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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532353/ocular-photoreception-for-circadian-rhythm-entrainment-in-mammals
#1
Russell N Van Gelder, Ethan D Buhr
Circadian rhythms are self-sustained, approximately 24-h rhythms of physiology and behavior. These rhythms are entrained to an exactly 24-h period by the daily light-dark cycle. Remarkably, mice lacking all rod and cone photoreceptors still demonstrate photic entrainment, an effect mediated by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). These cells utilize melanopsin (OPN4) as their photopigment. Distinct from the ciliary rod and cone opsins, melanopsin appears to function as a stable photopigment utilizing sequential photon absorption for its photocycle; this photocycle, in turn, confers properties on ipRGCs such as sustained signaling and resistance from photic bleaching critical for an irradiance detection system...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526853/response-of-coral-calcification-and-calcifying-fluid-composition-to-thermally-induced-bleaching-stress
#2
J P D'Olivo, M T McCulloch
Severe, global-scale thermal stress events like those of 1998 and 2016, are becoming more frequent and intense, potentially compromising the future of coral reefs. Here we report the effects of the 1998 bleaching event on coral calcification as well as the composition of the calcifying fluid (cf) from which corals precipitate their calcium carbonate skeletons. This was investigated by using the Sr/Ca, Li/Mg (temperature), and boron isotopes (δ(11)B) and B/Ca (carbonate chemistry) proxies in a Porites sp. coral...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526119/effects-of-temperature-salinity-and-composition-of-the-dinoflagellate-assemblage-on-the-growth-of-gambierdiscus-carpenteri-isolated-from-the-great-barrier-reef
#3
Leanne Sparrow, Paolo Momigliano, Garry R Russ, Kirsten Heimann
Increases in reported incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning (hereafter ciguatera) have been linked to warmer sea temperatures that are known to trigger coral bleaching events. The drivers that trigger blooms of ciguatera-causing dinoflagellates on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of increased temperatures and lowered salinities, often associated with environmental disturbance events, on the population growth of two strains of the potentially ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus carpenteri (NQAIF116 and NQAIF380)...
May 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522909/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antioxidative-and-hepatoprotective-activity-of-aqueous-extract-of-cortex-dictamni
#4
Lin Li, Yun-Feng Zhou, Yan-Lin Li, Li-Li Wang, Hiderori Arai, Yang Xu
AIM: To investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Cortex Dictamni aqueous extract (CDAE) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. METHODS: The in vitro antioxidant effect of CDAE was investigated using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), β-carotene bleaching, reducing power, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assays. A linoleic acid system, including ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays, was used to evaluate the inhibition of lipid peroxidation...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521988/enhanced-solubility-and-antioxidant-activity-of-chlorogenic-acid-chitosan-conjugates-due-to-the-conjugation-of-chitosan-with-chlorogenic-acid
#5
Liyun Rui, Minhao Xie, Bing Hu, Li Zhou, Muhammad Saeeduddin, Xiaoxiong Zeng
Chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugate was synthesized by introducing of chlorogenic acid onto chitosan with the aid of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and hydroxybenzotriazole. The data of UV-vis, FT-IR and NMR for chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugates demonstrated the successful conjugation of chlorogenic acid with chitosan. Compared to chitosan, chlorogenic acid-chitosan conjugates exhibited increased solubility in distilled water, 1% acetic acid solution (v/v) or 50% ethanol solution (v/v) containing 0...
August 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520413/temporal-characteristics-of-brown-carbon-over-the-central-indo-gangetic-plain
#6
Rangu Venkata Satish, Puthukkadan Moosakutty Shamjad, Navaneeth M Thamban, Sachchida N Tripathi, Neeraj Rastogi
Recent global models estimate that light absorption by brown carbon (BrC) in several regions of the world is ~30-70% of that due to black carbon (BC). It is, therefore, important to understand its sources and characteristics on temporal and spatial scale. In this study, we conducted semi-continuous measurements of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and BrC using particle-into-liquid sampler coupled with liquid waveguide capillary cell and total carbon analyzer (PILS-LWCC-TOC) over Kanpur (26.5°N, 80.3°E, 142 m amsl) during a winter season (December 2015 to February 2016)...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518120/ligand-nano-cluster-arrays-in-a-supported-lipid-bilayer
#7
Emmanuelle Benard, Fuwei Pi, Igor Ozerov, Anne Charrier, Kheya Sengupta
Currently there is considerable interest in creating ordered arrays of adhesive protein islands in a sea of passivated surface for cell biological studies. In the past years, it has become increasingly clear that living cells respond, not only to the biochemical nature of the molecules presented to them but also to the way these molecules are presented. Creating protein micro-patterns is therefore now standard in many biology laboratories; nano-patterns are also more accessible. However, in the context of cell-cell interactions, there is a need to pattern not only proteins but also lipid bilayers...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518097/light-sheet-based-fluorescence-microscopy-of-living-or-fixed-and-stained-tribolium-castaneum-embryos
#8
Frederic Strobl, Selina Klees, Ernst H K Stelzer
The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important insect model organism in developmental genetics and evolutionary developmental biology. The observation of Tribolium embryos with light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy has multiple advantages over conventional widefield and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Due to the unique properties of a light sheet-based microscope, three dimensional images of living specimens can be recorded with high signal-to-noise ratios and significantly reduced photo-bleaching as well as photo-toxicity along multiple directions over periods that last several days...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515937/dicyano-and-tetracyanopentacene-foundation-of-an-intriguing-new-class-of-easy-to-synthesize-organic-semiconductors
#9
Florian Glöcklhofer, Andreas Petritz, Esther Karner, Michael J Bojdys, Barbara Stadlober, Johannes Fröhlich, Miriam M Unterlass
Cyanated pentacenes are very promising candidate materials for ambipolar and n-type transistors. However, only a few examples have been obtained to date - all requiring lengthy, multi-step processes. Herein, we present the first preparation of 5,7,12,14-tetracyanopentacene (TCP) and a facile, scaled-up preparation of 6,13-dicyanopentacene (DCP). Both compounds are prepared by a one-pot synthesis using cheap quinones as starting materials. Detailed crystallographic investigations evince that the bulk assemblies of both cyanated pentacenes are dominated by non-covalent interactions, resulting in a dense, stable, face-to-face packing and in an intriguing packing motif for TCP...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. C, Materials for Optical and Electronic Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512604/traditional-dentistry-knowledge-among-serbs-in-several-balkan-countries
#10
Dragan V Ilic, Biljana Andjelski Radicevic, Anely Nedelcheva, Ivana Djurovic, Dejan Ostojic
BACKGROUND/AIM: There are still unrevealed treasures of traditional dental medicine, that is, the reason to investigate and present various ways in treatment of oral and orofacial tissues, as well as magic and religious elements involved in representative areas among Serbs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information was collected from the elderly non-professional folk dentists and herbalists with the additional help of local physicians and dentists that was done through questionnaire and personal interviews...
April 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512546/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-different-enamel-surface-treatments-and-waiting-times-on-the-staining-prevention-after-bleaching
#11
Débora Monteiro, Allyson Moreira, Tulimar Cornacchia, Cláudia Magalhães
BACKGROUND: Bleached dental enamel can be more susceptible to staining than the enamel that has never been bleached, especially right after tooth bleaching. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of surface treatments and waiting time prior to contact with dye on bleached enamel staining susceptibility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred teeth were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP, FGM) and randomly assigned to G1 artificial saliva, G2 2% sodium fluoride (Flugel, Nova DFL), G3 casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride paste (CPP-ACPF, MI Paste Plus, GC America), G4 rinse for color maintenance after bleaching (Keep White Rinse, DMC) and G5 polishing with aluminum oxide-impregnated disks (Super Buff Disk, Shofu)...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512492/in-vitro-sealing-properties-of-calcium-enriched-mixture-and-mineral-trioxide-aggregate-orifice-barriers-during-intra-coronal-bleaching
#12
Negar Moghadam, Amir Ardalan Abdollahi, Hoda Aghabalayi Fakhim, Zahra Borna
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed at evaluating the sealing properties of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) compared to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a cervical barriers in intra-coronal bleaching. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this in vitro study, endodontic treatment was performed on 60 extracted human incisors and canines without canal calcification, caries, restorations, resorption or cracks. The teeth were then randomly divided into two experimental groups and two control groups (n=15)...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512484/scanning-electron-microscopy-and-energy-dispersive-x-ray-microanalysis-of-set-cem-cement-after-application-of-different-bleaching-agents
#13
Mohammad Samiei, Maryam Janani, Amin Vahdati, Yalda Alemzadeh, Mahmoud Bahari
INTRODUCTION: The present study evaluated the element distribution in completely set calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement after application of 35% carbamide peroxide, 40% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate as commercial bleaching agents using an energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDX) system. The surface structure was also observed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty completely set CEM cement samples, measuring 4×4 mm(2), were prepared in the present in vitro study and randomly divided into 4 groups based on the preparation technique as follows: the control group; 35% carbamide peroxide group in contact for 30-60 min for 4 times; 40% hydrogen peroxide group with contact time of 15-20 min for 3 times; and sodium perborate group, where the powder and liquid were mixed and placed on CEM cement surface 4 times...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512420/a-case-of-iris-melanocytoma-demonstrating-diffuse-melanocytic-proliferation-with-uncontrolled-intraocular-pressure
#14
Mami Kusunose, Yuji Sakino, Yoshihiro Noda, Tsutomu Daa, Toshiaki Kubota
We report a rare case with histologically proven melanocytoma of the iris that demonstrated diffuse melanocytic proliferation with uncontrolled secondary glaucoma and investigate the etiology of the intraocular pressure elevation. The patient was a 78-year-old man with a history of darkened iris of his left eye. The intraocular pressure was 39 mm Hg. A slit-lamp examination showed a diffuse darkened iris, and a gonioscopic examination revealed open angle with circumferential heavy pigmentation. There was no pigment dispersion of the anterior chamber and no pigment deposition of the cornea...
January 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511602/evaluation-of-student-handwashing-practices-during-a-school-based-hygiene-program-in-rural-western-kenya-2007
#15
Genevieve La Con, Katharine Schilling, Julie Harris, Bobbie Person, Mercy Owuor, Lorraine Ogange, Sitnah Faith, Robert Quick
Unsafe drinking water and inadequate handwashing facilities in primary schools increase the risk of absenteeism due to diarrhea and respiratory infections. To mitigate these risks, we provided 28 schools in rural Western Kenya with handwashing and drinking water stations (containers with lids and taps on metal stands), bleach for water treatment, soap for handwashing, and educational materials. We observed the use of the water stations and assessed teachers' attitudes toward the intervention. Of 151 total handwashing stations, 69 (59%) were observed to have soap and water and treated drinking water 4 months after implementation; observations of pupils showed an increase in handwashing behavior in water stations located < 10 m, as compared with those >10 m, from latrines ( p < ...
January 2017: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505132/preparation-and-characterization-of-chitosan-obtained-from-shells-of-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-boone
#16
Rayane Santa Cruz Martins de Queiroz Antonino, Bianca Rosa Paschoal Lia Fook, Vítor Alexandre de Oliveira Lima, Raid Ícaro de Farias Rached, Eunice Paloma Nascimento Lima, Rodrigo José da Silva Lima, Carlos Andrés Peniche Covas, Marcus Vinícius Lia Fook
The main source of commercial chitosan is the extensive deacetylation of its parent polymer chitin. It is present in green algae, the cell walls or fungi and in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. A novel procedure for preparing chitosan from shrimp shells was developed. The procedure involves two 10-minutes bleaching steps with ethanol after the usual demineralization and deproteinization processes. Before deacetylation, chitin was immersed in 12.5 M NaOH, cooled down and kept frozen for 24 h. The obtained chitosan was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and viscosimetry...
May 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504468/incubatory-environment-of-the-scalp-impacts-pre-emergent-hair-to-affect-post-emergent-hair-cuticle-integrity
#17
James R Schwartz, James P Henry, Kathy M Kerr, Michael J Flagler, Steve H Page, Nancy Redman-Furey
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the oxidative stress transmitted to newly grown hair from an unhealthy scalp has physical consequences to the cuticular condition and function. METHODS: A uniquely designed 24-week clinical study included 8 weeks of pretreatment with a cosmetic shampoo and 16 weeks of treatment with either a potentiated zinc pyrithione (ZPT) antidandruff shampoo or a placebo cosmetic shampoo. This clinical design allowed the growth and acquisition of hair samples under conditions of varying but known scalp health as a result of treating a dandruff/seborrheic dermatitis (D/SD) population...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504133/nanofibrillation-of-deep-eutectic-solvent-treated-paper-and-board-cellulose-pulps
#18
Terhi Suopajärvi, Juho Antti Sirviö, Henrikki Liimatainen
In this work, several cellulose board grades, including waste board, fluting, and waste milk container board, were pretreated with green choline chloride-urea deep eutectic solvent (DES) and nanofibrillated using a Masuko grinder. DES-treated bleached chemical birch pulp, NaOH-swollen waste board, and bleached chemical birch pulp were used as reference materials. The properties of the nanofibrils after disc grinding were compared with those obtained through microfluidization. Overall, the choline chloride-urea DES pretreatment significantly enhanced the nanofibrillation of the board pulps in both nanofibrillation methods-as compared with NaOH-treated pulps-and resulted in fine and long individual nanofibrils and some larger nanofibril bunches, as determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500951/hydrogen-peroxide-induces-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-pulp-of-rats-after-dental-bleaching-in-vivo-effects-of-the-dental-bleaching-in-pulp
#19
Francine Benetti, João Eduardo Gomes-Filho, Luciana Louzada Ferreira, Edilson Ervolino, André Luiz Fraga Briso, Gustavo Sivieri-Araújo, Eloi Dezan-Júnior, Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra
OBJECTIVE: This study provides an in vivo evaluation of the inflammatory response, levels of cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the presence of necrosis after dental bleaching with two concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). DESIGN: Wistar rats were divided into Control (placebo gel), BLUE (20% H2O2, 1×50min), and MAXX (35% H2O2, 3×15min) groups. At 2 and 30days, the rats were killed (n=10). The jaws were processed for histology analysis and PCNA and Caspase-3-cleaved immunohistochemistry, and data were submitted to the Mann-Whitney or ANOVA test (P<0...
April 22, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497960/using-dynamic-covalent-chemistry-to-drive-morphological-transitions-controlled-release-of-encapsulated-nanoparticles-from-block-copolymer-vesicles
#20
Renhua Deng, Matthew J Derry, Charlotte J Mable, Yin Ning, Steven P Armes
Dynamic covalent chemistry is exploited to drive morphological order-order transitions to achieve the controlled release of a model payload (e.g., silica nanoparticles) encapsulated within block copolymer vesicles. More specifically, poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA) diblock copolymer vesicles were prepared via aqueous polymerization-induced self-assembly in either the presence or absence of silica nanoparticles. Addition of 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) to such vesicles results in specific binding of this reagent to some of the pendent cis-diol groups on the hydrophilic PGMA chains to form phenylboronate ester bonds in mildly alkaline aqueous solution (pH ∼ 10)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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