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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429531/sugar-enrichment-provides-evidence-for-a-role-of-nitrogen-fixation-in-coral-bleaching
#1
Claudia Pogoreutz, Nils Rädecker, Anny Cárdenas, Astrid Gärdes, Christian R Voolstra, Christian Wild
The disruption of the coral-algae symbiosis (coral bleaching) due to rising sea surface temperatures has become an unprecedented global threat to coral reefs. Despite decades of research, our ability to manage mass bleaching events remains hampered by an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the processes involved. In this study, we induced a coral bleaching phenotype in the absence of heat and light stress by adding sugars. The sugar addition resulted in coral symbiotic breakdown accompanied by a fourfold increase of coral-associated microbial nitrogen fixation...
April 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428853/coral-reef-mesopredators-switch-prey-shortening-food-chains-in-response-to-habitat-degradation
#2
Tessa N Hempson, Nicholas A J Graham, M Aaron MacNeil, David H Williamson, Geoffrey P Jones, Glenn R Almany
Diet specificity is likely to be the key predictor of a predator's vulnerability to changing habitat and prey conditions. Understanding the degree to which predatory coral reef fishes adjust or maintain prey choice, in response to declines in coral cover and changes in prey availability, is critical for predicting how they may respond to reef habitat degradation. Here, we use stable isotope analyses to characterize the trophic structure of predator-prey interactions on coral reefs of the Keppel Island Group on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421321/experimental-investigations-on-fluorescence-excitation-and-depletion-of-carbon-dots
#3
Yunxia Wang, Zhenhua Bai, Qian Wang, Guiren Wang
Carbon dots (CDs) can be readily synthesized and utilized as attractive fluorescent probes for a variety of applications. In this study, we have synthesized CDs using a previously published method and characterized their photo-physical properties. The resultant CDs possess prominent photo-stability and short emission wavelength in the violet region. Our study reveals that CDs, with weak photo-bleaching, enable them to be employed to achieve high spatial resolution in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421300/functional-teas-from-the-leaves-of-arbutus-unedo-phenolic-content-antioxidant-activity-and-detection-of-efficient-radical-scavengers
#4
Ioannis Erkekoglou, Nikolaos Nenadis, Efrosini Samara, Fani Th Mantzouridou
The phenolic content/composition and antioxidant activity of hot/cold infusion and decoction from the leaves of Arbutus unedo were studied for the first time. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(●)), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(●+)), crocin-bleaching, copper-reducing, and liposome accelerated oxidation assays were used for the evaluation of the activity in vitro. In vivo, the extracts were examined for their ability to protect S. cerevisiae cells from H2O2 induced oxidative stress...
April 18, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420255/chemical-and-common-burns-in-children
#5
Shan Yin
Burns are a common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in children. Thermal and chemical burns are the most common types of burns. Their clinical appearance can be similar and the treatment is largely similar. Thermal burns in children occur primarily after exposure to a hot surface or liquid, or contact with fire. Burns are typically classified based on the depth and total body surface area, and the severity and onset of the burn can also depend on the temperature and duration of contact. Chemical burns are caused by chemicals-most commonly acids and alkalis-that can damage the skin on contact...
May 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419766/microbial-community-function-in-the-bleaching-disease-of-the-marine-macroalgae-delisea-pulchra
#6
Enrique Zozaya-Valdés, Alexandra J Roth-Schulze, Suhelen Egan, Torsten Thomas
Disease is increasingly viewed as a major factor impacting the health of both natural and cultured populations of marine organisms, including macroalgae. The red macroalga Delisea pulchra suffers from a bleaching disease resulting from host stress and infection by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. However how pathogens cause the disease and how the entire algal-associated community is involved in the process is unclear. Here we perform a metagenomic analysis of microbial communities associated with diseased and healthy D...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416395/the-early-history-of-manganese-and-the-recognition-of-its-neurotoxicity-1837-1936
#7
Paul D Blanc
The history of the biomedical recognition manganese-caused neurotoxicity mirrors changing technologies as much as it does the ontology of parkinsonism. The initial 1837 report of manganese-induced neurologic injury was made by John Couper, a university-based physician in Scotland. He made clear that the outbreak occurred among workers at the Charles Tennant bleach manufactory in the environs of Glasgow. The relatively new technology of chlorine generation using manganese accounted for the novel exposure involved...
April 14, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407398/influence-of-bleaching-and-coloring-on-ethyl-glucuronide-content-in-human-hair
#8
Silvana Petzel-Witt, Werner Pogoda, Cora Wunder, Alexander Paulke, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Stefan W Toennes
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is increasingly used in forensic toxicology as marker for alcohol use in analyses of hair samples especially in abstinence control. Some cosmetic treatments are considered to markedly reduce the EtG content. In view of especially many women with colored hair the present study was performed to further investigate the effect of a variety of coloring procedures (bleaching, tinting, permanent and semi-permanent dyeing, henna) on the EtG content. Untreated hair samples (n = 12, EtG 13...
April 13, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406222/hungary-s-protests-coral-bleaching-and-a-neutrino-anomaly
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403365/crown-discoloration-promoted-by-materials-used-in-regenerative-endodontic-procedures-and-effect-of-dental-bleaching-spectrophotometric-analysis
#10
Luciane Geanini Pena Dos Santos, Wilson Tadeu Felippe, Beatriz Dulcineia Mendes de Souza, Andrea Cristina Konrath, Mabel Mariela Rodríguez Cordeiro, Mara Cristina Santos Felippe
Objectives: To assess tooth crown's color after intracanal treatment with triple antibiotic paste (TAP) or calcium hydroxide (CH); cervical sealing with glass ionomer cement (GIC) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); and bleaching with carbamide peroxide. Material and Methods: After pulp removal and color spectrophotometer measurement, 50 bovine incisors were divided into 4 experimental groups and one control (untreated). Experiments were performed in phases (Ph)...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402104/hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-mass-spectrometry-of-human-green-opsin-reveals-a-conserved-pro-pro-motif-in-extracellular-loop-2-of-monostable-visual-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#11
Lukas Hofmann, Nathan S Alexander, Wenyu Sun, Jianye Zhang, Tivadar Orban, Krzysztof Palczewski
Opsins comprise the protein component of light sensitive G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the retina of the eye that are responsible for the transduction of light into a biochemical signal. Here, we used hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange coupled with mass spectrometry to map conformational changes in green cone opsin upon light activation. We then compared these findings with those reported for rhodopsin. The extent of H/D exchange in green cone opsin was greater than in rhodopsin in the dark and bleached states, suggesting a higher structural heterogeneity for green cone opsin...
April 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401458/purification-characterization-and-thermostability-improvement-of-xylanase-from-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-and-its-application-in-pre-bleaching-of-kraft-pulp
#12
Sharad Kumar, Izharul Haq, Jyoti Prakash, Sudheer Kumar Singh, Shivaker Mishra, Abhay Raj
Xylanases have important industrial applications but are most extensively utilized in the pulp and paper industry as a pre-bleaching agent. We characterized a xylanase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SK-3 and studied it for kraft pulp bleaching. The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of ~50 kDa with optimal activity at pH 9.0 and 50 °C. The enzyme showed good activity retention (85%) after 2 h incubation at 50 °C and pH 9.0. This enzyme obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with regard to beechwood xylan with K m and V max values of 5...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400596/the-effect-of-the-teeth-bleaching-with-35-hydrogen-peroxide-on-the-tensile-bond-strength-of-metal-brackets
#13
Giedre Trakiniene, Simona Daukontiene, Vytautas Jurenas, Vilma Svalkauskiene, Dalia Smailiene, Kristina Lopatiene, Tomas Trakinis
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of teeth bleaching on the tensile bond strength of metal brackets bonded with light-curing adhesive system to the human enamel. 40 recently extracted human permanent molars were used for the study. The mesial buccal surface of each tooth was used as a control group and the distal buccal surface was used as an experimental group. Control group surfaces were not submitted to bleaching, while experimental group surfaces were bleached with in-office bleaching material containing 35% hydrogen peroxide...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396898/-allergic-contact-dermatitis-of-the-scalp
#14
REVIEW
L Koch, W Aberer
Contact allergy represents an important differential diagnosis to other skin diseases of the scalp. The typical efflorescences, spreading in the periphery, pruritus, and the clinical history support the differential diagnosis. Since the scalp is particularly resistant to contact dermatitis, allergens applied to this area often produce dermatitis of the eyelids, ears and neck. Nevertheless, potent allergens such as para-phenylendiamine can also cause severe reactions of the scalp. The most important allergens eliciting contact allergy of the scalp are found in bleaches and dyes, shampoos and conditioners, products for perm waves and straighteners as well as topical drugs...
April 10, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395870/dongsha-atoll-a-potential-thermal-refuge-for-reef-building-corals-in-the-south-china-sea
#15
Konstantin S Tkachenko, Keryea Soong
Dongsha Atoll (also known as the Pratas Islands), the northernmost atoll in the South China Sea, experiences two contrasting physical phenomena: repetitive anomalies of the sea surface temperature exceeding the coral bleaching threshold and regular effects of the world's strongest internal waves resulting in the rhythmic upwelling of cold deep waters at the outer reef slopes of the atoll. This unique combination may result in significant differences in coral species composition and structure between the lagoon and forereef...
April 4, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394415/phylogenetic-position-of-the-coral-symbiont-ostreobium-ulvophyceae-inferred-from-chloroplast-genome-data
#16
Heroen Verbruggen, Vanessa R Marcelino, Michael D Guiry, M Chiela M Cremen, Christopher J Jackson
The green algal genus Ostreobium is an important symbiont of corals, playing roles in reef decalcification and providing photosynthates to the coral during bleaching events. A chloroplast genome of a cultured strain of Ostreobium was available, but low taxon sampling and Ostreobium's early-branching nature left doubt about its phylogenetic position. Here we generate and describe chloroplast genomes from four Ostreobium strains as well as Avrainvillea mazei and Neomeris sp., strategically sampled early-branching lineages in the Bryopsidales and Dasycladales, respectively...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394267/calabrian-goji-vs-chinese-goji-a-comparative-study-on-biological-properties
#17
Mariarosa Ruffo, Ortensia Ilaria Parisi, Fabio Amone, Rocco Malivindi, Domenico Gorgoglione, Filomena De Biasio, Luca Scrivano, Vincenzo Pezzi, Francesco Puoci
Lycium barbarum (Goji) fruits are mainly cultivated in northwestern China and are well known for their beneficial and healthy effects. In this work, the biological and functional properties of Calabrian Goji extract, obtained from Goji berries cultivated in the Sibari Plain (in the Italian region of Calabria), were demonstrated. In order to evaluate the use of this extract as a food supplement for cognitive and mental disorders, the quantification of Carotenoids as Zeaxanthin equivalents was made. The antioxidant activity was investigated by evaluating the scavenging properties against 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals and by performing the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assay...
April 10, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392197/thermo-induced-maintenance-of-photo-oxidoreductases-underlies-plant-autotrophic-development
#18
Jun-Ho Ha, Hyo-Jun Lee, Jae-Hoon Jung, Chung-Mo Park
Chlorophyll biosynthesis enables autotrophic development of developing seedlings. Upon light exposure, the chlorophyll precursor protochlorophyllide produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Developing seedlings acquire photosynthetic competence through the action of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (PORs) that convert protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, reducing ROS production that would otherwise induce cellular damage and chlorophyll bleaching. Here, we show that FCA mediates the thermostabilization of PORs to trigger the conversion of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide in developing seedlings...
April 5, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392092/the-2014-summer-coral-bleaching-event-in-subtropical-hong-kong
#19
James Y Xie, Dickey C C Lau, Keith Kei, Vriko P F Yu, Wing-Kuen Chow, Jian-Wen Qiu
We reported a coral bleaching event that occurred in August-September 2014 in Hong Kong waters based on video transect surveys conducted at eight sites. The bleaching affected eight species of corals with different growth forms. Bleaching at seven of the eight study sites was minor, affecting only 0.4-5.2% colonies and 0.8-10.0% coral-covered area. Sharp Island East, however, suffered from a moderate level of bleaching, with 13.1% colonies and 30.1% coral-covered area affected. Examination of the government's environmental monitoring data indicated abnormal water quality conditions preceding and during the bleaching event...
April 6, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391465/resilience-potential-of-an-indian-ocean-reef-an-assessment-through-coral-recruitment-pattern-and-survivability-of-juvenile-corals-to-recurrent-stress-events
#20
Balakrishnan Manikandan, Jeyaraman Ravindran, Pottekkatt Jayabalan Vidya, Selvaraju Shrinivasu, Rajagopal Manimurali, Kaliyaperumal Paramasivam
Coral reefs are degraded by the synergistic action of climate and anthropogenic stressors. Coral cover in the Palk Bay reef at the northern Indian Ocean largely declined in the past decade due to frequent bleaching events, tsunami and increased fishing activities. In this study, we carried out a comparative assessment to assess the differences in the recovery and resilience of three spatially distant reefs viz. Vedhalai, Mandapam and Pamban along Palk Bay affected by moderate, severe and low fishing pressure respectively...
April 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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