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Charbel Moussa, Michaeline Hebron, Xu Huang, Jaeil Ahn, Robert A Rissman, Paul S Aisen, R Scott Turner
BACKGROUND: Treatment of mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects (N = 119) for 52 weeks with the SIRT1 activator resveratrol (up to 1 g by mouth twice daily) attenuates progressive declines in CSF Aβ40 levels and activities of daily living (ADL) scores. METHODS: For this retrospective study, we examined banked CSF and plasma samples from a subset of AD subjects with CSF Aβ42 <600 ng/ml (biomarker-confirmed AD) at baseline (N = 19 resveratrol-treated and N = 19 placebo-treated)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Irl B Hirsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
F Carinci, G Lessiani, E Spinas, S K Kritas, G Ronconi, Al Caraffa, P Conti
Mast cells (MCs) are mediators of allergy and inflammation and participate in the growth of cancer cells. MCs can promote both neoangiogenesis and tumor growth. They increase in the stroma of certain tumors where they can be recruited by tumor-derived chemoattractants, such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES and stem cell factor (SCF) to selectively secrete inflammatory molecules including chemical mediators and cytokines (TNF, IL-6 and IL-1). However, MC differentiation pathways and heterogeneity in cancer are still poorly understood...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Ryszard Nosalski, Tomasz J Guzik
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In vascular pathologies perivascular adipose tissue increases in volume and becomes dysfunctional, with altered cellular composition and molecular characteristics. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by its inflammatory character, oxidative stress, diminished production of vaso-protective adipocyte derived relaxing factors (ADRFs) and increased production of paracrine factors such as resistin, leptin, cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1)...
January 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
Allison K Ehrlich, Olga L Fernández, Daniel Rodriguez-Pinto, Tiago M Castilho, Maria J Corral Caridad, Karen Goldsmith-Pestana, Nancy Gore Saravia, Diane McMahon-Pratt
Infection by Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis, the predominant etiologic agent for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia, is characterized by a chronic mixed-inflammatory response. Current treatment options are plagued by toxicity, lengthy treatment regimens and growing evidence of drug resistance. Immunotherapy, modulating the immune system to mount a protective response, may provide an alternate therapeutic approach. We investigated the ability of the TLR9 ligand, CpG, to modulate established disease in the L...
January 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
Meital Abayev, Gautam Srivastava, Boris Arshava, Fred Naider, Jacob Anglister
NMR is a powerful tool to study structural details of protein/peptide complexes exhibiting weak to medium binding (KD >10 µM). However, it has been assumed that intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) interactions are difficult to observe in such complexes. We demonstrate that intermolecular NOEs can be revealed by combining the (13) C-edited/(13) C-filtered experiment with the transferred-NOE effect (TRNOE). Due to the TRNOE phenomenon intermolecular NOE cross peaks are characterized by both the chemical shifts of the protein protons and the average chemical shifts of the peptide protons, which are dominated by the chemical shifts of the protons of the free peptide...
January 4, 2017: FEBS Journal
Emmanuelle Schaedler, Christelle Remy-Ziller, Julie Hortelano, Nadine Kehrer, Marie-Christine Claudepierre, Tanja Gatard, Christopher Jakobs, Xavier Préville, Antoine F Carpentier, Karola Rittner
TG4010 is an immunotherapeutic vaccine based on Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding the human tumor-associated antigen MUC1 and human IL-2. In combination with first-line standard of care chemotherapy in advanced metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), repeated subcutaneous injection of TG4010 improved progression-free survival in phase 2b clinical trials. In preclinical tumor models, MVATG9931, the research version of TG4010, conferred antigen-specific responses against the weak antigen human MUC1...
December 21, 2016: Vaccine
Antje Mohs, Nadine Kuttkat, Johanna Reißing, Henning Wolfgang Zimmermann, Roland Sonntag, Amanda Proudfoot, Sameh A Youssef, Alain de Bruin, Francisco Javier Cubero, Christian Trautwein
BACKGROUND & AIMS: During liver inflammation, triggering fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis immune cells play a pivotal role. In the present study we investigated the role of CCL5 in human and in murine models of chronic liver inflammation leading to HCC development. METHODS: CCL5 expression and its receptors were studied in well-defined patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and in two murine inflammation based HCC models. The role of CCL5 in inflammation, fibrosis, tumor initiation and progression was analyzed in different cell populations of NEMO(Δhepa)/CCL5(-/-) animals and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Assunta Venuti, Claudia Pastori, Rosamaria Pennisi, Agostino Riva, Maria Teresa Sciortino, Lucia Lopalco
CCR5 stimulation with natural ligands, such as RANTES, classically induces short-term internalization with transient activation of β-arrestins and rapidly recycling on the cell surface. Here we discovered that, in T cells, natural CCR5 antibodies induce a CCR5-negative phenotype with the involvement of β-arrestin2, which leads to the formation of a stable CCR5 signalosome with both β-arrestin2 and ERK1. The activation of β-arrestin2 is necessary to CCR5 signaling for the signalosome formation and stabilization...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tiago F Póvoa, Edson R A Oliveira, Carlos A Basílio-de-Oliveira, Gerard J Nuovo, Vera L A Chagas, Natália G Salomão, Ester M Mota, Marciano V Paes
Dengue disease is an acute viral illness caused by dengue virus (DENV) that can progress to hemorrhagic stages leading to about 20000 deaths every year worldwide. Despite many clinical investigations regarding dengue, the immunopathogenic process by which infected patients evolve to the severe forms is not fully understood. Apart from differences in virulence and the antibody cross reactivity that can potentially augment virus replication, imbalanced cellular immunity is also seen as a major concern in the establishment of severe dengue...
2016: PloS One
Santosh K Singh, Dinkar Kulshreshtha, Ajai K Singh, Pradeep K Maurya, Anup K Thacker
Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a major health problem in developing countries like India. Neuronal injury in encephalitis is attributed to direct toxicity from pathogens and proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we assessed the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines and their correlation with clinical symptoms. Patients with AES of less than 2 weeks duration underwent brain imaging followed by a CSF examination for routine parameters and viral studies. Cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and RANTES levels were assessed in the serum in all patients and in 50 CSF samples and compared with serum cytokine levels in 64 age and sex matched controls...
December 22, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jose E Galgani, Carmen Gómez, Maria L Mizgier, Juan Gutierrez, Jose L Santos, Pablo Olmos, Andrea Mari
BACKGROUND: Insulin secretion correlates inversely with insulin sensitivity, which may suggest the existence of a crosstalk between peripheral organs and pancreas. Such interaction might be mediated through glucose oxidation that may drive the release of circulating factors with action on insulin secretion. AIM: To evaluate the association between whole-body carbohydrate oxidation and circulating factors with insulin secretion to consecutive oral glucose loading in non-diabetic individuals...
2016: PloS One
R A Farris, E T Price
Clinical trials suggest that fenofibrate reduces the progression of retinopathies in patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, patients with retinopathies have elevated levels of inflammatory chemokines and dysfunctional retinal angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the effects of fenofibrate on the production of inflammatory chemokines and genes associated with angiogenesis. Retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPECs) were cultured with IL-1β and fenofibrate ranging from 1-50 μM. ENA-78, IL-8, and RANTES were measured in cell culture by ELISA...
December 20, 2016: Clinical and Translational Science
Makiko Ohshima, Jacques-Olivier Coq, Kentaro Otani, Yorito Hattori, Yuko Ogawa, Yoshiaki Sato, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Masafumi Ihara, Masahiro Tsuji
Severe intrauterine ischemia is detrimental to the developing brain. The impact of mild intrauterine hypoperfusion on neurological development, however, is still unclear. We induced mild intrauterine hypoperfusion in rats on embryonic day 17 via arterial stenosis with metal microcoils wrapped around the uterine and ovarian arteries. All pups were born with significantly decreased birth weights. Decreased gray and white matter areas were observed without obvious tissue damage. Pups presented delayed newborn reflexes, muscle weakness, and altered spontaneous activity...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Naomi Kudo, Atsushi Matsubara, Hisanori Nishizawa, Tomoya Miura
BACKGROUND: The most crucial clinical problem of Eosinophilic Otitis Media (EOM) is sensorineural hearing loss. A previous report revealed that repeated antigen stimulation of middle ear causes eosinophilic inflammation not only in the middle ear but also in the inner ear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of eosinophil infiltration to the inner ear in the animal model of EOM. METHODS: Continuous OVA stimulation to the middle ear of guinea pigs was performed for 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days...
December 16, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Yun Joo Jung, Byung Oh Kim, Jong Hwan Kwak, Suhkneung Pyo
The interaction between macrophages and adipocytes is known to aggravate inflammation of the adipose tissue, leading to decreased insulin sensitivity. Hence, attenuation of the inflammatory paracrine loop between macrophages and adipocytes is deemed essential to ameliorate insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2. Methyl 2-(4'-methoxy-4'-oxobutanamide) benzoate (compound 1), a newly isolated compound from Jerusalem srtichoke (JA), has not been biologically characterized yet. Here, we investigated whether JA-derived compound 1 attenuates the inflammatory cycle between RAW 264...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Minako Beppu, Setsu Sawai, Sonoko Misawa, Masahiro Mori, Shoichi Ito, Kazuyuki Sogawa, Motoi Nishimura, Kazuyuki Matsushita, Fumio Nomura, Satoshi Kuwabara
Juvenile muscular atrophy of the distal upper extremity (Hirayama disease) is characterized by adolescent-onset muscular weakness of the distal upper limb. Several studies showed the contribution of atopic disposition and hyperIgEaemia to the disease process, but it has not been well clarified. To identify cytokine and chemokine profiles in Hirayama disease, serum samples were analyzed using multiplex magnetic bead-based assay. Eotaxin, MCP-1 and RANTES levels were significantly higher in Hirayama disease (N=11) than in normal controls (N=12)...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
O G Aztatzi-Aguilar, M Uribe-Ramírez, J Narváez-Morales, A De Vizcaya-Ruiz, O Barbier
BACKGROUND: Particulate matter exposure is associated with respiratory and cardiovascular system dysfunction. Recently, we demonstrated that fine particles, also named PM2.5, modify the expression of some components of the angiotensin and bradykinin systems, which are involved in lung, cardiac and renal regulation. The endocrine kidney function is associated with the regulation of angiotensin and bradykinin, and it can suffer damage even as a consequence of minor alterations of these systems...
December 12, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
A Marzano, G Damiani, I Ceccherini, E Berti, M Gattorno, M Cugno
BACKGROUND: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare skin disease characterized clinically by ulcers with undermined borders, and histologically by neutrophil-rich infitrates. PG may occur alone, in syndromic forms or associated with systemic diseases as inflammatory bowel diseases and hematological or rheumatological disorders. OBJECTIVES: Although some autoinflammatory diseases present with PG, to date, a specific genetic background related to autoinflammation has not been proven for PG...
December 10, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Anna Ciesielska, Hanna Sas-Nowosielska, Katarzyna Kwiatkowska
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggering production of pro-inflammatory cytokines which help eradicate the bacteria but could also be harmful when overproduced. The signaling activity of TLR4 is modulated by cholesterol level in cellular membranes, which in turn is affected by bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP), a phospholipid enriched in late endosomes. We found that exogenously added BMP isomers become incorporated into the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles of macrophages and strongly reduced LPS-stimulated production of a chemokine RANTES, which was correlated with inhibition of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) controlling Rantes expression...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
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