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Pancreatic function tests

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925205/generation-of-insulin-producing-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-stepwise-differentiation-protocol-optimized-with-platelet-rich-plasma
#1
Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Yousef Mortazavi, Masoud Soleimani, Samad Nadri, Alireza Biglari, Reyhaneh Nassiri Mansour
Studies on patient-specific human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) as well as a series of autologous growth factors presumably will reveal their many benefits for cell base replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM) patients in the future. For this purpose, we established a multistep protocol by adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP) that induce the hiPSCs into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We present here a differentiation protocol consisting of five stages in two groups including protocol with PRP and without PRP...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922752/abnormal-glucose-metabolism-and-high-energy-expenditure-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#2
Gustavo A Heresi, Steven K Malin, Jarrod W Barnes, Liping Tian, John P Kirwan, Raed A Dweik
RATIONALE: Insulin resistance has emerged as a potential mechanism related to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). However, direct measurements of insulin and glucose metabolism have not been performed in IPAH patients to date. OBJECTIVES: To perform comprehensive metabolic phenotyping on humans with IPAH. METHODS: We assessed plasma insulin and glucose using an oral glucose tolerance test and estimated insulin resistance and beta-cell function in 14 IPAH patients and 14 controls matched for age, sex, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI),...
December 6, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915035/hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-in-children-and-adults
#3
REVIEW
Pratik Shah, Sofia A Rahman, Huseyin Demirbilek, Maria Güemes, Khalid Hussain
Pancreatic β cells are functionally programmed to release insulin in response to changes in plasma glucose concentration. Insulin secretion is precisely regulated so that, under normal physiological conditions, fasting plasma glucose concentrations are kept within a narrow range of 3·5-5·5 mmol/L. In hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, insulin secretion becomes dysregulated (ie, uncoupled from glucose metabolism) so that insulin secretion persists in the presence of low plasma glucose concentrations. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia is the most common cause of severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and children...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909715/a-new-scaffold-containing-small-intestinal-submucosa-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improves-pancreatic-islet-function-and-survival-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#4
Dan Wang, Xiaoming Ding, Wujun Xue, Jin Zheng, Xiaohui Tian, Yang Li, Xiaohong Wang, Huanjin Song, Hua Liu, Xiaohui Luo
It is unknown whether a scaffold containing both small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for transplantation may improve pancreatic islet function and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of a SIS-MSC scaffold on islet function and survival in vitro and in vivo. MSCs and pancreatic islets were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, and SIS was isolated from Bamei pigs. The islets were apportioned among 3 experimental groups as follows: SIS-islets, SIS-MSC-islets and control-islets...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907065/statistical-frailty-modeling-for-quantitative-analysis-of-exocytotic-events-recorded-by-live-cell-imaging-rapid-release-of-insulin-containing-granules-is-impaired-in-human-diabetic-%C3%AE-cells
#5
Giuliana Cortese, Nikhil R Gandasi, Sebastian Barg, Morten Gram Pedersen
Hormones and neurotransmitters are released when secretory granules or synaptic vesicles fuse with the cell membrane, a process denoted exocytosis. Modern imaging techniques, in particular total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, allow the investigator to monitor secretory granules at the plasma membrane before and when they undergo exocytosis. However, rigorous statistical approaches for temporal analysis of such exocytosis data are still lacking. We propose here that statistical methods from time-to-event (also known as survival) analysis are well suited for the problem...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906430/recurrent-acute-pancreatitis-in-bowel-malrotation
#6
G Alessandri, A Amodio, L Landoni, N De' Liguori Carino, C Bassi
OBJECTIVE: Recurrent acute pancreatitis is an uncommon diagnosis in teenagers. Excluded alcohol and biliary stones, more prevalent aetiologies in these group of patients are genetic pancreatitis, pancreatic duct system abnormalities, neoplasia, traumas and congenital abnormalities of the duodenum such as duodenal duplication or diverticulum. Two reported cases of recurrent pancreatitis associated to midgut malrotation were described in English literature. Bowel malrotation is a difficult diagnosis in a teenager or a young adult and a common delay is documented...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881924/rodent-models-of-diabetic-nephropathy-their-utility-and-limitations
#7
REVIEW
Munehiro Kitada, Yoshio Ogura, Daisuke Koya
Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Therefore, novel therapies for the suppression of diabetic nephropathy must be developed. Rodent models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of diseases and testing novel therapies, and many type 1 and type 2 diabetic rodent models have been established for the study of diabetes and diabetic complications. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animals are widely used as a model of type 1 diabetes. Akita diabetic mice that have an Ins2+/C96Y mutation and OVE26 mice that overexpress calmodulin in pancreatic β-cells serve as a genetic model of type 1 diabetes...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881128/effect-of-intensive-insulin-treatment-on-plasma-levels-of-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-and-secretory-phospholipase-a2-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes
#8
Xiu-Hong Lin, Ming-Tong Xu, Jv-Ying Tang, Li-Fang Mai, Xiao-Yi Wang, Meng Ren, Li Yan
BACKGROUND: China has the highest absolute disease burden of diabetes worldwide. For diabetic patients, diabetes-related vascular complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The roles of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) as inflammatory markers have been recently evaluated in the pathogenesis of both diabetes and atherosclerosis. We aimed to determine the mechanism through which patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes gain long-term vascular benefit from intensive insulin therapy by evaluating the change in Lp-PLA2 and sPLA2 levels after early intensive insulin treatment and its relevance with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function...
November 23, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875754/the-impact-of-diet-and-arginine-supplementation-on-pancreatic-mass-digestive-enzyme-activity-and-insulin-containing-cell-cluster-morphology-during-the-estrous-cycle-in-sheep
#9
F E Keomanivong, A T Grazul-Bilska, D A Redmer, C S Bass, S L Kaminski, P P Borowicz, J D Kirsch, K C Swanson
To determine the effect of feed intake and arginine treatment during different stages of the estrous cycle on pancreatic mass, digestive enzyme activity, and histological measurements, ewes (n = 120) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary groups; control (CON; 2.14-Mcal metabolizable energy/kg), underfed (UF; 0.6 × CON), or overfed (OF; 2 × CON) over 2 yr. Estrus was synchronized using a controlled internal drug release device for 14 d. At controlled internal drug release withdrawal, ewes from each dietary group were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments; Arg (L-Arg HCl, 155-μmol/kg BW) or Sal (approximately 10-mL saline)...
October 21, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874076/oligofructose-as-an-adjunct-in-treatment-of-diabetes-in-nod-mice
#10
Clement Chan, Colin M Hyslop, Vipul Shrivastava, Andrea Ochoa, Raylene A Reimer, Carol Huang
In type 1 diabetes, restoration of normoglycemia can be achieved if the autoimmune attack on beta cells ceases and insulin requirement is met by the residual beta cells. We hypothesize that an adjunctive therapy that reduces insulin demand by increasing insulin sensitivity will improve the efficacy of an immunotherapy in reversing diabetes. We tested the gut microbiota-modulating prebiotic, oligofructose (OFS), as the adjunctive therapy. We treated non-obese diabetic mice with an immunotherapy, monoclonal anti-CD3 antibody (aCD3), with or without concurrent dietary supplement of OFS...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870552/glycemic-predictors-of-insulin-independence-after-total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-auto-transplantation
#11
Michael Quartuccio, Erica Hall, Vikesh Singh, Martin A Makary, Kenzo Hirose, Niraj Desai, Christi Walsh, Daniel Warren, Zhaoli Sun, Ellen Stein, Rita R Kalyani
CONTEXT: Total pancreatectomy with islet auto transplantation (TPIAT) is a treatment for medically refractory chronic pancreatitis that can prevent postsurgical diabetes in a subset of patients. Predictors of insulin independence are needed for appropriate patient selection and counseling. OBJECTIVE: To explore glycemic predictors of insulin independence after TPIAT. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of patients undergoing TPIAT from 2011-2016...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869909/altered-levels-of-circulating-cytokines-and-micrornas-in-lean-and-obese-individuals-with-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes
#12
Yury O Nunez Lopez, Gabriella Garufi, Attila A Seyhan
Today obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have both reached epidemic proportions. However, our current understanding of the primary mechanisms leading to these diseases is still limited due to the complex multifactorial nature of the underlying phenomena. We hypothesize that the levels of specific cytokines and miRNAs vary across the diabetes spectrum and unique signatures associated with them may serve as early biomarkers of the disease and provide insights into respective pathogenetic mechanisms. In this study, we measured the circulating levels of cytokines and microRNAs (miRNAs) in lean and obese humans with prediabetes (n = 21), T2D (n = 17), and healthy controls (n = 20) (ORIGINS trial, NCT02226640)...
November 21, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865809/duodenal-jejunal-bypass-attenuates-progressive-failure-of-pancreatic-islets-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#13
Tingfeng Wang, Peng Zhang, Xiong Zhang, Ting Cao, Chengzhu Zheng, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: Preservation of pancreatic beta cell function has been increasingly appealing in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is still limited on how bariatric surgery affects pancreatic beta cell apoptosis. SETTING: University medical center. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the effect of a major component of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, duodenal-jejunal bypass, on protecting pancreatic beta cells from progressive loss. METHODS: Forty-five normal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups: duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) group (n = 16) and sham (S) group (n = 17), based upon the procedure received, and a control (C) group (n = 12) without any procedure performed, to eliminate potential traumatic effects from surgery...
August 31, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849238/diabetes-mellitus-in-childhood-an-emerging-condition-in-the-21st-century
#14
Thais Della Manna, Nuvarte Setian, Roberta Diaz Savoldelli, Dulce Rondina Guedes, Hilton Kuperman, Hamilton Cabral Menezes, Leandra Steinmetz, Louise Cominato, Vaê Dichtchekenian, Durval Damiani
The International Diabetes Federation (IDF-2015) estimates the existence of 30,900 children under 15 years old with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) in Brazil, and an increase of 3.0% per year is expected. This review focused on meta-analysis and pediatric diabetes update articles in order to draw attention to the need of planning coping strategies to support this serious public health problem in coming years. DM1 is considered an immuno-mediated disease with a complex transmission influenced by genetic and environmental factors responsible for a gradual destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic beta cells...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846137/utility-of-direct-pancreatic-function-testing-in-children
#15
Ligia Alfaro Cruz, Andrea Parniczky, Allison Mayhew, Lindsey N Hornung, Tom K Lin, Joseph J Palermo, Kimberly Jackson, Maisam Abu-El-Haija
OBJECTIVES: Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) can have a significant impact on a child's growth and nutrition. Our aim was to evaluate the utility of direct endoscopic pancreatic function testing (ePFT) in pediatrics. METHODS: A single-center retrospective chart review was performed of children who underwent ePFT from December 2007 through February 2015. Endoscopic pancreatic function testings were performed by 1 of 2 methods: (1) intravenous cholecystokinin, followed by the collection of a single duodenal aspirate at 10 minutes, or (2) intravenous cholecystokinin or secretin, followed by the collection of 3 duodenal aspirates at a 5, 10, and 15 minutes...
November 11, 2016: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843428/a-rare-case-of-gastric-variceal-hemorrhage-secondary-to-infiltrative-b-cell-lymphoma
#16
Adrienne Lenhart, Juan Fernandez-Castillo, Keith Mullins, Reena Salgia
Portal hypertension commonly arises in the setting of advanced liver cirrhosis and is the consequence of increased resistance within the portal vasculature. Less commonly, left-sided noncirrhotic portal hypertension can develop in a patient secondary to isolated obstruction of the splenic vein. We present a rare case of left-sided portal hypertension and isolated gastric varices in a patient with large B-cell lymphoma, who was treated with splenic artery embolization. The patient is a 73-year-old male with no previous history of liver disease, who presented with coffee ground emesis and melena...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832324/secretin-stimulated-mri-assessment-of-exocrine-pancreatic-function-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-healthy-controls
#17
Adnan Madzak, Trond Engjom, Gaute K Wathle, Søren Schou Olesen, Erling Tjora, Pål R Njølstad, Birger Norderud Lærum, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Georg Dimcevski, Jens Brøndum Frøkjær, Ingfrid S Haldorsen
PURPOSE: Secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and pancreatic diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are novel non-invasive imaging techniques for assessment of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). The aim was to validate s-MRI assessed pancreatic secreted volume using novel semi-automatic quantification software, and to assess the ability of s-MRI with DWI to diagnose EPI in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: s-MRI and DWI was performed in 19 patients with CF (median age 21 years; range 16-56; eight men) and in 10 healthy controls (HC) (median age 46 years; range 20-65; four men)...
November 10, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810340/anti-diabetic-activity-of-holothuria-thomasi-saponin
#18
Amira R El Barky, Samy A Hussein, Abeer A Alm-Eldeen, Yehia A Hafez, Tarek M Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus represents a global health problem. It characterized by hyperglycemia that induces oxidative stress leading to a generation of free radicals. A wide variety of natural products in plants and other marine animals represent antioxidant activity and other health benefits like those of sea cucumber. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic activity of glycosidic compound - saponin - derived from the Egyptian sea cucumber, Holothuria thomasi...
October 31, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795987/outcomes-of-pancreatic-islet-allotransplantation-using-the-edmonton-protocol-at-the-university-of-chicago
#19
Zehra Tekin, Marc R Garfinkel, W James Chon, Lindsay Schenck, Karolina Golab, Omid Savari, J Richard Thistlethwaite, Louis H Philipson, Colleen Majewski, Silvana Pannain, Sabarinathan Ramachandran, Kourosh Rezania, Seenu M Hariprasad, J Michael Millis, Piotr Witkowski
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess short-term and long-term results of the pancreatic islet transplantation using the Edmonton protocol at the University of Chicago. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients underwent pancreatic islet cell transplantation using the Edmonton Protocol; they were followed up for 10 years after initial islet transplant with up to 3 separate islet infusions. They were given induction treatment using an IL-2R antibody and their maintenance immunosuppression regimen consisted of sirolimus and tacrolimus...
October 2016: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780944/the-usefulness-of-early-endoscopic-ultrasonography-in-acute-biliary-pancreatitis-with-undetectable-choledocholithiasis-on-multidetector-computed-tomography
#20
Jae Geun Park, Ki Bae Kim, Joung Ho Han, Soon Man Yoon, Hee Bok Chae, Sei Jin Youn, Seon Mee Park
Background/Aims: EUS can detect bile duct stones (BDS) that are undetectable on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). BDS associated with acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) are small and tend to be excreted spontaneously. This study evaluated the usefulness of early EUS in patients with ABP and undetectable BDS on MDCT. Methods: Forty-one patients with ABP and undetectable BDS on MDCT underwent EUS within 24 hours of admission and were diagnosed with BDS, sludge, dilated common bile duct (CBD), or normal CBD...
October 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
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