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Federico M Flores, Rosa M Torres Sánchez, Maria Dos Santos Afonso
The most worldwide used herbicide is glyphosate, phosphonomethylglycine (PMG). Consequently, a significant amount of PMG, its metabolites (sarcosine, SAR, and aminomethylphosphonic acid, AMPA) and the degradation product, methylphosphonic acid (MPA), reaches the soil, which acts as final sink. Because clays are one of the most reactive components of soils, expansive clays such as montmorillonite (Mt) are used to retain agriculture contaminants with some success. In this work, as a preliminary step for the evaluation of the risk that PMG, SAR, AMPA, and MPA occurrence could have on the environment, their adsorption on Mt surface was performed...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Manoj Kumar, Hao Li, Xiuhui Zhang, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Joseph S Francisco
Gas-phase simulations of nitric acid-amine chemistry suggest that the fundamental acid-base interaction between HNO3 and NH3 results in a variety of HNO3-NH3-based complexes, such as (HNO3)3·(NH3)2, (HNO3)3·(NH3)3, and (HNO3)4·(NH3)3, that can be formed. The formation of these complexes in the gas phase follow different growth mechanisms under different relative humidity conditions. On the other hand, at the air-water interface, Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the formation of the fundamental NO3-(R1)(R2)NH2+ [for NH3, R1 = R2 = H; CH3NH2, R1 = H, R2 = CH3; and (CH3)2NH, R1 = R2 = CH3] ion pairs require the formation of the HNO3(R1)(R2)NH complexes in the gas-phase prior to their adsorption on the water surface...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shinsuke Ishihara, Jan Labuta, Zdenek Futera, Shigeki Mori, Hisako Sato, Katsuhiko Ariga, Jonathan P Hill
The use of chiral auxiliaries, which derivatize enantiomers to diastereomers, is an established technique for NMR spectroscopic analysis of chirality and enantiomeric excess (ee). Here we report that some small prochiral molecules exhibit ee-dependent splitting of 1H-NMR signals at room temperature based on acid/base interactions with chiral analytes, especially when either chiral or prochiral acid contain a phenoxy group at the α-position of the carboxylic acid. As a representative case, the benzylamine (BA)/2-phenoxylpropionic acid (PPA) complex was comprehensively investigated by using various methods...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Hongmei Wang, Jikui Deng, Yi-Wei Tang
The Alere i Influenza A & B assay incorporates the Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction technique on the Alere i instrument to detect and differentiate influenza virus (Flu) A and B nucleic acids in specific specimens. Areas covered: The Alere i Influenza A & B assay was cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration for use with nasal swabs (NS) and nasopharyngeal swabs, either directly or in viral transport medium. Notably, direct use on NS was the first ever CLIA-waived nucleic acid-based test. Previously published evaluations have reported sensitivities and specificities of 55...
April 24, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Hua Xu, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
The Slc9 family of Na+ /H+ exchangers (NHEs) plays a critical role in electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+ in the mammalian intestine as well as other absorptive and secretory epithelia of digestive organs. These transport proteins contribute to the transepithelial Na+ and water absorption, intracellular pH and cellular volume regulation as well as the electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid volume homeostasis at the systemic level. They also influence the function of other membrane transport mechanisms, affect cellular proliferation and apoptosis as well as cell migration, adherence to the extracellular matrix, and tissue repair...
March 26, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Hisae Tateishi-Karimata, Naoki Sugimoto
Nucleic acids have emerged as powerful biological and nanotechnological tools. In biological and nanotechnological experiments, methods of extracting and purifying nucleic acids from various types of cells and their storage are critical for obtaining reproducible experimental results. In nanotechnological experiments, methods for regulating the conformational polymorphism of nucleic acids and increasing sequence selectivity for base pairing of nucleic acids are important for developing nucleic acid-based nanomaterials...
April 23, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Sriram Valavala, Nareshvarma Seelam, Subbaiah Tondepu, V Shanmukha Kumar Jagarlapudi, Vivekanandan Sundarmurthy
A simple, sensitive, accurate, robust headspace gas chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of acetone and isopropyl alcohol in tartaric acid-based pellets of dipyridamole modified release capsules. The residual solvents acetone and isopropyl alcohol were used in the manufacturing process of the tartaric acid-based pellets of dipyridamole modified release capsules by considering the solubility of the dipyridamole and excipients in the different manufacturing stages. The method was developed and optimized by using fused silica DB-624 (30 m × 0...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
T F Bernardes, J L P Daniel, A T Adesogan, T A McAllister, P Drouin, L G Nussio, P Huhtanen, G F Tremblay, G Bélanger, Y Cai
Silage making can be conveniently divided into field, ensiling, storage, and feed-out phases. In all of these stages, controllable and uncontrollable components can affect silage quality. For instance, silages produced in hot or cold regions are strongly influenced by uncontrollable climate-related factors. In hot regions, crops for silage are influenced by (1) high temperatures negatively affecting corn yield (whole-crop and grain) and nutritive value, (2) butyric and alcoholic fermentations in warm-season grasses (Panicum, Brachiaria, and Pennisetum genera) and sugarcane, respectively, and (3) accelerated aerobic deterioration of silages...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Hyun Jeong Kwak, Oh Kyung Lim, Jae Myung Baik, Youn Yi Jo
Background: To compare the effects of intraoperative infusions of balanced electrolyte solution (BES)-based hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and saline-based albumin on metabolic acidosis and acid/base changes during major abdominal surgery conducted using Stewart's approach. Methods: Forty patients, aged 20-65 years, undergoing major abdominal surgery, were randomly assigned to the HES group (n = 20; received 500 ml of BES-based 6% HES 130/0.4) or the albumin group (n = 20; received 500 ml of normal saline-based 5% albumin)...
April 24, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Xiaolong Wang, Qing Song, Zhiyong Wang, Fang Han
The cDNA of EcSOD (designated as NaEcSOD), cloned and characterized from Nibea albiflora for the first time, was 1101 bp in length including 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 224 bp, 3' UTR of 229 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 648 bp encoding a polypeptide of 215 amino acids. Based on the results of GST pull-down assay and mass spectrometric identifications, a membrane protein (annexin A4) was found to specifically bind with NaEcSOD, indicating that the two proteins might be involved in antagonizing reactive oxygen species (ROS) together...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Toshifumi Takeuchi, Naoya Kumagai, Masakatsu Shibasaki
A direct catalytic asymmetric aldol addition of an α-vinyl 7-azaindoline amide to both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes was promoted by a cooperative acid/base catalyst in a stereodivergent manner. The key structural element, a 7-azaindoline moiety, facilitated catalytic enolization, allowing for subsequent stereoselective aldol addition. Enantioselective synthesis of the key intermediate of blumiolide C and kainic acid supported the synthetic utility of this protocol.
April 23, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Junzhe Lou, Fang Liu, Christopher D Lindsay, Ovijit Chaudhuri, Sarah C Heilshorn, Yan Xia
Injectable and biocompatible hydrogels have become increasingly important for cell transplantation to provide mechanical protection of cells during injection and a stable scaffold for cell adhesion post-injection. Injectable hydrogels need to be easily pushed through a syringe needle and quickly recover to a gel state, thus generally requiring noncovalent or dynamic cross-linking. However, a dilemma exists in the design of dynamic hydrogels: hydrogels with fast exchange of cross-links are easier to eject using less force, but lack long-term stability; in contrast, slow exchange of cross-links improves stability, but compromises injectability and thus the ability to protect cells under flow...
April 23, 2018: Advanced Materials
P M Pires, T P Santos, A Fonseca-Gonçalves, M M Pithon, R T Lopes, A A Neves
AIM: To test the hypothesis that polyacrylic acid-based and calcium silicate materials are able to increase mineral density of artificially demineralized dentine produced by a microcosm model for caries formation. METHODOLOGY: Forty-five dentine cavities were prepared in 9 sound human third molars (5 in each tooth). Specimens received a bacterial inoculum and were incubated in BHI plus 5% of sucrose for 96h to allow biofilm formation. After that, the specimens were scanned in a high energy micro-CT (baseline stack) and then, each cavity was filled with different cements: zinc polycarboxylate (Poly Zinc™ , Prevest DenPro, Jammu, India), conventional glass ionomer (Ketac Molar, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) and two calcium silicate based materials (MTA, Angelus, Londrina, Brazil and Biodentine™ , Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France) while the central cavity was filled with utility wax (negative control)...
April 22, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Renu Mohan, Neethu Mohan, Dhanesh Vaikkath
Tissue equivalent collagen-hyaluronic acid based hydrogels are widely used for cartilage tissue engineering, however not much importance has been given to investigate how cellular responses are altered with varying concentrations of hyaluronic acid in gels. In this study, different concentrations of hyaluronic acid dialdehyde (HAD) were combined with collagen to fabricate collagen-HAD composite (CH) gels, and the influence of HAD on cell shape, migration, viability, cytoskeletal organization and gel contraction were examined...
April 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Najam A Sharif, Peter G Klimko
In contrast to the availability of potent and selective antagonists of several prostaglandin (PG) receptor types (including DP1 , DP2 , EP, and TP receptors), there has been a paucity of well-characterized, selective FP-receptor antagonists. The earliest ones included dimethyl amide and dimethyl amine derivatives of PGF2α , but these have failed to gain prominence. The fluorinated PGF2α analogs, AL-8810 and AL-3138, were subsequently discovered as competitive and non-competitive FP-receptor antagonists, respectively...
April 21, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Jacqueline J Masehi-Lano, Eun Ji Chung
Tissue engineering aims to develop scaffolds that are biocompatible and mimic the mechanical and biological properties of the target tissue as closely as possible. Here, we describe the fabrication and characterization of a biodegradable, elastomeric porous scaffold: poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citric acid) (POC) incorporated with nanoscale hydroxyapatite (HA). While this chapter focuses on the scaffold's potential for bone regeneration, POC can also be used in other tissue engineering applications requiring an elastomeric implant...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Roswitha Siener
Chronic kidney disease and reduced glomerular filtration rate are risk factors for the development of chronic metabolic acidosis. The prevention or correction of chronic metabolic acidosis has been found to slow progression of chronic kidney disease. Dietary composition can strongly affect acid⁻base balance. Major determinants of net endogenous acid production are the generation of large amounts of hydrogen ions, mostly by animal-derived protein, which is counterbalanced by the metabolism of base-producing foods like fruits and vegetables...
April 20, 2018: Nutrients
Jon Uranga, Jon I Mujika, Rafael Grande-Aztatzi, Jon M Matxain
Hydroxyl radical (●OH) is known to be highly reactive. Herein, we analyze the oxidation of acid (Asp and Glu), base (Arg and Lys) and amide (Asn and Gln) containing amino acids by the consecutive attack of two ●OH. In this work we study the reaction pathway by means of density functional theory. The oxidation mechanism is divided into two steps: 1) the first ●OH can abstract a H atom or an electron, leading to a radical amino acid derivative, which is the intermediate of the reaction 2) the second ●OH can abstract another H atom or add itself to the formed radical, rendering the final oxidized products...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Duangkamon Suttipat, Wannaruedee Wannapakdee, Thittaya Yutthalekha, Somlak Ittisanronnachai, Thasanaporn Ungpittagul, Khamphee Phomphrai, Sareeya Bureekaew, Chularat Wattanakit
The composite of hierarchical faujasite nanosheets and zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (Hie-FAU/ZIF-8) has been successfully prepared via a stepwise deposition of ZIF-8 on modified zeolite surfaces. Compared to the direct deposition of MOF on zeolite surfaces, ZIF-8 nanospheres were selectively attached to external surfaces of the MOF ligand-grafted FAU crystals because of the enhancing interaction between zeolite and MOF in the composite. In addition, the degree of surface functionalization can be greatly enhanced due to the presence of hierarchical structures...
April 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andreas Drolz, Thomas Horvatits, Kevin Roedl, Karoline Rutter, Richard Brunner, Christian Zauner, Peter Schellongowski, Gottfried Heinz, Georg-Christian Funk, Michael Trauner, Bruno Schneeweiss, Valentin Fuhrmann
BACKGROUND: Acid-base disturbances are frequently observed in critically ill patients at the intensive care unit. To our knowledge, the acid-base profile of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) has not been evaluated and compared to critically ill patients without acute or chronic liver disease. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-eight critically ill patients with liver cirrhosis were compared to 178 matched controls in this post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
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