content of game play and the relation of these factors with affective and cognitive outcomes is limited. The present study measured neural correlates of response inhibition in the context of implicit attention to emotion, and how these factors are related to empathic responding in frequent and infrequent players of video games with graphically violent content...
October 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040743/anger-sensitive-networks-characterising-neural-systems-recruited-during-aggressive-social-interactions-using-data-driven-analysis
#8
Frederike Beyer, Ulrike M Krämer, Christian F Beckmann
Social neuroscience uses increasingly complex paradigms to improve ecological validity, as investigating aggressive interactions with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Krämer, Jansma, Tempelmann, & Münte, 2007). Standard analyses for fMRI data typically use general linear models (GLM), which require a priori models of task effects on neural processes. These may inadequately model non-stimulus-locked or temporally overlapping cognitive processes, as mentalizing about other agents.We used the data-driven approach of independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate neural processes involved in a competitive interaction...
October 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038663/repetition-blindness-for-faces-a-comparison-of-face-identity-expression-and-gender-judgments
#9
Karen Murphy, Zoe Ward
Repetition blindness (RB) refers to the impairment in reporting two identical targets within a rapid serial visual presentation stream. While numerous studies have demonstrated RB for words and picture of objects, very few studies have examined RB for faces. This study extended this research by examining RB when the two faces were complete repeats (same emotion and identity), identity repeats (same individual, different emotion), and emotion repeats (different individual, same emotion) for identity, gender, and expression judgment tasks...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037507/gamma-oscillations-in-the-superior-colliculus-and-pulvinar-in-response-to-faces-support-discrimination-performance-in-monkeys
#10
Quan Van Le, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Yusaku Takamura, Nguyen Minh Nui, Can Van Mao, Etsuro Hori, Rafael S Maior, Carlos Tomaz, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
The subcortical visual pathway including the superior colliculus (SC), pulvinar, and amygdala has been implicated in unconscious visual processing of faces, eyes, and gaze direction in blindsight. Our previous studies reported that monkey SC and pulvinar neurons responded preferentially to images of faces while performing a delayed non-matching to sample (DNMS) task to discriminate different visual stimuli (Nguyen et al., 2013, 2014). However, the contribution of SC and pulvinar neurons to the discrimination of the facial images and subsequent behavioral performance remains unknown...
October 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036751/-diagnosis-and-management-of-vestibular-schwannomas-an-interdisciplinary-challenge
#11
Steffen Rosahl, Christopher Bohr, Michael Lell, Klaus Hamm, Heinrich Iro
Vestibular schwannomas expand slowly in the internal auditory canal, in the cerebellopontine angle, inside the cochlear and the labyrinth. Larger tumors can displace and compress the brainstem. With an annual incidence of 1:100 000 vestibular schwannoma represent 6-7% of all intracranial tumors. In the cerebellopontine angle they are by far the most neoplasm with 90% of all lesions located in this region. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), audiometry, and vestibular diagnostics are the mainstays of the clinical workup for patients harboring tumors...
April 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032092/three-dimensional-hierarchical-heterostructures-of-g-c3n4-nanosheets-tio2-nanofibers-controllable-growth-via-gas-solid-reaction-and-enhanced-photocatalytic-activity-under-visible-light
#12
Xuejiao Zhou, Changlu Shao, Xinghua Li, Xiaoxiao Wang, Xiaohui Guo, Yichun Liu
Graphitic C3N4 nanosheets were uniformly grown on electrospun TiO2 nanofibers with three-dimensional nanofibrous networks via a facial gas-solid reaction. The mass loading of g-C3N4 nanosheets could be easily controlled by adjusting the mass ratios of gaseous precursors (urea) to TiO2 NFs. The three-dimensional hierarchical heterostructures of g-C3N4 nanosheets/TiO2 nanofibers could be obtained with excellent distribution and high specific surface area of 121.5m(2)g(-1), when the mass loading of g-C3N4 was 59...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031913/chronic-pain-and-pain-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Pierre J Blanchet, Christine Brefel-Courbon
Pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients living with Parkinson's disease. It is most often of nociceptive origin, but may also be ascribed to neuropathic (radicular or central) or miscellaneous sources. The recently validated King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Scale is based on 7 domains including musculoskeletal pain, chronic body pain (central or visceral), fluctuation-related pain, nocturnal pain, oro-facial pain, pain with discolouration/oedema/swelling, and radicular pain. The basal ganglia integrate incoming nociceptive information and contribute to coordinated motor responses in pain avoidance and nocifensive behaviors...
October 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028860/-man-some-a-review-of-male-facial-aging-and-beauty
#14
Terrence Colin Keaney
<p>Gender plays a significant role in determining facial anatomy and behavior, both of which are key factors in the aging process. Understanding the pattern of male facial aging is critical when planning aesthetic treatments on men. Men develop more severe rhytides in a unique pattern, show increased periocular aging changes, and are more prone to hair loss. What also needs to be considered when planning a treatment is what makes men beautiful or "man-some". Male beauty strikes a balance between masculine and feminine facial features...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023221/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-phototherapy-in-patients-with-mandibular-fracture-on-mandibular-dynamics-pain-edema-and-bite-force-a-pilot-study
#15
Leandro Lauriti, João Gualberto de Cerqueira Luz, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita-Ferrari, Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes, Alessandro Melo Deana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini Horliana, Larissa Costa-Santos, Aldo Brugnera Junior, Sandra Kalil Bussadori
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of phototherapy on bite force, facial swelling, mandibular movements, and pain in patients having undergone surgical treatment for mandibular fractures. BACKGROUND: These are among the predominant types of facial fractures, and treatment involving surgical fixation with titanium plates is one of the most common procedures in oral-maxillofacial surgery. Phototherapy has been used to accelerate the muscle healing process and significantly improves muscle regeneration by inducing the formation of new muscle fibers...
October 12, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021744/posterior-thalamic-nucleus-modulation-of-tactile-stimuli-processing-in-rat-motor-and-primary-somatosensory-cortices
#16
Diana Casas-Torremocha, Francisco Clascá, Ángel Núñez
Rodents move rhythmically their facial whiskers and compute differences between signals predicted and those resulting from the movement to infer information about objects near their head. These computations are carried out by a large network of forebrain structures that includes the thalamus and the primary somatosensory (S1BF) and motor (M1wk) cortices. Spatially and temporally precise mechanorreceptive whisker information reaches the S1BF cortex via the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM). Other whisker-related information may reach both M1wk and S1BF via the axons from the posterior thalamic nucleus (Po)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020059/the-relation-between-face-emotion-recognition-and-social-function-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-case-control-study
#17
Anne Lise Høyland, Terje Nærland, Morten Engstrøm, Stian Lydersen, Ole Andreas Andreassen
An altered processing of emotions may contribute to a reduced ability for social interaction and communication in autism spectrum disorder, ASD. We investigated how face-emotion recognition in ASD is different from typically developing across adolescent age groups. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 49 typically developing (age 12-21 years) were included. The ASD diagnosis was underpinned by parent-rated Social Communication Questionnaire. We used a cued GO/ NOGO task with pictures of facial expressions and recorded reaction time, intra-individual variability of reaction time and omissions/commissions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019100/oxytocin-and-social-cognition
#18
Andreas Ebert, Martin Brüne
Oxytocin has been linked to many domains within the realm of "social cognition." For example, research has shown that oxytocin affects trusting behavior, cooperation, as well as the perception and processing of facial expressions. Furthermore, oxytocin increases empathy and seems to exert differential effects on in-group versus out-group preferences. However, there are some conflicting results that point towards a modulatory effect of oxytocin, depending on a variety of contextual and within-subject factors...
October 11, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018342/negative-facial-expressions-but-not-visual-scenes-enhance-human-working-memory-in-younger-and-older-participants
#19
Flávia Schechtman Belham, Maria Clotilde H Tavares, Corina Satler, Ana Garcia, Rosângela C Rodrigues, Soraya L de Sá Canabarro, Carlos Tomaz
Many studies have investigated the influence of emotion on memory processes across the human lifespan. Some results have shown older adults (OA) performing better with positive stimuli, some with negative items, whereas some found no impact of emotional valence. Here we tested, in two independent studies, how younger adults (YA) and OA would perform in a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task with positive, negative, and neutral images. The task consisted of identifying the new location of a stimulus in a crescent set of identical stimuli presented in different locations in a touch-screen monitor...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993236/affective-blindsight-relies-on-low-spatial-frequencies
#20
Nicolas Burra, Alexis Hervais-Adelman, Alessia Celeghin, Beatrice de Gelder, Alan J Pegna
The human brain can process facial expressions of emotions rapidly and without awareness. Several studies in patients with damage to their primary visual cortices have shown that they may be able to guess the emotional expression on a face despite their cortical blindness. This non-conscious processing, called affective blindsight, may arise through an intact subcortical visual route that leads from the superior colliculus to the pulvinar, and thence to the amygdala. This pathway is thought to process the crude visual information conveyed by the low spatial frequencies of the stimuli...
October 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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