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Facial processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668079/co-culture-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-chondrocytes-on-three-dimensionally-printed-bioscaffolds-for-craniofacial-cartilage-engineering
#1
Robert J Morrison, Hassan B Nasser, Khaled N Kashlan, David A Zopf, Derek J Milner, Colleen L Flanangan, Matthew B Wheeler, Glenn E Green, Scott J Hollister
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Reconstruction of craniofacial cartilagenous defects are among the most challenging surgical procedures in facial plastic surgery. Bioengineered craniofacial cartilage holds immense potential to surpass current reconstructive options, but limitations to clinical translation exist. We endeavored to determine the viability of utilizing adipose-derived stem cell-chondrocyte co-culture and three-dimensional (3D) printing to produce 3D bioscaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering...
April 18, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665467/influence-of-task-instructions-and-stimuli-on-the-neural-network-of-face-processing-an-ale-meta-analysis
#2
Veronika I Müller, Yvonne Höhner, Simon B Eickhoff
Many neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural correlates of face processing. However, the location of face-preferential regions differs considerably between studies, possibly due to the use of different stimuli or tasks. By using Activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses, we aimed to a) delineate regions consistently involved in face processing and b) to assess the influence of stimuli and task on convergence of activation patterns. In total, we included 77 neuroimaging experiments in healthy subjects comparing face processing to a control condition...
March 22, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664419/three-dimensional-carbon-bubble-foams-with-hierarchical-pores-for-ultra-long-cycling-life-supercapacitors
#3
Bowen Wang, Weigang Zhang, Lei Wang, Jiake Wei, XueDong Bai, Jingyue Liu, Guanhua Zhang, Huigao Duan
Design and synthesis of integrated, interconnected porous structures are critical to the development of high-performance supercapacitors. We develop a novel and facial synthesis technic to construct three-dimensional carbon-bubble foams with hierarchical pores geometry. The carbon-bubble foams are fabricated by conformally coating, via catalytic decomposition of ethanol, a layer of carbon coating onto the surfaces of pre-formed ZnO foams and then the removal of the ZnO template by a reduction-evaporation process...
April 17, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660982/facially-amphipathic-glycopolymers-inhibit-ice-recrystallization
#4
Ben Graham, Alice E R Fayter, Judith E Houston, Rachel C Evans, Matthew I Gibson
Antifreeze glycoproteins from polar fish are the most potent ice recrystallization (growth) inhibitors known, and synthetic mimics are required for low tem- perature applications such as cell cryopreservation. Here we introduce facially amphipathic glycopolymers which mimic the 3-dimensional structure of AFGPs. Glycopol- ymers featuring segregated hydrophilic and hydrophobic faces were prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymer- ization and their rigid conformation was confirmed by small-angle neutron scattering...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660371/capacity-limitations-to-extract-the-mean-emotion-from-multiple-facial-expressions-depend-on-emotion-variance
#5
Luyan Ji, Gilles Pourtois
We examined the processing capacity and the role of emotion variance in ensemble representation for multiple facial expressions shown concurrently. A standard set size manipulation was used, whereby the sets consisted of 4, 8, or 16 morphed faces each uniquely varying along a happy-angry continuum (Experiment 1) or a neutral-happy/angry continuum (Experiments 2 & 3). Across the three experiments, we reduced the amount of emotion variance in the sets to explore the boundaries of this process. Participants judged the perceived average emotion from each set on a continuous scale...
April 13, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660102/psychopathic-traits-influence-amygdala-anterior-cingulate-cortex-connectivity-during-facial-emotion-processing
#6
Michael P Ewbank, Luca Passamonti, Cindy C Hagan, Ian M Goodyer, Andrew J Calder, Graeme Fairchild
There is accumulating evidence that youths with antisocial behavior or psychopathic traits show deficits in facial emotion recognition, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these impairments. A number of neuroimaging studies have investigated brain activity during facial emotion processing in youths with Conduct Disorder (CD) and adults with psychopathy, but few of these studies tested for group differences in effective connectivity - i.e., changes in connectivity during emotion processing...
April 12, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659153/neural-crest-and-the-patterning-of-vertebrate-craniofacial-muscles
#7
REVIEW
Janine M Ziermann, Rui Diogo, Drew M Noden
Patterning of craniofacial muscles overtly begins with the activation of lineage-specific markers at precise, evolutionarily conserved locations within prechordal, lateral, and both unsegmented and somitic paraxial mesoderm populations. Although these initial programming events occur without influence of neural crest cells, the subsequent movements and differentiation stages of most head muscles are neural crest-dependent. Incorporating both descriptive and experimental studies, this review examines each stage of myogenesis up through the formation of attachments to their skeletal partners...
April 16, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655842/infant-clinical-pain-assessment-core-behavioural-cues
#8
Miranda G DiLorenzo, Rebecca Pillai Riddell, David B Flora, Kenneth D Craig
Diverse behavioural cues have been proposed to be useful cues in infant pain assessment, but there is a paucity of evidence based on formal psychometric evaluation to establish their validity for this purpose. We aimed to examine two widely-used coding systems, the Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) and the Modified Behaviour Pain Scale (MBPS), by examining their factor structures with confirmatory factor analysis using a large archival dataset. The results indicated that an item-reduced NFCS scale with three items produced a one-factor pain model that maintained the good psychometric properties of the 7-item scale...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652578/mr-imaging-of-the-fetal-face-comprehensive-review
#9
Murali Nagarajan, Kedar G Sharbidre, Sudeep H Bhabad, Sharon E Byrd
The human face is a complex anatomic structure with an equally complex embryologic development. Derangement of the developmental process can result in various structural anomalies, which range from a mainly cosmetic deformity, such as cleft lip, to potentially life-threatening conditions such as arhinia. These anomalies (a) can occur as isolated anomalies; (b) can be associated with intracranial, spinal, or dental anomalies; or (c) can be a part of various syndromes, thus serving as diagnostic clues in such cases...
April 13, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651689/mothers-neural-responses-to-infant-faces-are-associated-with-activation-of-the-maternal-care-system-and-observed-intrusiveness-with-their-own-child
#10
Joyce J Endendijk, Hannah Spencer, Anneloes L van Baar, Peter A Bos
Certain infant facial characteristics, referred to as baby schema, are thought to automatically trigger parenting behavior and affective orientation toward infants. Electroencephalography (EEG) is well suited to assessing the intuitive nature and temporal dynamics of parenting responses, due to its millisecond temporal resolution. Little is known, however, about the relations between neural processing of infant cues and actual parenting behavior in a naturalistic setting. In the present study we examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) of mothers (N = 33) watching infant faces of varying attractiveness, in relation to activation of the maternal care system and the mothers' observed parenting behavior (sensitivity, nonintrusiveness) with their own child (2-6 years old)...
April 12, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651365/mastication-evaluation-with-unsupervised-learning-using-an-inertial-sensor-based-system
#11
Caroline Vieira Lucena, Marcelo Lacerda, Rafael Caldas, Fernando Buarque De Lima Neto, Diego Rativa
There is a direct relationship between the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of the temporomandibular joint and orofacial disorders. A well-elaborated analysis of the jaw movements provides relevant information for healthcare professionals to conclude their diagnosis. Different approaches have been explored to track jaw movements such that the mastication analysis is getting less subjective; however, all methods are still highly subjective, and the quality of the assessments depends much on the experience of the health professional...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628319/facial-nerve-palsy-and-laryngospasm-as-a-complication-of-local-anaesthesia-during-adenotonsillectomy
#12
Michał Lubszczyk, Anna Łuczyńska-Sopel, Dariusz Polaczkiewicz
Tonsil surgeries are the most frequently performed surgical procedures in ENT departments. We would like to present the case of a 5-year-old patient who suffered from unilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy and laryngeal spasm following adenotonsillectomy. Paresis was observed immediately after the transfer of the patient to the postoperative room. The activity of facial muscles was restored within 2 hours from the beginning of the surgery. We assume that this was the direct effect of an anaesthetic on the extracranial processes of the facial nerve...
April 5, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628302/separation-patterns-of-orbital-wall-and-risk-of-optic-canal-injury-in-le-fort-3-osteotomy
#13
Niyazi Aizezi, Tomohisa Nagasao, Tadaaki Morotomi, Motoki Tamai, Koji Imajo
PURPOSE: The authors hypothesized that the risks of optic canal injury in down-fracturing after Le Fort 3 osteotomy vary depending on the separation patterns of the orbital walls. This study verifies this hypothesis using biomechanical simulation. METHODS: Ten finite-element skull models were produced using computer tomography data from ten persons. These models were modified to simulate Le Fort 3 osteotomy models by removing junctions between the neurocranium and facial cranium...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628065/modulating-emotion-perception-opposing-effects-of-inhibitory-and-excitatory-prefrontal-cortex-stimulation
#14
Swantje Notzon, Christian Steinberg, Peter Zwanzger, Markus Junghöfer
BACKGROUND: Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). This stimulation is supposed to restore excitability of prefrontal cortex regions that exhibit diminished regulation of emotion-generative systems in MDD. Based on the valence lateralization hypothesis, inhibitory rTMS of the right dlPFC has also been applied in MDD...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627610/three-dimensional-cad-cam-imaging-of-the-maxillary-sinus-in-ageing-process
#15
Kvetuse Lovasova, David Kachlik, Mirela Rozpravkova, Maria Matusevska, Jana Ferkova, Darina Kluchova
OBJECTIVES: During the physiological ageing process atrophy of the alveolar bone appears in vertical direction. This bone resorption causes pushing the limits of the maxillary sinus at the expense of a degraded bone. The sinus volume increases due to the facial development in children and adolescents or during the ageing process due to the loss of teeth and bone mass. The main aim of this study is to determine the sinus shape and sinus floor morphology related to age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human adult male and female cadaveric heads (aged 37 to 83 years) with different dental status were used...
April 5, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627273/neural-functional-correlates-of-the-impact-of-socio-emotional-stimuli-on-performances-on-a-flanker-task-in-children-aged-9-11-years
#16
Morgane Réveillon, François Lazeyras, Laurens Van Calster, Yann Cojan, David Sander, Petra S Hüppi, Koviljka Barrisnikov
Immature cognition is susceptible to interference from competing information, and particularly in affectively charged situations. Several studies have reported activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex and amygdala associated with emotional conflict processing in adults but literature is lacking regarding children. Moreover, studies in children and adolescents still disagree regarding the functional activation of amygdala related to facial stimuli. In the purpose of investigating both the effect of socio-emotional stimuli and its interaction with interference control, we designed a flanker task associated with an event-related fMRI paradigm in 30 healthy children ages 9-11...
April 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623569/advances-in-computer-assisted-syndrome-recognition-by-the-example-of-inborn-errors-of-metabolism
#17
Jean T Pantel, Max Zhao, Martin A Mensah, Nurulhuda Hajjir, Tzung-Chien Hsieh, Yair Hanani, Nicole Fleischer, Tom Kamphans, Stefan Mundlos, Yaron Gurovich, Peter M Krawitz
Significant improvements in automated image analysis have been achieved in recent years and tools are now increasingly being used in computer-assisted syndromology. However, the ability to recognize a syndromic facial gestalt might depend on the syndrome and may also be confounded by severity of phenotype, size of available training sets, ethnicity, age, and sex. Therefore, benchmarking and comparing the performance of deep-learned classification processes is inherently difficult. For a systematic analysis of these influencing factors we chose the lysosomal storage diseases mucolipidosis as well as mucopolysaccharidosis type I and II that are known for their wide and overlapping phenotypic spectra...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623007/integrated-emotion-processing-in-infancy-matching-of-faces-and-bodies
#18
Alyson Hock, Leah Oberst, Rachel Jubran, Hannah White, Alison Heck, Ramesh S Bhatt
Accurate assessment of emotion requires the coordination of information from different sources such as faces, bodies, and voices. Adults readily integrate facial and bodily emotions. However, not much is known about the developmental origin of this capacity. Using a familiarization paired-comparison procedure, 6.5-month-olds in the current experiments were familiarized to happy, angry, or sad emotions in faces or bodies and tested with the opposite image type portraying the familiar emotion paired with a novel emotion...
September 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617410/how-social-exclusion-modulates-social-information-processing-a-behavioural-dissociation-between-facial-expressions-and-gaze-direction
#19
Francesco Bossi, Marcello Gallucci, Paola Ricciardelli
Social exclusion is a painful experience that is felt as a threat to the human need to belong and can lead to increased aggressive and anti-social behaviours, and results in emotional and cognitive numbness. Excluded individuals also seem to show an automatic tuning to positivity: they tend to increase their selective attention towards social acceptance signals. Despite these effects known in the literature, the consequences of social exclusion on social information processing still need to be explored in depth...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615882/multivariate-pattern-classification-of-facial-expressions-based-on-large-scale-functional-connectivity
#20
Yin Liang, Baolin Liu, Xianglin Li, Peiyuan Wang
It is an important question how human beings achieve efficient recognition of others' facial expressions in cognitive neuroscience, and it has been identified that specific cortical regions show preferential activation to facial expressions in previous studies. However, the potential contributions of the connectivity patterns in the processing of facial expressions remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored whether facial expressions could be decoded from the functional connectivity (FC) patterns using multivariate pattern analysis combined with machine learning algorithms (fcMVPA)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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