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Artificial cell

Minoo Heidari Kani, Eng-Cheng Chan, Roger C Young, Trent Butler, Roger Smith, Jonathan W Paul
Research insights into uterine function and the mechanisms of labour have been hindered by the lack of suitable animal and cellular models. The use of traditional culturing methods limits the exploration of complex uterine functions, such as cell interactions, connectivity and contractile behaviour, as it fails to mimic the three-dimensional (3D) nature of uterine cell interactions in vivo. Animal models are an option, however, use of these models is constrained by ethical considerations as well as translational limitations to humans...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Hongqin Song, Dandan Liu, Jinjun Xu, Lili Wu, Yabin Dai, Mei Liu, Jianping Tao
Twenty-one, 25-day-old, artificially reared, coccidia-free goslings (Anser cygnoides var. domestica) were inoculated orally with 0.5 × 10(4), 1 × 10(4), or 100 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria anseris and sacrificed at intervals from 24 to 216 h post-inoculation (HPI). Nine uninfected goslings served as negative controls. Parts of the visceral organs from goslings, including the intestines, kidneys, and liver, were fixed, sectioned, and observed microscopically. The results revealed that two generations of meronts occurred in the life cycle of E...
October 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
N Rostami, R C Shields, S A Yassin, A R Hawkins, L Bowen, T L Luo, A H Rickard, R Holliday, P M Preshaw, N S Jakubovics
Extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been identified in the matrix of many different monospecies biofilms in vitro, including some of those produced by oral bacteria. In many cases, eDNA stabilizes the structure of monospecies biofilms. Here, the authors aimed to determine whether eDNA is an important component of natural, mixed-species oral biofilms, such as plaque on natural teeth or dental implants. To visualize eDNA in oral biofilms, approaches for fluorescently stained eDNA with either anti-DNA antibodies or an ultrasensitive cell-impermeant dye, YOYO-1, were first developed using Enterococcus faecalis, an organism that has previously been shown to produce extensive eDNA structures within biofilms...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
Ronny Peri-Naor, Leila Motiei, David Margulies
Signal transduction pathways, which control the response of cells to various environmental signals, are mediated by the function of signaling proteins that interact with each other and activate one other with high specificity. Synthetic agents that mimic the function of these proteins might therefore be used to generate unnatural signal transduction steps and consequently, alter the cell's function. We present guidelines for designing 'chemical transducers' that can induce artificial communication between native proteins...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Walter H Reinhart
The hematocrit (Hct) determines the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, but also increases blood viscosity and thus flow resistance. From this dual role the concept of an optimum Hct for tissue oxygenation has been derived. Viscometric studies using the ratio Hct/blood viscosity at high shear rate showed an optimum Hct of 50-60% for red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in plasma. For the perfusion of an artificial microvascular network with 5-70μm channels the optimum Hct was 60-70% for high driving pressures. With lower shear rates or driving pressures the optimum Hct shifted towards lower values...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Delphine Mieulet, Sylvie Jolivet, Maud Rivard, Laurence Cromer, Aurore Vernet, Pauline Mayonove, Lucie Pereira, Gaëtan Droc, Brigitte Courtois, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Raphael Mercier
Introduction of clonal reproduction through seeds (apomixis) in crops has the potential to revolutionize agriculture by allowing self-propagation of any elite variety, in particular F1 hybrids. In the sexual model plant Arabidopsis thaliana synthetic clonal reproduction through seeds can be artificially implemented by (i) combining three mutations to turn meiosis into mitosis (MiMe) and (ii) crossing the obtained clonal gametes with a line expressing modified CENH3 and whose genome is eliminated in the zygote...
October 21, 2016: Cell Research
Xuan Zhou, Wei Zhu, Margaret Nowicki, Shida Miao, Haitao Cui, Benjamin Holmes, Robert I Glazer, Lijie Grace Zhang
Metastasis is one of the deadliest consequences of breast cancer, with bone being one of the primary sites of occurrence. Insufficient 3D biomimetic models currently exist to replicate this process in vitro. In this study, we developed a biomimetic bone matrix using 3D bioprinting technology to investigate the interaction between breast cancer (BrCa) cells and bone stromal cells (fetal osteoblasts and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)). A tabletop stereolithography 3D bioprinter was employed to fabricate a series of bone matrices consisting of osteoblasts/MSCs encapsulated in gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA)...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ling Qi, Hongquan Yu, Yu Zhang, Donghai Zhao, Peng Lv, Yue Zhong, Ye Xu
M2 tumor-associated macrophage has been found to play a supportive role in the progression of glioma. The underlying mechanism, nevertheless, has been largely unknown. In our study, to investigate how M2 macrophage played role in glioma, firstly we've analyzed the clinicopathological significance of M2 macrophage existence on clinical tissues of glioma using detection of CD163 expression with immunohistochemistry. Then, we've artificially induced M2 macrophage from human monocyte cell line THP-1, followed by co-culture with glioma cell lines in vitro...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
P Han, X R Niu, X Y Du, Z C Chen, Y Xu, Y Cheng, Y Gao, Q Zhang, M Xu
Cochlear implant (CI) is an artificial electronic device which can provide a sense of sound to a patient with severe or profound hearing loss. Pathological changes have been observed after CI surgery, which might influence the effectiveness of the CI procedure. In this review, we divided the postoperative pathological changes of the temporal bone into two categories according to different stages: immediate trauma and delayed side effects. Immediate trauma might arise from traumatic insertion of the electrode during CI surgery, which included trauma at cochleostomy site, lateral wall trauma, basilar membrane injury, osseous lamina fracture and modiolar injury...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Yoon Kim, Amin Tamadon, Seung-Yup Ku
In vitro culture of ovarian follicles is a promising bioengineering technique for preserving fecundity in reproductive age female by providing fertilizable oocytes. Successful clinical application should be preceded by developing the protocols that can efficiently overcome follicular cell apoptosis since the apoptosis is a critical phenomenon in in vivo folliculogenesis and in in vitro follicular maturation. Numerous pro-survival and anti-apoptotic molecules including follicular developmental regulators have been reported to be involved in the intra-ovarian apoptosis...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Abhishek Srivastava, Katherine D McMahon, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Hans-Peter Grossart
The National Center for Biotechnology Information [] database enlists more than 15,500 bacterial species. But this also includes a plethora of uncultured bacterial representations. Owing to their metabolism, they directly influence biogeochemical cycles, which underscores the the important status of bacteria on our planet. To study the function of a gene from an uncultured bacterium, we have undertaken a de novo gene synthesis approach. Actinobacteria of the acI-B subcluster are important but yet uncultured members of the bacterioplankton in temperate lakes of the northern hemisphere such as oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (NE Germany)...
December 2015: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Tetsushi Kubota, Shinji Kuroda, Toshiaki Morihiro, Hiroshi Tazawa, Shunsuke Kagawa, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara
Trastuzumab(Tmab)is a humanized monoclonalantibody that binds to the human epidermalgrowth factor receptor 2 (HER2). It is clinically used for HER2-positive breast and gastric cancers; however, the use of Tmab is restricted to tumors expressing high levels of HER2(accounting for only 20%of tumors), and Tmab cannot be used for tumors resistant to Tmab. Although novel HER2-targeted agents have been developed to treat Tmab-resistant tumors, none of these have shown clinical efficacy in gastric cancer patients...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Hans Lehrach
Every human is unique. We differ in our genomes, environment, behavior, disease history, and past and current medical treatment-a complex catalog of differences that often leads to variations in the way each of us responds to a particular therapy. We argue here that true personalization of drug therapies will rely on "virtual patient" models based on a detailed characterization of the individual patient by molecular, imaging, and sensor techniques. The models will be based, wherever possible, on the molecular mechanisms of disease processes and drug action but can also expand to hybrid models including statistics/machine learning/artificial intelligence-based elements trained on available data to address therapeutic areas or therapies for which insufficient information on mechanisms is available...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Alejandra Itzel González-Ramírez, Adrián Ramírez-Granillo, María Gabriela Medina-Canales, Aída Verónica Rodríguez-Tovar, María Angeles Martínez-Rivera
BACKGROUND: Biofilms are a highly structured consortia of microorganisms that adhere to a substrate and are encased within an extracellular matrix (ECM) that is produced by the organisms themselves. Aspergillus fumigatus is a biotechnological fungus that has a medical and phytopathogenic significance, and its biofilm occurs in both natural and artificial environments; therefore, studies on the stages observed in biofilm formation are of great significance due to the limited knowledge that exists on this specific topic and because there are multiple applications that are being carried out...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Franziska Ertmer, Harriëtte Oldenhof, Saskia Schütze, Karl Rohn, Willem F Wolkers, Harald Sieme
If the physiological balance between production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is shifted towards production of ROS this may result in accumulation of cell damage over time. In this study stallion spermatozoa were incubated with xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X-XO) to artificially generate defined levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide resulting in sub-lethal oxidative damage. The effects of X-XO treatment on various sperm characteristics were studied. Special emphasis was placed on sperm osmotic tolerance pre-freeze and its correlation with cryosurvival, given that cryopreservation exposes cells to osmotic stress...
October 19, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Svatopluk Binder, Adéla Hanáková, Kristína Tománková, Klára Pížová, Robert Bajgar, Barbora Manišová, Kristina Kejlová, Hana Bendová, Dagmar Jírová, Hana Kolářová
AIM: Natural or artificial substances have become an inseparable part of our lives. It is questionable whether adequate testing has been performed in order to ensure these substances do not pose a serious health risk. The principal aim of our research was to clarify the potential risk of adding essential oils to food, beverages and cosmetic products. METHODS: The toxicity of substances frequently employed in cosmetics, aromatherapy and food industry (bergamot oil, Litsea cubeba oil, orange oil, citral) were investigated using cell line NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblasts) with/without UV irradiation...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Hui Cheng, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongyan Wang, Na Sun, Min Liu, Hongxia Chen, Renjun Pei
Riboswitches are functional non-coding RNA regulatory components that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in diverse organisms. In particular, using riboswitches to modulate RNA interference (RNAi) enables temporal and spatial control of gene expression in mammalian cells. Herein, a ribozyme gene switch to activate RNAi was fabricated for the artificial regulation of versatile gene silencing through the interaction of an RNA aptamer with small molecules. The device comprised an allosteric HDV ribozyme with an embedded theophylline aptamer and a primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) to silence the MAP4K4 gene in hepatic (HepG2) cells, aiming to achieve dose-dependent control of the activation of RNAi, and then the regulation of the MAP4K4 gene by theophylline...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Grigory A Stepanov, Julia A Filippova, Anna A Nushtaeva, Elena V Kuligina, Olga A Koval, Vladimir A Richter, Dmitriy V Semenov
Fragments of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) were found among various non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) circulating in human blood. Currently, the function of such cell-free sno-derived-RNAs is not clearly defined. This work is aimed at identifying regulatory pathways controlled by extracellular snoRNAs. In order to determine the molecular targets and pathways affected by artificial snoRNAs, we performed Illumina array analysis of MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells transfected with box C/D RNAs. The genes related to the innate immune response and apoptotic cascades were found to be activated in transfected cells compared with control cells...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
O Sakiragaoglu, A L Munn
To inhibit telomerase activity, a construct which contains artificial introns in the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene that encodes small hairpin RNA (shRNA) sequences that target human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression was designed and tested for its effect on lung cancer cell line. On intron splicing from the construct, intronic sequences were released and formed shRNA in the cells. After transfection of the construct, hTERT mRNA expression decreased by approximately 55 % in A549 cells...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
D G A B Oonincx, N Volk, J J E Diehl, J J A van Loon, G Belušič
Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that BSF ommatidia contained UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells, allowing trichromatic vision. An illumination system for indoor breeding based on UV, blue and green LEDs was designed and its efficiency was compared with illumination by fluorescent tubes which have been successfully used to sustain a BSF colony for five years...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
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