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Facial processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467691/neural-correlates-of-facial-mimicry-simultaneous-measurements-of-emg-and-bold-responses-during-perception-of-dynamic-compared-to-static-facial-expressions
#1
Krystyna Rymarczyk, Łukasz Żurawski, Kamila Jankowiak-Siuda, Iwona Szatkowska
Facial mimicry (FM) is an automatic response to imitate the facial expressions of others. However, neural correlates of the phenomenon are as yet not well established. We investigated this issue using simultaneously recorded EMG and BOLD signals during perception of dynamic and static emotional facial expressions of happiness and anger. During display presentations, BOLD signals and zygomaticus major (ZM), corrugator supercilii (CS) and orbicularis oculi (OO) EMG responses were recorded simultaneously from 46 healthy individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467169/functional-redundancy-of-dicer-co-factors-tarbp2-and-prkra-during-murine-embryogenesis-does-not-involve-mirna-biogenesis
#2
Sri Ramulu N Pullagura, Bill Buaas, Nichelle Gray, Lindsey C Krening, Anuj Srivastava, Robert E Braun
Several in vitro studies suggest canonical miRNA biogenesis requires the DICER co-factors TARBP2 and PRKRA for processing of pre-miRNAs to mature miRNAs. To investigate the roles of TARBP2 and PRKRA in miRNA biogenesis in vivo , and to determine possible functional redundancy, we first compared the phenotypes of Tarbp2 and Prkra single and double-mutants. In contrast to Dicer-/- embryos, which die by E7.5, single Tarbp2-/- and Prkra-/- mice survive beyond E7.5 and either die peri-natally, or survive and exhibit cranial/facial abnormalities, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464761/evolution-of-facial-innervation-in-anomodont-therapsids-synapsida-insights-from-x-ray-computerized-microtomography
#3
Julien Benoit, Kenneth D Angielczyk, Juri A Miyamae, Paul Manger, Vincent Fernandez, Bruce Rubidge
Anomodontia was the most successful herbivorous clade of the mammalian stem lineage (non-mammalian synapsids) during the late Permian and Early Triassic. Among anomodonts, Dicynodontia stands apart because of the presence of an osseous beak that shows evidence of the insertion of a cornified sheath, the ramphotheca. In this study, fourteen anomodont specimens were microCT-scanned and their trigeminal canals reconstructed digitally to understand the origin and evolution of trigeminal nerve innervation of the ramphotheca...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461118/emotional-face-recognition-in-individuals-withattention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-review-article
#4
Khatereh Borhani, Vahid Nejati
This review focuses on facial emotion recognition (FER) in individuals with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Behavioral studies of FER in ADHD have resulted in inconsistent findings. Here, we discuss the factors that vary across studies and the way that they influence FER processes in ADHD. Across reviewed studies, fear was the most deficient facial expression to be recognized. Our review suggested that FER deficit in ADHD does not alleviate across development and is partially distinct from ADHD symptoms...
February 20, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461080/appraisal-driven-facial-actions-as-building-blocks-for-emotion-inference
#5
Klaus R Scherer, Marcello Mortillaro, Irene Rotondi, Ilaria Sergi, Stéphanie Trznadel
Although research on facial emotion recognition abounds, there has been little attention on the nature of the underlying mechanisms. In this article, using a "reverse engineering" approach, we suggest that emotion inference from facial expression mirrors the expression process. As a strong case can be made for an appraisal theory account of emotional expression, which holds that appraisal results directly determine the nature of facial muscle actions, we claim that observers first detect specific appraisals from different facial muscle actions and then use implicit inference rules to categorize and name specific emotions...
March 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458027/invasive-cutaneous-facial-mucormycosis-in-a-trauma-patient
#6
Jonathon S Jundt, Mark E K Wong, Alexander M Tatara, Nagi M Demian
Mucormycosis, also known as zygomycosis, is an aggressive infection caused by a ubiquitous group of molds known as mucormycetes and is often associated with immune suppression or trauma among immunocompetent populations. We present the case of a 19-year-old woman who was involved in a motor vehicle accident in whom rapidly progressive invasive cutaneous facial mucormycosis subsequently developed. The diagnosis, treatment options, and incidence of this disease process are discussed in the context of trauma.
February 16, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457053/increased-subjective-experience-of-non-target-emotions-in-patients-with-frontotemporal-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Kuan-Hua Chen, Sandy J Lwi, Alice Y Hua, Claudia M Haase, Bruce L Miller, Robert W Levenson
Although laboratory procedures are designed to produce specific emotions, participants often experience mixed emotions (i.e., target and non-target emotions). We examined non-target emotions in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), other neurodegenerative diseases, and healthy controls. Participants watched film clips designed to produce three target emotions. Subjective experience of non-target emotions was assessed and emotional facial expressions were coded. Compared to patients with other neurodegenerative diseases and healthy controls, FTD patients reported more positive and negative non-target emotions, whereas AD patients reported more positive non-target emotions...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453399/association-of-sleep-and-circadian-activity-rhythm-with-emotional-face-processing-among-12-month-old-infants
#8
Wanqi Sun, Shirley Xin Li, Guanghai Wang, Shumei Dong, Yanrui Jiang, Karen Spruyt, Jiefan Ling, Qi Zhu, Tatia Mei-Chun Lee, Fan Jiang
Sleep and circadian rhythmicity both play an important role in human's cognitive functioning, yet the way in which early development of sleep and circadian rhythm affects cognitive processes and social learning in infants remains less understood. We examined the association of sleep and circadian activity rhythm (CAR) with face and emotional information processing in 12-month old infants. Face processing was measured by eye tracking, whereby infants' scanning patterns and pupil dilations were calculated when they were presented with neutral, pleasant and unpleasant faces...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452149/facial-gender-but-not-emotion-distinguishes-neural-responses-of-10-to-13-year-old-children-with-social-anxiety-disorder-from-healthy-and-clinical-controls
#9
Verena Keil, Andero Uusberg, Jens Blechert, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier, Julian Schmitz
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined neural and behavioral responses to angry, happy and neutral faces in childhood social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHOD: Behavioral (reaction time and accuracy) and electrocortical measures (P100, N170, EPN, LPP) were assessed during a facial emotion identification task in children (age 10-13) with SAD (n = 32), clinical controls with mixed anxiety disorders (n = 30), and healthy controls (n = 33). RESULTS: Overall, there were no group differences in behavioral or neural responses to emotional faces...
February 13, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451074/negative-emotional-face-perception-is-diminished-on-a-very-early-level-of-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Anna Lorenzen, Fabian Grabe, Lioba Baving
Deficits in facial affect recognition (FAR) are often reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) due to inappropriate visual search strategies. It is unclear, however, whether or not deficits in subliminal FAR are still present in autism when visual focus is controlled. Thirteen persons with ASD and 13 healthy participants took part in this experiment. Supraliminal FAR was assessed using a standardized, computer-aided test. Subliminal FAR was obtained by an emotional face priming paradigm. By using an eye-tracking technique, it was assured that the initial visual focus was on the eyes of the prime...
February 16, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447888/pathogenesis-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-in-patients-affected-by-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-and-sickle-cell-anaemia-post-allogenic-bone-marrow-transplant
#11
F Martino, R Di Mauro, K Paciaroni, J Gaziev, C Alfieri, L Greco, R Floris, S Di Girolamo, M Di Girolamo
OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) and β -thalassemia major are well-recognized beta-globin gene disorders of red blood cells associated to mortality and morbidity included bone morbidities due to ineffective erythropoiesis and bone marrow expansion, which affect every part of the skeleton. While there are an abundance of described disease manifestations of the head and neck, the manner of paranasal sinuses involvement and its relations to β-thalassemia and SCA process was not studied yet...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447826/impact-of-age-on-the-anatomy-of-the-pediatric-pterygopalatine-fossa-and-its-relationship-to-the-suprazygomatic-maxillary-nerve-block
#12
Alexander P Marston, Glenn Merritt, Jonathan M Morris, Shelagh A Cofer
OBJECTIVES: The suprazygomatic maxillary nerve block is associated with improved post-operative pain management after select craniofacial surgical procedures. This study's objective is to better define the impact of pediatric facial skeletal growth on techniques for accessing the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF). METHODS: Pediatric patients with prior thin-slice maxillofacial computed tomography imaging were identified in an institutional radiology database. Aquarius image-processing software (Ver...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447256/modulation-of-neural-circuits-underlying-temporal-production-by-facial-expressions-of-pain
#13
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446482/oncogenesis-as-a-selective-force-adaptive-evolution-in-the-face-of-a-transmissible-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Tracey Russell, Thomas Madsen, Frédéric Thomas, Nynke Raven, Rodrigo Hamede, Beata Ujvari
Similar to parasites, malignant cells exploit the host for energy, resources and protection, thereby impairing host health and fitness. Although cancer is widespread in the animal kingdom, its impact on life history traits and strategies have rarely been documented. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a transmissible cancer, afflicting Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii), provides an ideal model system to monitor the impact of cancer on host life-history, and to elucidate the evolutionary arms-race between malignant cells and their hosts...
February 15, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445197/differences-in-frontotemporal-dysfunction-during-social-and-non-social-cognition-tasks-between-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#15
Keiko Hirata, Kazuteru Egashira, Kenichiro Harada, Mami Nakashima, Masako Hirotsu, Shinji Isomura, Toshio Watanuki, Toshio Matsubara, Yoichi Kaku, Hiroshi Kaneyuki, Yoshifumi Watanabe, Koji Matsuo
Although literature evidence suggests deficits in social and non-social cognition in patients with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), the difference in neural correlates of the impairments between the two disorders has not been elucidated. We examined brain function in response to a non-social cognition and a social cognition task using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in 13 patients with ASD, 15 patients with SCZ, and 18 healthy subjects. We assessed the brain function of participants using a verbal fluency task and an emotional facial recognition task...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443828/fat-grafting-for-facial-rejuvenation-and-contouring-a-rationalized-approach
#16
Lee L Q Pu
The clinical outcome after fat grafting for facial rejuvenation and contouring can be less optimal because lack of standardized techniques is performed by the surgeon for the procedure. In this review, the author has tried to provide a rationalized approach to fat grafting for facial rejuvenation and contouring. The preferred donor sites include low abdomen and inner thigh especially in younger patients. Fat grafts should be harvested with low negative pressure via syringe liposuction technique to ensure the integrity as well as the optimal level of cellular function...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441838/in-your-face
#17
Johnathan Caleb Peterson, Carly Jacobs, John Hibbing, Kevin Smith
Research suggests that people can accurately predict the political affiliations of others using only information extracted from the face. It is less clear from this research, however, what particular facial physiological processes or features communicate such information. Using a model of emotion developed in psychology that treats emotional expressivity as an individual-level trait, this article provides a theoretical account of why emotional expressivity may provide reliable signals of political orientation, and it tests the theory in four empirical studies...
February 14, 2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440958/dentists-perspectives-on-the-choice-of-treatment-of-teeth-with-apical-periodontitis
#18
Andreea Iuliana Kui, Anca Jiglău Labuneţ, Codruţa Popescu, Daniela Popa, Liana Lascu
Background and aim: Therapeutic decision in dentistry is a complex cognitive process for the practitioners because it involves taking into consideration several factors, including patients' preferences. The hypothesis of this study was that apicoectomy might be indicated more often than necessary and in order to confirm or invalidate it a survey was designed. We also aimed to explore whether the preferences were associated or not with dentist-related or practice-related characteristics...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438657/biocompatibility-and-efficiency-of-biodegradable-magnesium-based-plates-and-screws-in-the-facial-fracture-model-of-beagles
#19
Byung Jun Kim, Yinglan Piao, Maierdanjiang Wufuer, Woo-Chan Son, Tae Hyun Choi
PURPOSE: A biodegradable magnesium alloy system has been developed as a substitute for conventional plates and screws made of titanium or absorbable polymer. However, previous studies were limited to small animal experiments using screws or wires. In the present study, we preliminarily evaluated the biocompatibility and effectiveness of human standard-size biodegradable magnesium-based plates and screws in facial fractures of beagles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fracture lines were created bilaterally in the zygomatic arches of 6 beagles...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431035/patient-perspectives-on-electronic-health-record-accessibility-and-patient-participation-a-questionnaire-survey
#20
Peter Vermeir, Sophie Degroote, Hanne Van Tiggelen, Dominique Vandijck, Renaat Peleman, Rik Verhaeghe, An Mariman, Hubert Vermeersch, Dirk Vogelaers
Objectives To explore patient perceptions on personal comfort with participation in their own care process and on support of this patient participation through electronic health record (EHR) accessibility. Methods Explorative quantitative questionnaire study in ambulatory patients visiting the departments of General Internal Medicine or Head, Neck and Maxillo-Facial Surgery of a Belgian tertiary referral center. Results Patients were recruited by convenience sampling of 438 out of the total of 1270 patients visiting either one of these departments within a time period of two weeks...
February 12, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
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