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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352347/autologous-cell-based-therapy-for-treatment-of-large-bone-defects-from-bench-to-bedside
#1
REVIEW
R Verboket, M Leiblein, C Seebach, C Nau, M Janko, M Bellen, H Bönig, D Henrich, I Marzi
OBJECTIVES: Reconstruction of long segmental bone defects is demanding for patients and surgeons, and associated with long-term treatment periods and substantial complication rates in addition to high costs. While defects up to 4-5 cm length might be filled up with autologous bone graft, heterologous bone from cadavers, or artificial bone graft substitutes, current options to reconstruct bone defects greater than 5 cm consist of either vascularized free bone transfers, the Masquelet technique or the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350716/three-dimensional-multiscale-fiber-matrices-development-and-characterization-for-increased-hepg2-functional-maintenance-for-bio-artificial-liver-application
#2
Surendra Kumar Verma, Akshay Modi, Jayesh Bellare
The development of a cell-growth substrate that provides a nature-like microenvironment, promotes cell adhesion, and maintains the cells' functional activities is a research focus in the field of tissue engineering. In the present study, three-dimensional micro-nano multiscale fiber-based substrates were developed by depositing biocompatible polycaprolactone (PCL)/PCL-Chitosan (C)/PCL-C-Gelatin (G) electrospun nanofibers (NFs) on the outer surface of hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) in one step. A comparison study with regard to physico-chemical characterization, hemocompatibility, cytotoxicity, and cellular functionality was performed with the developed matrices...
January 19, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349676/environment-friendly-synthesis-of-trace-element-zn-sr-and-f-codoping-hydroxyapatite-with-non-cytotoxicity-and-improved-osteoblast-proliferation-and-differentiation
#3
Shengjie Xiao, Ming Wang, Liping Wang, Yingchun Zhu
Hydroxyapatite (HAp, Ca10[PO4]6[OH]2) doped with numerous trace elements possesses sensational biochemical effects in natural bones. To study the biochemical function of Zn, Sr, and F elements, a series of neoteric HAp biomaterials with Zn, Sr, and F concentrations close to natural bones are firstly synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal method. These materials are characterized through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). All the synthesized materials are HAp phase...
January 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348720/gintonin-absorption-in-intestinal-model-systems
#4
Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Hyeon-Joong Kim, Sang-Deuk Park, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Sung-Hee Hwang, Seung-Yeol Nah
Background: Recently, we identified a novel ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid receptor ligand, called gintonin. We showed that gintonin induces [Ca2+]i transient-mediated morphological changes, proliferation, and migration in cells expressing lysophosphatidic acid receptors and that oral administration of gintonin exhibits anti-Alzheimer disease effects in model mice. However, little is known about the intestinal absorption of gintonin. The aim of this study was to investigate gintonin absorption using two model systems...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346950/generalized-archimedes-principle-in-active-fluids
#5
Nitzan Razin, Raphael Voituriez, Jens Elgeti, Nir S Gov
We show how a gradient in the motility properties of noninteracting pointlike active particles can cause a pressure gradient that pushes a large inert object. We calculate the force on an object inside a system of active particles with position-dependent motion parameters, in one and two dimensions, and show that a modified Archimedes' principle is satisfied. We characterize the system, both in terms of the model parameters and in terms of experimentally measurable quantities: the spatial profiles of the density, velocity and pressure...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346562/scaffold-free-trachea-regeneration-by-tissue-engineering-with-bio-3d-printing
#6
Daisuke Taniguchi, Keitaro Matsumoto, Tomoshi Tsuchiya, Ryusuke Machino, Yosuke Takeoka, Abdelmotagaly Elgalad, Kiyofumi Gunge, Katsunori Takagi, Yasuaki Taura, Go Hatachi, Naoto Matsuo, Naoya Yamasaki, Koichi Nakayama, Takeshi Nagayasu
OBJECTIVES: Currently, most of the artificial airway organs still require scaffolds; however, such scaffolds exhibit several limitations. Alternatively, the use of an autologous artificial trachea without foreign materials and immunosuppressants may solve these issues and constitute a preferred tool. The rationale of this study was to develop a new scaffold-free approach for an artificial trachea using bio-3D printing technology. Here, we assessed the circumferential tracheal replacement using scaffold-free trachea-like grafts generated from isolated cells in an inbred animal model...
January 15, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345308/positive-size-speed-relationships-in-gametes-and-vegetative-cells-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-implications-for-the-evolution-of-sperm
#7
Catherine E Seed, Joseph L Tomkins
It is commonly held that differences in gametes of the two sexes (anisogamy) evolved from ancestors whose gametes were similar in size and behaviour (isogamy). Underlying many hypotheses explaining anisogamy are assumed relationships between cell size and speed in the ancestral isogamous population. Using the isogamous alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we explored size-speed distributions in vegetative and gamete cells of ten cell lines, and clonal data from within two cell lines. We applied an independent speed selection approach to gamete populations of C...
January 18, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344646/engineered-zinc-finger-transcription-factors-inhibit-the-replication-and-transcription-of-hbv-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#8
Wei Luo, Junxia Wang, Dengfeng Xu, Huili Bai, Yangli Zhang, Yuhong Zhang, Xiaosong Li
In the present study, an artificial zinc-finger transcription factor eukaryotic expression vector specifically recognizing and binding to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) enhancer (Enh) was constructed, which inhibited the replication and expression of HBV DNA. The HBV EnhI‑specific pcDNA3.1‑artificial transcription factor (ATF) vector was successfully constructed, and then transformed or injected into HepG2.2.15 cells and HBV transgenic mice, respectively. The results demonstrated that the HBV EnhI (1,070‑1,234 bp)‑specific ATF significantly inhibited the replication and transcription of HBV DNA in vivo and in vitro...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344005/biological-clocks-their-relevance-to-immune-allergic-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Roberto Paganelli, Claudia Petrarca, Mario Di Gioacchino
The 2017 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for the discoveries made in the past 15 years on the genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating many physiological functions, has renewed the attention to the importance of circadian rhythms. These originate from a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, photoentrained via direct connection with melanopsin containing, intrinsically light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells, and it projects to periphery, thus creating an inner circadian rhythm...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342111/cytotoxicity-evaluation-of-turmeric-extract-incorporated-oil-in-water-nanoemulsion
#10
Hee Jeong Yoon, Xiaowei Zhang, Min Gyeong Kang, Gyeong Jin Kim, Sun Young Shin, Sang Hong Baek, Bom Nae Lee, Su Jung Hong, Jun Tae Kim, Kwonho Hong, Hojae Bae
To overcome the drawbacks of conventional drug delivery system, nanoemulsion have been developed as an advanced form for improving the delivery of active ingredients. However, safety evaluation is crucial during the development stage before the commercialization. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of two types of newly developed nanoemulsions. Turmeric extract-loaded nanoemulsion powder-10.6 (TE-NEP-10.6, high content of artificial surfactant Tween 80), which forms the optimal nanoemulsion, and the TE-NEP-8...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341462/dna-origami-scaffolds-as-templates-for-functional-tetrameric-kir3-k-channels
#11
Tatsuki Kurokawa, Shigeki Kiyonaka, Eiji Nakata, Masayuki Endo, Shohei Koyama, Emiko Mori, Nam Ha Tran, Huyen Dinh, Yuki Suzuki, Kumi Hidaka, Masaaki Kawata, Chikara Sato, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Takashi Morii, Yasuo Mori
In native systems, scaffolding proteins play important roles in assembling proteins into complexes to transduce signals. This concept is yet to be incorporated in assembling functional transmembrane protein complexes in artificial systems. To address this issue, DNA origami has potentiality to serve as scaffolds that arrange proteins at specific positions in complexes. Here, we report that Kir3 K+ channel proteins are assembled through zinc-finger protein (ZFP)-adaptors at specific locations on DNA origami scaffolds...
January 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341170/identification-and-characterization-of-a-new-three-component-nicotinic-acid-hydroxylase-nahab1-b2-from-pusillimonas-sp-strain-t2
#12
Mei Yuan, Yanting Zhang, Lingling Zhao, Yun Ma, Qin He, Jian He, Jiguo Qiu
Nicotinic acid (NA) is ubiquitous in nature and its microbial degradation mechanisms are diverse. In this study, Pusillimonas sp. strain T2 was found to be capable of utilizing NA as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. This strain could completely degrade 300 mg L-1 NA within 3.5 h at 30 °C and pH 7.0. And one of the degradation intermediate of NA was identified as 6-hydroxynicotinic acid (6HNA). The draft genome sequences of strain T2 was determined to have a total length of 3.3 M bp and 3,054 proteins were predicted...
January 16, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340795/the-sesquiterpene-botrydial-from-botrytis-cinerea-induces-phosphatidic-acid-production-in-tomato-cell-suspensions
#13
Juan Martin D'Ambrosio, Gabriela Gonorazky, Daniela J Sueldo, Javier Moraga, Andrés Arruebarrena Di Palma, Lorenzo Lamattina, Isidro González Collado, Ana Maria Laxalt
The phytotoxin botrydial triggers PA production in tomato cell suspensions via PLD and PLC/DGK activation. PLC/DGK-derived PA is partially required for botrydial-induced ROS generation. Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a phospholipid second messenger involved in the induction of plant defense responses. It is generated via two distinct enzymatic pathways, either via phospholipase D (PLD) or by the sequential action of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase (PLC/DGK). Botrydial is a phytotoxic sesquiterpene generated by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea that induces diverse plant defense responses, such as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 16, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339510/artificial-intelligence-exploration-of-unstable-protocells-leads-to-predictable-properties-and-discovery-of-collective-behavior
#14
Laurie J Points, James Ward Taylor, Jonathan Grizou, Kevin Donkers, Leroy Cronin
Protocell models are used to investigate how cells might have first assembled on Earth. Some, like oil-in-water droplets, can be seemingly simple models, while able to exhibit complex and unpredictable behaviors. How such simple oil-in-water systems can come together to yield complex and life-like behaviors remains a key question. Herein, we illustrate how the combination of automated experimentation and image processing, physicochemical analysis, and machine learning allows significant advances to be made in understanding the driving forces behind oil-in-water droplet behaviors...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338732/transcriptional-profile-and-epstein-barr-virus-infection-status-of-laser-cut-immune-infiltrates-from-the-brain-of-patients-with-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Caterina Veroni, Barbara Serafini, Barbara Rosicarelli, Corrado Fagnani, Francesca Aloisi
BACKGROUND: It is debated whether multiple sclerosis (MS) might result from an immunopathological response toward an active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection brought into the central nervous system (CNS) by immigrating B cells. Based on this model, a relationship should exist between the local immune milieu and EBV infection status in the MS brain. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed expression of viral and cellular genes in brain-infiltrating immune cells. METHODS: Twenty-three postmortem snap-frozen brain tissue blocks from 11 patients with progressive MS were selected based on good RNA quality and prominent immune cell infiltration...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338713/lncrna-dancr-involved-osteolysis-after-total-hip-arthroplasty-by-regulating-foxo1-expression-to-inhibit-osteoblast-differentiation
#16
Zhenyu Tang, Zongming Gong, Xiaoliang Sun
BACKGROUND: Aseptic loosening of artificial hip joint is a major complication affecting the long-term use of the artificial hip joint, and is the main cause of joint replacement failure. However, the mechanism of aseptic loosening of THR has not yet cleared. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanism of DANCR in osteoblast differentiation (OD). METHODS: We detected the expressions of DANCR and FOXO1 in clinical samples and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by qRT-PCR and western blotting...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337674/a-study-on-blocking-store-operated-ca2-entry-in-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells-with-xyloketals-from-marine-fungi
#17
Jie-Bin Zhou, Ying-Ying Sun, Ying-Lin Zheng, Chu-Qin Yu, Hua-Qing Lin, Ji-Yan Pang
In this study, the effect of four xyloketals 1-4 on store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) was investigated in primary distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) isolated from mice. The results showed that xyloketal A (1), an unusual ketal with C-3 symmetry, exhibited strong SOCE blocking activity. Secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) was also inhibited by xyloketal A. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) of 1-4 suggested that these xyloketals penetrated easily through the cell membrane...
December 20, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336177/in-vivo-assessment-of-a-nanofibrous-silk-tube-as-nerve-guide-for-sciatic-nerve-regeneration
#18
Maryam Ebrahimi, Jafar Ai, Esmaeil Biazar, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Arash Khojasteh, Meysam Yazdankhah, Siavash Sharifi, Arman Ai, Saeed Heidari-Keshel
A nanofibrous silk nerve conduit has been evaluated for its efficiency based on the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. The designed tubes with or without Schwann cells were implanted into a 10 mm gap in the sciatic nerves of the rats. Four months after the surgery, the regenerated nerves were monitored and evaluated by macroscopic assessments and histology. The results demonstrated that the nanofibrous grafts, especially in the presence of Schwann cells, enabled reconstruction of the rat sciatic nerve trunk with a restoration of nerve continuity and formation of nerve fibres with myelination...
January 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334786/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-an-update
#19
Rui-Hong Zhao, Yu Shi, Hong Zhao, Wei Wu, Ji-Fang Sheng
Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a common pattern of end-stage liver disease in clinical practice and occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis. New progress in recent years leads to a better understanding of this disease. Areas covered: This review updates the current comprehensive knowledge about HBV-ACLF from epidemiological studies, experimental studies, and clinical studies and provide new insights into the definition, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, nature history, pathogenesis, treatment and prognostication of HBV-ACLF...
January 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334310/dendritic-polyglycerol-nanoparticles-show-charge-dependent-bio-distribution-in-early-human-placental-explants-and-reduce-hcg-secretion
#20
Herbert Juch, Liudmila Nikitina, Sabine Reimann, Martin Gauster, Gottfried Dohr, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Denise Hoch, Karin Kornmueller, Rainer Haag
A thorough understanding of nanoparticle bio-distribution at the feto-maternal interface will be a prerequisite for their diagnostic or therapeutic application in women of childbearing age and for teratologic risk assessment. Therefore, the tissue interaction of biocompatible dendritic polyglycerol nanoparticles (dPG-NPs) with first- trimester human placental explants were analyzed and compared to less sophisticated trophoblast-cell based models. First-trimester human placental explants, BeWo cells and primary trophoblast cells from human term placenta were exposed to fluorescence labeled, ∼5 nm dPG-NPs, with differently charged surfaces, at concentrations of 1 µM and 10 nM, for 6 and 24 h...
January 15, 2018: Nanotoxicology
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