Read by QxMD icon Read

Artificial cell

Naoaki Rikihisa, Mai Tominaga, Shoji Watanabe, Nobuyuki Mitsukawa, Yoshiaki Saito, Hiromi Sakai
Our previous study proposed using artificial blood cells (hemoglobin vesicles, Hb-Vs) as photosensitizers in dye laser treatment for port-wine stains (PWSs). Dye laser photons are absorbed by red blood cells (RBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) mixture, which potentially produce more heat and photocoagulation and effectively destroy endothelial cells. Hb-Vs combination therapy will improve clinical outcomes of dye laser treatment for PWSs because very small vessels do not contain sufficient RBCs and they are poor absorbers/heaters of lasers...
March 15, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Mark Owyong, Gizem Efe, Michael Owyong, Aamna J Abbasi, Vaishnavi Sitarama, Vicki Plaks
There is a growing list of cancer immunotherapeutics approved for use in a population with an increasing number of aged individuals. Cancer immunotherapy (CIT) mediates tumor destruction by activating anti-tumor immune responses that have been silenced through the oncogenic process. However, in an aging individual, immune deregulation is positively correlated with age. In this context, it is vital to examine the age-related changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and specifically, those directly affecting critical players to ensure CIT efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
James W Hindley, Yuval Elani, Catriona M McGilvery, Simak Ali, Charlotte L Bevan, Robert V Law, Oscar Ces
Cell-sized vesicles have tremendous potential both as miniaturised pL reaction vessels and in bottom-up synthetic biology as chassis for artificial cells. In both these areas the introduction of light-responsive modules affords increased functionality, for example, to initiate enzymatic reactions in the vesicle interior with spatiotemporal control. Here we report a system composed of nested vesicles where the inner compartments act as phototransducers, responding to ultraviolet irradiation through diacetylene polymerisation-induced pore formation to initiate enzymatic reactions...
March 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Bivas Panigrahi, Chang-Hung Lu, Neha Ghayal, Chia-Yuan Chen
The zebrafish sperm activation profoundly depends upon the homogeneous mixing of the sperm cells with its diluent in a quick succession as it alters the cell's extracellular medium and initiates their motility. Manual stirring, the traditional method for zebrafish sperm activation is tedious, time-consuming, and has a poor outcome. In this aspect, an artificial cilia embedded serpentine microfluidic is designed through which hydrodynamic factors of the microfluidic environment can be precisely regulated to harness uniform mixing, hence ensuring a superior sperm activation...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vu Huy Luong, Takenao Chino, Noritaka Oyama, Takashi Matsushita, Yoko Sasaki, Dai Ogura, Shin-Ichiro Niwa, Tanima Biswas, Akiyuki Hamasaki, Mikako Fujita, Yoshinari Okamoto, Masami Otsuka, Hironobu Ihn, Minoru Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling is well known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). We previously developed an artificial molecule, the histidine-pyridine-histidine ligand derivative HPH-15, which may have an antifibrotic effect. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effects of this drug in human skin fibroblasts and in a preclinical model of SSc. METHODS: The effects of HPH-15 on expression of extracellular matrix components and TGF-β signaling in human dermal fibroblasts were analyzed...
March 15, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Javier Vicente-Tejedor, Miguel Marchena, Laura Ramírez, Diego García-Ayuso, Violeta Gómez-Vicente, Celia Sánchez-Ramos, Pedro de la Villa, Francisco Germain
Light causes damage to the retina (phototoxicity) and decreases photoreceptor responses to light. The most harmful component of visible light is the blue wavelength (400-500 nm). Different filters have been tested, but so far all of them allow passing a lot of this wavelength (70%). The aim of this work has been to prove that a filter that removes 94% of the blue component may protect the function and morphology of the retina significantly. Three experimental groups were designed. The first group was unexposed to light, the second one was exposed and the third one was exposed and protected by a blue-blocking filter...
2018: PloS One
Kotaro Shimai, Takehiro G Kusakabe
Ascidians possess relatively small and compact genomes. This feature enables us to easily isolate cis-regulatory DNAs of genes of interest. Particularly, cis-regulatory DNAs of genes showing tissue- or cell-type-specific expression are routinely used for the artificial induction of gene expression. This strategy helps us to label cells, tissues, and organs of interest, and to investigate gene functions through overexpression, ectopic expression, and the disruption of functions by dominant-negative forms. Thus, cis-regulatory DNAs provide a powerful tool for tissue-specific genetic manipulation in studies of ascidian development and physiology...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yuval Elani, Tatiana Trantidou, Douglas Wylie, Linda Dekker, Karen Polizzi, Robert V Law, Oscar Ces
There is increasing interest in constructing artificial cells by functionalising lipid vesicles with biological and synthetic machinery. Due to their reduced complexity and lack of evolved biochemical pathways, the capabilities of artificial cells are limited in comparison to their biological counterparts. We show that encapsulating living cells in vesicles provides a means for artificial cells to leverage cellular biochemistry, with the encapsulated cells serving organelle-like functions as living modules inside a larger synthetic cell assembly...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yu Moriguchi, Dae-Sung Lee, Ryota Chijimatsu, Khair Thamina, Kazuto Masuda, Dai Itsuki, Hideki Yoshikawa, Satoshi Hamaguchi, Akira Myoui
In the physiochemical sciences, plasma is used to describe an ionized gas. Previous studies have implicated plasma surface treatment in the enhancement of hydrophilicity of implanted musculoskeletal reconstructive materials. Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics, widely used in bone tissue regeneration, have made great advancements to skeletal surgery. In the present study, we investigate the impact of low-pressure plasma on the interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA) both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, when used with oxygen, can augment the hydrophilicity of non-porous HA surfaces and the osteoconductivity of the IP-CHA disc via increased water penetration of inner porous structures, as demonstrated through microfocus computed tomography (μCT) assay...
2018: PloS One
Sellappan Selvaraju, Sivashanmugam Parthipan, Lakshminarayana Somashekar, B Krishnan Binsila, Atul P Kolte, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Janivara Parameshwaraiah Ravindra, Stephen A Krawetz
With artificial insemination (AI) and other precision dependent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) being followed in large scale in human and animal reproduction, assessing semen quality and fertilizability is under continuous scrutiny. Various tests have been developed to predict semen quality, but so far no single, highly reliable test is available. In this regard, transcriptomic profiling of spermatozoa assumes significance as it carries the information about spermatogenesis, sperm function, and paternal roles in post-fertilization events...
March 14, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Mao Li, Stefanie Mosel, Shirley K Knauer, Carsten Schmuck
Herein, we report a rather simple strategy to enhance the anion binding ability of a dipeptide to achieve cell uptake and also protein delivery. Peptide 1, composed of only two synthetic amino acids with an artificial anion binding site in the side chains, has an overall molecular weight of only 630 Da and demonstrated strong binding affinity (107 M-1 ) and clustering ability with heparin as a model for cell surface sugars. Furthermore, peptide 1 is also efficiently taken up by cells most likely via endocytosis...
March 14, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Clifford M Csizmar, Jacob Petersburg, Alexander Hendricks, Lawrence A Stern, Benjamin J Hackel, Carston R Wagner
Membrane-engineered cells displaying antigen-targeting ligands are useful as both scientific tools and clinical therapeutics. While genetically-encoded artificial receptors have proven efficacious, their scope remains limited as this approach is not amenable to all cell types and the modification is often permanent. Our group has developed a non-genetic method to rapidly, stably, and reversibly modify any cell membrane with a chemically self-assembled nanoring (CSAN) that can function as a prosthetic receptor...
March 14, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Claudia Conte, Francesca Mastrotto, Vincenzo Taresco, Aleksandra Tchoryk, Fabiana Quaglia, Snjezana Stolnik, Cameron Alexander
In the treatment of lung cancer, there is an urgent need of innovative medicines to optimize pharmacological responses of conventional chemotherapeutics while attenuating side effects. Here, we have exploited some relatively unexplored subtle differences in reduction potential, associated with cancer cell microenvironments in addition to the well-known changes in intracellular redox environment. We report the synthesis and application of novel redox-responsive PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) -PEG (polyethylene glycol) nanoparticles (RR-NPs) programmed to change surface properties when entering tumor microenvironments, thus enhance cell internalization of the particles and their drug cargo...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Inga Markeviciute, Wolfgang Frenzel
Sample preparation is a key issue in the analysis of many real samples using ion chromatography (IC). One of the many means of sample preparation that has received considerable attention in recent years is the stopped-flow in-line dialysis approach hyphenated to IC. Using appropriate dialysis membranes undesirable high-molecular weight compounds, colloids and dispersed particulate matter are retained whereas the analyte ions pass through the membrane and are separated and quantified by IC. However, in the many papers about analytical use of in-line dialysis (not only in connection with IC) the retention of undesirable compounds has never been quantified...
August 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
C L Depoix, F Haegemann, F Debiève, C Hubinont
STUDY QUESTION: Is 8% O2 a better percentage of atmospheric oxygen for long-term cultures of human primary term cytotrophoblasts than the conventional 21% O2 traditionally used in cell culture? SUMMARY ANSWER: Human primary term cytotrophoblasts are able to differentiate into syncytiotrophoblasts under both atmospheric oxygen levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cell culture is traditionally done under 21% O2, which is equal to a pO2 of ~160 mm Hg...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Anamaria Balic
The tooth is an intricate composition of precisely patterned, mineralized matrices and soft tissues. Mineralized tissues include enamel (produced by the epithelial cells called ameloblasts), dentin and cementum (produced by mesenchymal cells called odontoblasts and cementoblasts, respectively), and soft tissues, which include the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament along with the invading nerves and blood vessels. It was perceived for a very long time that teeth primarily serve an esthetical function. In recent years, however, the role of healthy teeth, as well as the impact of oral health on general well-being, became more evident...
March 13, 2018: Gerontology
Yuya Otsuka, Toshinori Sato
The structures and amounts of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) produced by cells have attracted much interest because GAG biosynthesis activity can change in cellular processes such as disease and differentiation. β-Xylosides, also called saccharide primers, have been used as artificial acceptors not only to generate GAG oligosaccharides in cells and tissues but also to investigate their biosynthetic pathways. Various analytical methods have been applied to confirm the structure and amounts of GAG oligosaccharides elongated using saccharide primers, yet sample preparation processes such as solid-phase-extraction in analysis can cause experimental error and disrupt accurate comparative quantification of glycosylated products...
March 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Donglai Qi, Qian Li, Chen Chen, Xiang Wang
During the development of artificial red blood cell (RBC) substitutes, oxidation side reaction is one of the major factors that hinder the application of haemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). In order to avoid oxidation toxicity, we designed and prepared natural Hb conjugated with ferulic acid (FA) via simple chemical modification. In addition, the thiol groups on Hb surface were increased via the reaction of Hb with 2-iminothiolane (2-IT) and then modified with FA for the study of anti-oxidant ability...
March 13, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Brittany Berdy, Amy L Spoering, Losee L Ling, Slava S Epstein
Most microbial species remain uncultivated, and modifying artificial nutrient media brings only an incremental increase in cultivability. We reasoned that an alternative way to cultivate species with unknown requirements is to use naturally occurring combinations of growth factors. To achieve this, we moved cultivation into the microbes' natural habitat by placing cells taken from varying environmental samples into diffusion chambers, which are then returned to nature for incubation. By miniaturizing the chambers and placing only one to several cells into each chamber, we can grow and isolate microorganisms in axenic culture in one step...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi, Alexander M Seifalian, Aleksandra M Urbanska, Mir Davood Omrani, John G Hardy, Zahra Madjd, Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi, Hossein Ghanbarian, Peiman Brouki Milan, Masoud Mozafari, Rui L Reis, Subhas C Kundu, Ali Samadikuchaksaraei
Severe burn injuries can lead to delay in healing and devastating scar formation. Attempts are made to develop a suitable skin substitute for scarless healing of such skin wounds. Currently, there is no effective strategy yet for a complete scarless healing after the thermal injuries. In our recent work we fabricate and evaluated a 3D protein-based artificial skin made from decellularized human amniotic membrane (AM) and electrospun nanofibrous silk fibroin (ESF) in vitro. We also characterize both biophysical and cell culture investigation to establish in vitro performance of the developed bilayer scaffolds...
March 12, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"