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Facial processing

Linling Li, Erni Ji, Fei Tang, Yunhai Qiu, Xue Han, Shengli Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Haichen Yang
Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have been conducted to elucidate emotion processing of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), but due to different inclusion criteria used, especially for the history of medication use, the results for euthymic BD patients are inconsistent. For this reason, brain functional effects of psychopharmacological treatments on BD patients have been investigated by numerous fMRI studies, but there is no existing report for brain functional effects of different mood stabilizers...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jordan C Deschamps-Braly
Facial feminization surgery was pioneered in the 1980s to provide options for trans women who were having difficulty with their outward appearance. This process presented a novel application of craniofacial surgery at the time. This text outlines the basic differences between male and female facial morphology, as well as the procedures we use to feminize the face.
July 2018: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
Reid F Thompson, Gilmer Valdes, Clifton D Fuller, Colin M Carpenter, Olivier Morin, Sanjay Aneja, William D Lindsay, Hugo J W L Aerts, Barbara Agrimson, Curtiland Deville, Seth A Rosenthal, James B Yu, Charles R Thomas
Artificial intelligence (AI) is emerging as a technology with the power to transform established industries, and with applications from automated manufacturing to advertising and facial recognition to fully autonomous transportation. Advances in each of these domains have led some to call AI the "fourth" industrial revolution [1]. In healthcare, AI is emerging as both a productive and disruptive force across many disciplines. This is perhaps most evident in Diagnostic Radiology and Pathology, specialties largely built around the processing and complex interpretation of medical images, where the role of AI is increasingly seen as both a boon and a threat...
June 12, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Helen Rodger, Junpeng Lao, Roberto Caldara
Behavioral studies investigating facial expression recognition during development have applied various methods to establish by which age emotional expressions can be recognized. Most commonly, these methods employ static images of expressions at their highest intensity (apex) or morphed expressions of different intensities, but they have not previously been compared. Our aim was to (a) quantify the intensity and signal use for recognition of six emotional expressions from early childhood to adulthood and (b) compare both measures and assess their functional relationship to better understand the use of different measures across development...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Ana Corcimaru, Mia C Morrell, Dean S Morrell
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of research on the impact of the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) photograph on the residency selection process. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate the role of the ERAS photograph in the dermatology residency selection outcome and to determine if photographs submitted by matched applicants differ from those of unmatched applicants. METHODS: We analyzed ERAS photographs submitted by dermatology residency applicants based on photograph characteristics related to composition, attire, facial expression, hairstyle, and accessories...
April 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
Martina Rossi, Barbara Roda, Silvia Zia, Ilaria Vigliotta, Chiara Zannini, Francesco Alviano, Laura Bonsi, Andrea Zattoni, Pierluigi Reschiglian, Alessandro Gennai
Background: New microfat preparations provide material suitable for use as a regenerative filler for different facial areas. To support the development of new robust techniques for regenerative purposes, the cellular content of the sample should be considered. Objectives: To evaluate the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell components of micro-superficial enhanced fluid fat injection (SEFFI) samples via a technique to harvest re-injectable tissue with minimum manipulation...
June 14, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Jidan Zhong, David Qixiang Chen, Peter S P Hung, Dave J Hayes, Kevin E Liang, Karen D Davis, Mojgan Hodaie
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe form of chronic facial neuropathic pain. Increasing interest in the neuroimaging of pain has highlighted changes in the root entry zone in TN, but also group level CNS grey and white matter abnormalities. Group differences in neuroimaging data are frequently evaluated with univariate statistics, however this approach is limited because it is based on single, or clusters of, voxels. In contrast, multivariate pattern analyses consider all the model's neuroanatomical features to capture a specific distributed spatial pattern...
June 13, 2018: Pain
Carlos G Landaeta-Quinones, Nicole Hernandez, Najy K Zarroug
Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) has evolved over time from its earliest introduction with utility in the Neurosurgical field. Within the past twenty years, optical navigation systems have emerged and developed into a great tool for the fields of dentistry and craniomaxillofacial surgery (CMF). Currently, CAS is useful for orthognathic and temporomandibular joint surgery, facial trauma, maxillomandibular reconstruction, implantology, and restorative dentistry. This article describes the indications of CAS in dentistry, with large emphasis on CMF...
July 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
Jeanne L Tsai, Elizabeth Blevins, Lucy Zhang Bencharit, Louise Chim, Helene H Fung, Dannii Y Yeung
While significant research has demonstrated that people's beliefs about a group shape how they judge members of that group, few studies have examined whether people's beliefs and values regarding emotion (their "ideal affect") shape how they socially judge people's emotional facial expressions. We predicted that the more people valued and ideally wanted to feel excitement and other high arousal positive states (HAP), the more affiliative (extraverted, agreeable) they would judge excited (vs. calm) faces...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jianrui Huang, Xianyou He, Xiaojin Ma, Yian Ren, Tingting Zhao, Xin Zeng, Han Li, Yiheng Chen
When people make decisions about sequentially presented items in psychophysical experiments, their decisions are always biased by their preceding decisions and the preceding items, either by assimilation (shift towards the decision or item) or contrast (shift away from the decision or item). Such sequential biases also occur in naturalistic and real-world judgments such as facial attractiveness judgments. In this article, we aimed to cast light on the causes of these sequential biases. We first found significant assimilative and contrastive effects in a visual face attractiveness judgment task and an auditory ringtone agreeableness judgment task, indicating that sequential effects are not limited to the visual modality...
2018: PloS One
Michaela Rohr, Timea Folyi, Dirk Wentura
There is ongoing debate regarding the degree to which, and the conditions under which, physiological, affect-related (i.e., embodied) processes contribute to emotion information processing. Whereas most studies focus on clearly visible and intentional processing conditions, the present study targeted this issue by studying the implicit processing of emotional (angry, fearful, joyful, neutral) faces in a masked emotion misattribution procedure. That is, participants had to categorize neutral-looking faces with regard to the allegedly felt emotion, which were preceded by a very briefly presented emotional expression...
June 11, 2018: Psychophysiology
Danica Bajic, Krisztina Monory, Andrea Conrad, Christina Maul, Roland M Schmid, Carsten T Wotjak, Christoph K Stein-Thoeringer
Endocannabinoids acting through cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) are major modulators of peripheral somatic and visceral nociception. Although only partially studied, some evidence suggests a particular role of CB1 within the brain in nociceptive processes. As the endocannabinoid system regulates affect and emotional behaviors, we hypothesized that cerebral CB1 influences affective processing of visceral pain-related behaviors in laboratory animals. To study nocifensive responses modulated by supraspinal CB1, we used conditional knock-out mice lacking CB1 either in cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu-CB1-KO), or in forebrain GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB1-KO), or in principle neurons of the forebrain (CaMK-CB1-KO)...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Diana Armbruster, Tobias Grage, Clemens Kirschbaum, Alexander Strobel
Emotional reactivity varies across the menstrual cycle although physiological findings are not entirely consistent. We assessed facial EMG and heart rate (HR) changes in healthy free cycling women (N = 45) with an emotional startle paradigm both during the early follicular and the late luteal phase, verified by repeated salivary 17β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone assessments. Cycle phase impacted startle responses with larger magnitudes during the luteal phase. Notably, this effect was only present when premenstrual symptoms and sequence of lab sessions were included as co-variates...
June 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Sertac Yetiser
BACKGROUND:  Three patients with large intratemporal facial schwannomas underwent tumor removal and facial nerve reconstruction with hypoglossal anastomosis. The surgical strategy for the cases was tailored to the location of the mass and its extension along the facial nerve. AIM:  To provide data on the different clinical aspects of facial nerve schwannoma, the appropriate planning for management, and the predictive outcomes of facial function. PATIENTS:  Three patients with facial schwannomas (two men and one woman, ages 45, 36, and 52 years, respectively) who presented to the clinic between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Sebastian P Schraven, Kristen Rak, Mario Cebulla, Andreas Radeloff, Wilma Grossmann, Rudolf Hagen, Robert Mlynski
INTRODUCTION: Since 1996 the active middle-ear implant Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) is used to treat mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing losses. The former standard surgical approach for incus vibroplasty included a mastoidectomy and a posterior tympanotomy, crimping the Floating-Mass Transducer (FMT) to the long incus process. The introduction of the short process (SP) coupler allows the attachment of the FMT to the incus body making the procedure of a posterior tympanotomy unnecessary...
June 6, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
David A Shaye, Travis Tollefson, Irfan Shah, Gopal Krishnan, Damir Matic, Marcelo Figari, Thiam Chye Lim, Sunil Aniruth, Warren Schubert
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a significant contributor to global disease, and low-income countries disproportionately shoulder this burden. Education and training are critical components in the effort to address the surgical workforce shortage. Educators can tailor training to a diverse background of health professionals in low-resource settings using competency-based curricula. We present a process for the development of a competency-based curriculum for low-resource settings in the context of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) trauma education...
June 6, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Shaifulizan Abdul Rahman, Jaswinder Singh, Rubinderan Muthusamy, Mohammad Khursheed Alam
Eagle's syndrome (ES) refers to a group of various types and patterns of pain which spans over the head-and-neck region owing to an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament. These symptoms are often confused with those attributed to a wide variety of facial neuralgias. The diagnosis of ES is usually made through clinical exclusion which is then confirmed radiographically. Patients with ES are initially managed with nonsurgical therapy, but surgical resection seems to be the treatment of choice...
April 2018: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
Gustav J W Lundberg, Rebecca Neel, Bethany Lassetter, Andrew R Todd
Across two experiments, we examined whether implicit stereotypes linking younger (~28-year-old) Black versus White men with violence and criminality extend to older (~68-year-old) Black versus White men. In Experiment 1, participants completed a sequential priming task wherein they categorized objects as guns or tools after seeing briefly-presented facial images of men who varied in age (younger versus older) and race (Black versus White). In Experiment 2, we used different face primes of younger and older Black and White men, and participants categorized words as 'threatening' or 'safe...
2018: PloS One
Stephan de la Rosa, Laura Fademrecht, Heinrich H Bülthoff, Martin A Giese, Cristóbal Curio
Motor-based theories of facial expression recognition propose that the visual perception of facial expression is aided by sensorimotor processes that are also used for the production of the same expression. Accordingly, sensorimotor and visual processes should provide congruent emotional information about a facial expression. Here, we report evidence that challenges this view. Specifically, the repeated execution of facial expressions has the opposite effect on the recognition of a subsequent facial expression than the repeated viewing of facial expressions...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Suruchi Garg, Nishat Khan, Shyamkumar Makadia
Background: Aging is an inevitable biological change, but understanding the process of aging of face is important to customize the treatment options for facial rejuvenation. Evidencebased estimation of global facial aging is necessary for the validation of various treatment modalities. Aims: Classification and implementation of a scoring system for aging face based upon volume loss and surface changes as evident by drooping of different areas of the face and appearance of fine and deep wrinkles, respectively, and to apply this drooping-wrinkles classification on 54 participants to evaluate and understand the validity of scoring...
June 5, 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
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