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Pancreatic function tests

Rym El Khoury, Christopher Kabir, Vijay K Maker, Mihaela Banulescu, Margaret Wasserman, Ajay V Maker
BACKGROUND: A subset of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) will progress to invasive adenocarcinoma, however identifying invasive from non-invasive disease preoperatively remains challenging. The rate of malignancy in resected IPMNs in the US remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the rate of malignancy and factors associated with high-risk pathology in resected IPMNs. METHODS: The most recent annual cohort of patients undergoing pancreatectomy included in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were assessed, and contributions of demographics, preoperative laboratory values, and outcome data to level of IPMN dysplasia were analyzed...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Ahasan Habib, Venkatachalem Sathish, Sanku Mallik, Bashir Khoda
Three-dimensional (3D) bio-printing is a revolutionary technology to reproduce a 3D functional living tissue scaffold in-vitro through controlled layer-by-layer deposition of biomaterials along with high precision positioning of cells. Due to its bio-compatibility, natural hydrogels are commonly considered as the scaffold material. However, the mechanical integrity of a hydrogel material, especially in 3D scaffold architecture, is an issue. In this research, a novel hybrid hydrogel, that is, sodium alginate with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is developed and systematic quantitative characterization tests are conducted to validate its printability, shape fidelity and cell viability...
March 20, 2018: Materials
Jionghuang Chen, Ting Zhao, Shengnan Jia, Senhao Zhou, Liangjing Zhou, Shaowen Wang, Guoping Ding, Guixing Jiang, Liping Cao
Background: P38α is a ubiquitous protein kinase, which plays diverse roles in cancers. Surprisingly, P38α functions vary markedly in different cancers (e.g., cancer suppressor vs cancer promoter). However, there is no report on the expression of P38α, the family's most important member, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its association with clinicoathological parameters and patients' prognosis. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 152 patients who underwent surgery and were pathologically diagnosed with PDAC from September 2013 to September 2015...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Michele F M Sciacca, Rosa Chillemi, Sebastiano Sciuto, Valentina Greco, Concetta Messineo, Samuel A Kotler, Dong-Kuk Lee, Jeffrey R Brender, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy, Carmelo La Rosa, Danilo Milardi
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by the presence of amyloid deposits of the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) in pancreatic β-cells. A wealth of data supports the hypothesis that hIAPP's toxicity is related to an abnormal interaction of amyloids with islet cell membranes. Thus, many studies aimed at finding effective therapies for T2DM focus on the design of molecules that are able to inhibit hIAPP's amyloid growth and the related membrane damage as well. Based on this view and inspired by its known anti-amyloid properties, we have functionalized resveratrol with a phosphoryl moiety (4'-O-PR) that improves its solubility and pharmacological properties...
March 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
M Sassek, E Pruszynska-Oszmalek, K W Nowak
The physiology of porcine pancreatic islets is poorly understood. Orexin A is one of important agents regulating the physiology of porcine pancreatic islets. This study aimed to determine the potential effect of orexin A on the functioning of porcine pancreatic islets. Orexin receptor localization was done by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and Western Blot, both in pancreatic isolated islets and whole pancreas. Secretion of insulin and glucagon from islets after orexin-A treatment was assayed. The viability of pig pancreatic islet cells and level of cleaved/total caspase 3 protein were measured by MTT test (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and Western blotting, respectively...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Line Engelbrechtsen, Yuvaraj Mahendran, Anna Jonsson, Anette Prior Gjesing, Peter E Weeke, Marit E Jørgensen, Kristine Færch, Daniel R Witte, Jens J Holst, Torben Jørgensen, Niels Grarup, Oluf Pedersen, Henrik Vestergaard, Signe Torekov, Jørgen K Kanters, Torben Hansen
BACKGROUND: Patients with long QT syndrome due to rare loss-of-function mutations in the human ether-á-go-go-related gene (hERG) have prolonged QT interval, risk of arrhythmias, increased secretion of insulin and incretins and impaired glucagon response to hypoglycemia. This is caused by a dysfunctional Kv11.1 voltage-gated potassium channel. Based on these findings in patients with rare variants in hERG, we hypothesized that common variants in hERG may also lead to alterations in glucose homeostasis...
March 16, 2018: BMC Genetics
Katarzyna Skrzypek, Yazmin Brito Barrera, Thomas Groth, Dimitrios Stamatialis
INTRODUCTION: Encapsulation of pancreatic islets or beta cells is a promising strategy for treatment of type 1 diabetes by providing an immune isolated environment and allowing for transplantation in a different location than the liver. However, islets used for encapsulation often show lower functionality due to the damaging of islet endothelial cells during the isolation procedure. Factors produced by endothelial cells have great impact on beta cell insulin secretion. Therefore, mutual signaling between endothelial cells and beta cells should be considered for the development of encapsulation systems to achieve high insulin secretion and maintain beta cell viability...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Nicolas S Merle, Anne Grunenwald, Marie-Lucile Figueres, Sophie Chauvet, Marie Daugan, Samantha Knockaert, Tania Robe-Rybkine, Remi Noe, Olivia May, Marie Frimat, Nathan Brinkman, Thomas Gentinetta, Sylvia Miescher, Pascal Houillier, Veronique Legros, Florence Gonnet, Olivier P Blanc-Brude, Marion Rabant, Regis Daniel, Jordan D Dimitrov, Lubka T Roumenina
Intravascular erythrocyte destruction, accompanied by the release of pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory components hemoglobin and heme, is a common event in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases with heterogeneous etiology and clinical features. A frequent adverse effect related to massive hemolysis is the renal injury and inflammation. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether heme--a danger-associated molecular pattern--and ligand for TLR4 or upstream hemolysis-derived products are responsible for these effects...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jason T C Lee, Iryna Shanina, Yung Ning Chu, Marc S Horwitz, James D Johnson
Pancreatic beta-cells are selectively destroyed by the host immune system in type 1 diabetes. Thus, drugs that preserve beta-cell mass and/or function have the potential to prevent or slow the progression of this disease. We recently reported that the use-dependent sodium channel blocker, carbamazepine, protects beta-cells from inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Here, we tested the effects of carbamazepine treatment in female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice by supplementing LabDiet 5053 with 0.5% w/w carbamazepine to achieve serum carbamazepine levels of 14...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jean-Claude Henquin
In vitro studies of human pancreatic islets are critical for understanding normal insulin secretion and its perturbations in diabetic β-cells, but the influence of islet preparation characteristics and organ donor attributes in such experiments is poorly documented. Preparations from normal donors were tested with a standardized protocol evaluating dynamic insulin secretion induced by glucose, tolbutamide, and cAMP (forskolin). Secretion rates, normalized to insulin content (fractional insulin secretion), were analyzed as a function of preparation and donor characteristics...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Xin Qian, Hui Wang, Gangyi Yang, Zhengnan Gao, Yong Luo, Aimei Dong, Fang Zhang, Mingtong Xu, Shiping Liu, Xin Yang, Yanyan Chen, Guangwei Li
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the effects of pioglitazone (PIO) on insulin resistance and first phase insulin secretion among obese and lean Chinese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Sixty-eight drug-naïve patients with T2DM were treated with PIO for 16 weeks. Before and after the treatment, insulin sensitivity was evaluated by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test. Plasma insulin levels at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 min during intravenous glucose tolerance test were determined to calculate the first phase insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell function...
March 13, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Jiyoung Bu, Sangmin Youn, Wooil Kwon, Kee Taek Jang, Sanghyup Han, Sunjong Han, Younghun You, Jin Seok Heo, Seong Ho Choi, Dong Wook Choi
Backgrounds/Aims: Various factors have been reported as prognostic factors of non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-pNETs). There remains some controversy as to the factors which might actually serve to successfully prognosticate future manifestation and diagnosis of NF-pNETs. As well, consensus regarding management strategy has never been achieved. The aim of this study is to further investigate potential prognostic factors using a large single-center cohort to help determine the management strategy of NF-pNETs...
February 2018: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
H R Prasanna Kumar, H Basavana Gowdappa, Tejashwi Hosmani, Tejashri Urs
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic abnormal metabolic condition, which manifests elevated blood sugar level over a prolonged period. The pancreatic endocrine system generally gets affected during diabetes, but often abnormal exocrine functions are also manifested due to its proximity to the endocrine system. Fecal elastase-1 (FE-1) is found to be an ideal biomarker to reflect the exocrine insufficiency of the pancreas. Aim: The aim of this study was conducted to assess exocrine dysfunction of the pancreas in patients with type-2 DM (T2DM) by measuring FE levels and to associate the level of hyperglycemia with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Rita Sofia Garcia Ribeiro, Ashwini Ketkar-Atre, Ting Yin, Karim Louchami, Tom Struys, Ivo Lambrichts, Abdullah Sener, Willy Jean Malaisse, Marcel De Cuyper, Uwe Himmelreich
Pancreatic islets (PIs) transplantation is an alternative approach for the treatment of severe forms of type 1 diabetes (T1D). To monitor the success of transplantation, it is desirable to follow the location of engrafted PIs non-invasively. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of transplanted PIs is a feasible cell tracking method; however, this requires labeling with a suitable contrast agent prior to transplantation. We have tested the feasibility of cationic magnetoliposomes (MLs), compared to commercial contrast agents (Endorem and Resovist), by labeling insulinoma cells and freshly isolated rat PIs...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
Yasutake Tanaka, Kiyomi Takahashi, Jun-Ichi Kato, Ai Sawazaki, Taiki Akasaka, Naoko Fujita, Toshihide Kumamaru, Yuhi Saito, Bungo Shirouchi, Masao Sato
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease spreading worldwide that has been reported to worsen the development and progression of other diseases (cancer, vascular diseases and dementia). To establish functional rice lines with anti-postprandial hyperglycaemic effects, we developed mutant rice lines, which lack one or two gene(s) related to starch synthesis, and evaluated their effects. Powder of mutant rice lines or other grains was loaded to rats fasted overnight (oral grain powder loading test). Incremental area under time-concentration curves (iAUC) were calculated with monitored blood glucose levels...
March 13, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Shuli Yang, Lihui Si, Limei Fan, Wenwen Jian, Huilin Pei, Ruixin Lin
Lycium barbarum L . (LBL) has beneficial effects on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but the related mechanism remains unclear. Polysaccharides of LBL (LBLP) are the main bioactive components of LBL. miR-33, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription 1 (SREBF1) affect lipid profiles, which are associated with GDM risk. LBLP may exert protective against GDM by affecting these molecules. Four LBLP fractions: LBLP-I, LBLP-II, LBLP-III, and LBLP-IV were isolated from LBL and further purified by using DEAE-Sephadex column...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Louise J C J den Biggelaar, Simone J P M Eussen, Simone J S Sep, Andrea Mari, Ele Ferrannini, Marleen M van Greevenbroek, Carla J van der Kallen, Casper G Schalkwijk, Ilja C W Arts, Coen D A Stehouwer, Pieter C Dagnelie
PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by both impaired pancreatic β-cell function (BCF) and insulin resistance. In the etiology of T2DM, BCF basically determines whether a person with a certain degree of insulin resistance develops T2DM, as β-cells are able to compensatorily increase insulin secretion. The effects of dietary intake on BCF are largely unknown. Our study aim was to investigate whether dietary macronutrient intake predicts BCF. METHODS: Prospective data (median follow-up 7 years) of 303 individuals recruited from the CODAM study population (aged 40-70 years, 39% women) were analyzed...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Hale M Tasyurek, Yunus E Eksi, Ahter D Sanlioglu, Hasan A Altunbas, Mustafa K Balci, Thomas S Griffith, Salih Sanlioglu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterised by insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and beta cell loss leading to hyperglycemia. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been regarded as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of T2DM because of its insulinotropic and anti-inflammatory properties. Despite these beneficial properties, VIP is extremely sensitive to peptidases (DPP-4) requiring constant infusion or multiple injections to observe any therapeutic benefit. Thus, we constructed an HIV-based lentiviral vector encoding human VIP (LentiVIP) to test the therapeutic efficacy of VIP peptide in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) animal model of T2DM...
March 9, 2018: Gene Therapy
Xiao-Dan Mo, Li-Ping Gao, Qing-Jun Wang, Jie Yin, Yu-Hong Jing
BACKGROUND: The fibrillation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) triggered the amyloid deposition, then enhanced the loss of the pancreatic islet mass. However, it is not clear what factor is the determinant in development of the fibril formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of lipid on IAPP fibril and its injury on pancreatic islet. METHODS: The fibril form of human IAPP (hIAPP) was tested using thioflavin-T fluorescence assay and transmission electron microscope technology after incubated with palmitate for 5 h at 25 °C...
March 9, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Mohamed I Radwan, Mohamed H Emara, Ibrahim M Ibrahim, Mahmoud E Moursy
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Removal of large common bile duct (CBD) stones is one of the challenges faced during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and it seems more difficult in cirrhotic patients because of suspected higher rates of adverse events, especially bleeding diathesis. This study aimed at comparing the success rate and complications between mechanical lithotripsy (ML) and large balloon dilation (LBD) after endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with liver cirrhosis...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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