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"Acid-base"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050428/effect-of-an-organic-acids-based-feed-additive-and-enrofloxacin-on-the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistant-e-coli-in-cecum-of-broilers
#1
Nataliya Roth, Sigrid Mayrhofer, Martin Gierus, Christine Weingut, Christiane Schwarz, Barbara Doupovec, Roger Berrios, Konrad J Domig
Increasing antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern. Fluoroquinolones are used to treat and prevent poultry diseases worldwide. Fluoroquinolone resistance rates are high in their countries of use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an acids-based feed additive, as well as fluoroquinolone antibiotics, on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli. A total of 480 broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 3 treatments: a control group receiving a basal diet; a group receiving a feed additive (FA) based on formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid; and an antibiotic enrofloxacin (AB) group given the same diet, but supplemented with enrofloxacin in water...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050011/urine-ammonium-metabolic-acidosis-and-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Negiin Pourafshar, Shirin Pourafshar, Manoocher Soleimani
The metabolism of a typical Western diet generates 50-100 mEq of acid (H+) per day, which must be excreted in the urine for the systemic acid-base to remain in balance. The 2 major mechanisms that are responsible for the renal elimination of daily acid under normal conditions are ammonium (NH4+) excretion and titratable acidity. In the presence of systemic acidosis, ammonium excretion is intensified and becomes the crucial mechanism for the elimination of acid. The impairment in NH4+ excretion is therefore associated with reduced acid excretion, which causes excess accumulation of acid in the body and consequently results in metabolic acidosis...
October 19, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048201/hygienic-shortcomings-of-frozen-dessert-freezing-equipment-and-fate-of-listeria-monocytogenes-on-ice-cream-soiled-stainless-steel
#3
A Inuwa, A Lunt, C Czuprynski, G Miller, S A Rankin
Although frozen dairy desserts have a strong record of safety, recent outbreaks of foodborne disease linked to ice creams have brought new attention to this industry. There is concern that small-scale frozen dessert equipment may not comply with or be reviewed against published comprehensive design and construction sanitation specifications (National Sanitation Foundation or 3-A sanitary standards). Equipment sanitary design issues may result in reduced efficacy of cleaning and sanitation, thus increasing the likelihood of postprocess contamination with pathogenic bacteria...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046863/co2-cycloaddition-to-epoxides-by-using-m-dabco-metal-organic-frameworks-and-the-influence-of-the-synthetic-method-on-catalytic-reactivity
#4
Bibimaryam Mousavi, Somboon Chaemchuen, Behrooz Moosavi, Kui Zhou, Mekhman Yusubov, Francis Verpoort
A series of high-quality M2(BDC)2(DABCO) metal-organic frameworks (abbreviated as M-DABCO; M=Zn, Co, Ni, Cu; BDC=1,4-benzene dicarboxylate; DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), were synthesized by using a solvothermal (SV) method, and their catalytic activity for the cycloaddition of CO2 to epoxides in the absence of a co-catalyst or solvent was demonstrated. Of these metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), Zn-DABCO exhibited very high activity and nearly complete selectivity under moderate reaction conditions. The other members of this MOF series (Co-DABCO, Ni-DABCO, and Cu-DABCO) displayed lower activity in the given sequence...
October 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046378/fluctuating-seawater-ph-pco2-regimes-are-more-energetically-expensive-than-static-ph-pco2-levels-in-the-mussel-mytilus-edulis
#5
Stephanie Mangan, Mauricio A Urbina, Helen S Findlay, Rod W Wilson, Ceri Lewis
Ocean acidification (OA) studies typically use stable open-ocean pH or CO2 values. However, species living within dynamic coastal environments can naturally experience wide fluctuations in abiotic factors, suggesting their responses to stable pH conditions may not be reflective of either present or near-future conditions. Here we investigate the physiological responses of the mussel Mytilus edulis to variable seawater pH conditions over short- (6 h) and medium-term (2 weeks) exposures under both current and near-future OA scenarios...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045782/non-covalent-protein-arginine-deiminase-pad-inhibitors-are-efficacious-in-animal-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Elizabeth J Curiel Tejeda, Angelica M Bello, Ewa Wasilewski, Adam Koebel, Shannon Dunn, Lakshmi P Kotra
Peptidyl arginine deiminases have been shown to be hyperactive in neurodegenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis. An α-amino acid based core structure, derived from a hydantoin core, with unique heterocycles on the side chains, were synthesized as potential non-covalent inhibitors of PAD enzymes. Amongst the various heterocycles investigated, compound 23 carrying an imidazole moiety, exhibited the highest potency in this series with some selectivity for PAD2, and was further investigated in vivo. Pharmacokinetics in mice suggested the Cmax to be 12...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044344/persistent-severe-hypokalemia-gitelman-syndrome-and-differential-diagnosis
#7
Christine Zomer Dal Molin, Daisson José Trevisol
The main causes of hypokalemia are usually evident in the clinical history of patients, with previous episodes of vomiting, diarrhea or diuretic use. However, in some patients the cause of hypokalemia can become a challenge. In such cases, two major components of the investigation must be performed: assessment of urinary excretion potassium and the acid-base status. This article presents a case report of a patient with severe persistent hypokalemia, complementary laboratory tests indicated that's it was hypomagnesaemia and hypocalciuria associated with metabolic alkalosis, and increase of thyroid hormones...
July 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042721/clinical-and-radiographic-evaluation-of-citric-acid-based-nano-hydroxyapatite-composite-graft-in-the-regeneration-of-intrabony-defects-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Chaurasia Priya Dayashankar, P C Deepika, Basavarajaiah Siddaramaiah
BACKGROUND: Conventional periodontal therapy with various bone grafts has limited scope and the results are not predictable. To improve their utility, the hybridization of bioceramics and biodegradable polymers has been widely adopted to reform the mechanical properties of bone grafts. One such biodegradable polymer is POC (Poly 1,8 octanediol). Secondly, citric acid is considered as the key material in bone mineralization, which is related to the overall stability, strength and fracture resistance of bone...
July 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040621/current-status-of-point-of-care-testing-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance
#9
Horacio A Duarte, Nuttada Panpradist, Ingrid A Beck, Barry Lutz, James Lai, Ruth M Kanthula, Rami Kantor, Anubhav Tripathi, Shanmugam Saravanan, Iain J MacLeod, Michael H Chung, Guoqing Zhang, Chunfu Yang, Lisa M Frenkel
Healthcare delivery has advanced due to the implementation of point-of-care testing, which is often performed within minutes to hours in minimally equipped laboratories or at home. Technologic advances are leading to point-of-care kits that incorporate nucleic acid-based assays, including polymerase chain reaction, isothermal amplification, ligation, and hybridization reactions. As a limited number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with clinically significant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance, assays to detect these mutations have been developed...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039857/acid-base-controllable-fluorescent-molecular-switches-based-on-cryptands-and-basic-n-heteroaromatics
#10
Ming Cheng, Jing Zhang, Xintong Ren, Shuwen Guo, Tangxin Xiao, Xiao-Yu Hu, Juli Jiang, Leyong Wang
Two kinds of fluorescent BMP32C10-based cryptands 1 and 2 have been developed. Cryptand 1 contains a binaphthol group, while cryptand 2 bears a coumarin group in their third arms. Based on this design, novel self-assemblies constructed from cryptand 1 or 2 and basic N-heteroaromatic guests 3-6 were successfully obtained. Moreover, the threading/dethreading processes of the host-guest complexes could be well switched by the alternate addition of acid/base, and accompanied by concurrent changes in fluorescence...
October 17, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039196/a-mitochondria-targeted-ratiometric-biosensor-for-ph-monitoring-and-imaging-in-living-cells-with-congo-red-functionalized-dual-emission-semiconducting-polymer-dots
#11
Junyong Sun, Pinghua Ling, Feng Gao
The accurate and sensitive monitoring and imaging of mitochondrial pH in living cells play vital roles in chemical biology and biomedicine. Herein, we design a novel ratiometric fluorescent chemical probe for monitoring and imaging pH of mitochondria in living cells based on congo-red (CR)-modified dual-emission semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) via a competitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism. The Pdots are synthesized by triphenylphosphonium (TPP)-modified polyoxyethylene nonylphenylether (CO-520), Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO), poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-co-(4,7-di-2-thienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) (PF-DBT5), and poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) via nanoprecipitation method, and the prepared Pdots are further chemically linked with pH-sensitive, non-fluorescent CR to obtain the mitochondria-targeted pH fluorescent probes...
October 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039183/electrochemically-generated-cis-carboxylato-coordinated-iron-iv-oxo-acid-base-congeners-as-promiscuous-oxidants-of-water-pollutants
#12
David P de Sousa, Christopher J Miller, Yingyue Chang, T David Waite, Christine J McKenzie
The nonheme iron(IV) oxo complex [Fe(IV)(O)(tpenaH)](2+) and its conjugate base [Fe(IV)(O)(tpena)](+) [tpena(-) = N,N,N'-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine-N'-acetate] have been prepared electrochemically in water by bulk electrolysis of solutions prepared from [Fe(III)2(μ-O)(tpenaH)2](ClO4)4 at potentials over 1.3 V (vs NHE) using inexpensive and commercially available carbon-based electrodes. Once generated, these iron(IV) oxo complexes persist at room temperature for minutes to half an hour over a wide range of pH values...
October 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038354/association-of-urinary-citrate-excretion-ph-and-net-gastrointestinal-alkali-absorption-with-diet-diuretic-use-and-blood-glucose-concentration
#13
Majuran Perinpam, Erin B Ware, Jennifer A Smith, Stephen T Turner, Sharon L R Kardia, John C Lieske
Urinary citrate (Ucit) protects against urinary stone formation. Acid base status and diet influence Ucit. However, the effect of demographics, diet, and glucose metabolism on Ucit excretion, urinary pH (U-pH) and net gastrointestinal alkali absorption (NAA) are not known. Twenty-four hour urine samples, blood glucose, creatinine, and cystatin C were obtained from non-Hispanic white sibships in Rochester, MN (n = 446; 64.5 ± 9 years; 58% female). Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The impact of blood glucose, demographics and dietary elements on Ucit excretion, U-pH, and NAA were evaluated in bivariate and multivariable models and interaction models that included age, sex, and weight...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037087/a-label-free-technique-for-accurate-detection-of-nucleic-acid-based-self-avoiding-molecular-recognition-systems-supplemented-multiple-cross-displacement-amplification-and-nanoparticles-based-biosensor
#14
Yi Wang, Yan Wang, Hong Wang, Jianguo Xu, Changyun Ye
Here, we devised a novel isothermal technique on the basis of standard multiple cross-displacement amplification (MCDA), which is assisted with self-avoiding molecular recognition system (SAMRS) components and antarctic thermal-sensitive uracil-DNA-glycosylase enzyme (AUDG), termed AUDG-SAMRS-MCDA. To enable product detection on the dipsticks, we firstly developed an analysis strategy, which did not require the labelled primers or probes, and thus, the analysis system avoids the false-positive results arising from undesired hybridization (between two labelled primers, or the labelled probe and primer)...
October 16, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035493/medical-devices-immunology-and-microbiology-devices-classification-of-the-nucleic-acid-based-device-for-the-amplification-detection-and-identification-of-microbial-pathogens-directly-from-whole-blood-specimens-final-order
#15
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the nucleic acid-based device for the amplification, detection, and identification of microbial pathogens directly from whole blood specimens into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the nucleic acid-based device for the amplification, detection, and identification of microbial pathogens directly from whole blood specimens' classification...
October 16, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034926/acid-etched-layered-double-hydroxides-with-rich-defects-for-enhancing-the-oxygen-evolution-reaction
#16
Peng Zhou, Yanyong Wang, Chao Xie, Chen Chen, Hanwen Liu, Ru Chen, Jia Huo, Shuangyin Wang
Water splitting is promising for energy storage and conversion, but the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) hinders its wide application. The search for efficient and low-cost electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution has been pursued owing to their significance for green energy generation and storage. Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) based materials are promising for the OER to improve this weakness. However, the wide application of LDHs is limited by their electronic properties and active sites. Here we report a simple and promising method to improve the OER catalytic activity via an acid-base reaction, which resulted in an exfoliation process and multiple defects including Co, Fe and O vacancies...
October 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031358/hyperkalemia-and-hypokalemia-in-ckd-prevalence-risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Sarah Gilligan, Kalani L Raphael
Abnormalities of serum potassium are common in patients with CKD. Although hyperkalemia is a well-recognized complication of CKD, the prevalence rates of hyperkalemia (14%-20%) and hypokalemia (12%-18%) are similar. CKD severity, use of medications such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and diuretics, and dietary potassium intake are major determinants of serum potassium concentration in CKD. Demographic factors, acid-base status, blood glucose, and other comorbidities contribute as well. Both hyperkalemia and hypokalemia are associated with similarly increased risks of death, cardiovascular disease, and hospitalization...
September 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031356/management-of-the-metabolic-acidosis-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Nimrit Goraya, Donald E Wesson
Subjects with CKD and reduced glomerular filtration rate are at risk for chronic metabolic acidosis, and CKD is its most common cause. Untreated metabolic acidosis, even in its mildest forms, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity and should therefore be treated. If reduced glomerular filtration rate or the tubule abnormality causing chronic metabolic acidosis cannot be corrected, it is typically treated with dietary acid (H(+)) reduction using Na(+)-based alkali, usually NaHCO3. Dietary H(+) reduction can also be accomplished with the addition of base-producing foods such as fruits and vegetables and limiting intake of H(+)-producing foods like animal-sourced protein...
September 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031355/adverse-effects-of-the-metabolic-acidosis-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Kraut, Nicolaos E Madias
The kidney has the principal role in the maintenance of acid-base balance, and therefore, a fall in renal net acid excretion and positive H(+) balance often leading to reduced serum [HCO3(-)] are observed in the course of CKD. This metabolic acidosis can be associated with muscle wasting, development or exacerbation of bone disease, hypoalbuminemia, increased inflammation, progression of CKD, protein malnutrition, alterations in insulin, leptin, and growth hormone, and increased mortality. Importantly, some of the adverse effects can be observed even in the absence of overt hypobicarbonatemia...
September 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031354/epidemiology-of-acid-base-derangements-in-ckd
#20
REVIEW
Wei Chen, Matthew K Abramowitz
Acid-base disorders are in patients with chronic kidney disease, with chronic metabolic acidosis receiving the most attention clinically in terms of diagnosis and treatment. A number of observational studies have reported on the prevalence of acid-base disorders in this patient population and their relationship with outcomes, mostly focusing on chronic metabolic acidosis. The majority have used serum bicarbonate alone to define acid-base status due to the lack of widely available data on other acid-base disorders...
September 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
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