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Prostacyclin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306170/impact-of-atrial-fibrillation-on-platelet-gene-expression
#1
Waldemar E Wysokinski, Alfonso Tafur, Naser Ammash, Samuel J Asirvatham, Yanhong Wu, Izabella Gosk-Bierska, Diane E Grill, Joshua P Slusser, Jozef Mruk, Robert D McBane
AIMS: Platelets retain cytoplasmic messenger RNA and are capable of protein biosynthesis. Several diseases are known to impact the platelet transcriptome but the effect of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) on platelet RNA transcript is essentially unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of NVAF on platelet RNA transcript by measuring platelet genes expression in consecutive NVAF patients before and 3-4 months after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and compared to normal sinus rhythm controls (NSR)...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287282/cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-acute-hyperoxia-in-patients-with-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#2
Ivana Hegeduš, Jakov Milić, Anita Ćosić, Krunoslav Buljan, Ines Drenjančević
AIM: This study aimed to assess the effect of acute hyperoxia on cerebral and systemic heamodynamics and the plasma concentration of prostacyclin and thromboxane in patients with stroke. METHODS: Mean blood flow velocity (MBFV), pulsatility and resistance indices of the middle cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler ultrasound before and during acute hyperoxia (4 L of 100%O2/15' over facial mask) in 92 participants - 25 patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) that occurred within 72 hours and diabetes mellitus (SPDM), 26 AIS patients without DM (SP) and in 41 healthy controls (HS), were measured...
March 13, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277164/pharmacokinetics-of-the-selective-prostacyclin-receptor-agonist-selexipag-in-rats-dogs-and-monkeys
#3
Tomohiko Ichikawa, Tetsuhiro Yamada, Alexander Treiber, Carmela Gnerre, Kiyoko Nonaka
1. This study examined the pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the selective prostacyclin receptor agonist selexipag (NS-304; ACT-293987) and its active metabolite MRE-269 (ACT-33679). The compounds were investigated following oral and/or intravenous administration to intact rats, dogs and monkeys, and bile-duct-cannulated rats and dogs. 2. After oral administration of [(14)C]selexipag, selexipag was well absorbed in rats and dogs with total recoveries of over 90% of the dose, mainly in the faeces...
March 2, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271565/prostacyclin-does-not-affect-sweating-but-induces-skin-vasodilatation-to-a-greater-extent-in-older-versus-younger-women-roles-of-no-and-kca-channels
#4
Naoto Fujii, Brendan D McNeely, Takeshi Nishiyasu, Glen P Kenny
We previously reported that prostacyclin induces cutaneous vasodilatation, but not sweating, in younger and older men. Further, we demonstrated that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and calcium-activated potassium (KCa ) channels contribute to the prostacyclin-induced cutaneous vasodilatation in younger men, although these contributions are diminished in older men. Given the effects of ageing may differ between men and women, the above results cannot be simply applied to women. In this study, cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were evaluated in younger (22 ± 3 years) and older (55 ± 7 years) women (10 per group) at four intradermal forearm skin sites treated with either: (1) lactated Ringers without any drug (Control), (2) 10 mm L-NNA, a non-specific NOS inhibitor, (3) 50 mm tetraethylammonium (TEA), a non-specific KCa channel blocker, or (4) 10 mm L-NNA + 50 mm TEA...
March 7, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263803/prostaglandin-e2-regulates-renal-function-in-c57-bl6-mouse-with-5-6-nephrectomy
#5
J Jin, Q Tang, Z Li, Z Zhao, Z Zhang, L Lu, T Zhu, P M Vanhoutte, S W Leung, R Tu, Y Shi
AIMS: To investigate the roles of cyclooxygenases (COX) and their metabolites in C57/BL6 mice with 5/6 nephrectomy, an animal model of chronic renal failure. MAIN METHODS: C57/BL6 mice were grouped into sham-operated (2K), one kidney removal (1K) and 5/6 nephrectomy groups (5/6Nx). Renal resistive index was measured by ultrasonography. Blood, aortae, renal arteries and renal cortex were collected for measurement of kidney function, assessment of vascular responsiveness, Western blotting, immuohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
March 2, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244682/extracellular-histones-disarrange-vasoactive-mediators-release-through-a-cox-nos-interaction-in-human-endothelial-cells
#6
Daniel Pérez-Cremades, Carlos Bueno-Betí, José Luis García-Giménez, José Santiago Ibañez-Cabellos, Carlos Hermenegildo, Federico V Pallardó, Susana Novella
Extracellular histones are mediators of inflammation, tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Interactions between circulating histones and vascular endothelial cells are key events in histone-mediated pathologies. Our aim was to investigate the implication of extracellular histones in the production of the major vasoactive compounds released by human endothelial cells (HUVECs), prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO). HUVEC exposed to increasing concentrations of histones (0.001 to 100 μg/ml) for 4 hrs induced prostacyclin (PGI2) production in a dose-dependent manner and decreased thromboxane A2 (TXA2) release at 100 μg/ml...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228357/activation-of-mtor-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb-%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-contributes-to-lps-induced-hypotension-and-inflammation-in-rats
#7
Meryem Temiz-Resitoglu, Sefika Pinar Kucukkavruk, Demet Sinem Guden, Pelin Cecen, Ayse Nihal Sari, Bahar Tunctan, Aysegul Gorur, Lulufer Tamer-Gumus, Cuneyt Kemal Buharalioglu, Kafait U Malik, Seyhan Sahan-Firat
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine kinase plays an important role in various pathophysiological processes including cancer, metabolic diseases, and inflammation. Although mTOR participates in Toll-like receptor 4 signalling in different cell types, the role of this enzyme in sepsis pathogenesis and its effects on hypotension and inflammation in endotoxemic rats remains unclear. In this study we investigated the effects of mTOR inhibition on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced changes on expressions and/or activities of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), an mTOR substrate, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, inhibitor κB (IκB)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 with production of nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, prostacyclin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), which results in hypotension and inflammation...
February 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224110/comparison-of-inhaled-milrinone-nitric-oxide-and-prostacyclin-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#8
Martin Albert, Daniel Corsilli, David R Williamson, Marc Brosseau, Patrick Bellemare, Stéphane Delisle, Anne Qn Nguyen, France Varin
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of inhaled milrinone in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Open-label prospective cross-over pilot study where fifteen adult patients with hypoxemic failure meeting standard ARDS criteria and monitored with a pulmonary artery catheter were recruited in an academic 24-bed medico-surgical intensive care unit. Random sequential administration of iNO (20 ppm) or nebulized epoprostenol (10 μg/mL) was done in all patients...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223151/testosterone-rapidly-increases-ca-2-activated-k-currents-causing-hyperpolarization-in-human-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#9
Katesirin Ruamyod, Wattana B Watanapa, Chairat Shayakul
Testosterone has endothelium-dependent vasodilatory effects on the coronary artery, with some reports suggesting endothelial ion channel involvement. This study employed the whole-cell patch clamp technique to investigate the effect of testosterone on ion channels in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) and the mechanisms involved. We found that 0.03-3μM testosterone significantly induced a rapid, concentration-dependent increase in total HCAEC current (EC50, 71.96±1.66nM; maximum increase, 59...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216625/endothelial-overexpression-of-endothelin-1-modulates-aortic-carotid-iliac-and-renal-arterial-responses-in-obese-mice
#10
Oliver Baretella, Sookja K Chung, Aimin Xu, Paul M Vanhoutte
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is essential for mammalian development and life, but it has also been implicated in increased cardiovascular risk under pathophysiological conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of endothelial overexpression of the prepro-endothelin-1 gene on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses in the conduit and renal arteries of lean and obese mice. Obesity was induced by high-fat-diet (HFD) consumption in mice with Tie-1 promoter-driven, endothelium-specific overexpression of the prepro-endothelin-1 gene (TET(het)) and in wild-type (WT) littermates on a C57BL/6N background...
February 20, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203404/the-role-of-cyclooxygenase-2-in-the-protection-against-apoptosis-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-induced-by-cigarette-smoking
#11
Zhihui Shi, Yan Chen, Yanfang Pei, Yingjiao Long, Caihong Liu, Jun Cao, Ping Chen
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis has been demonstrated to be an important upstream event in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) seems to be biologically relevant in COPD. However, the role of COX-2 in the apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) remains to be elucidated. Our recent study found that the prostacyclin, one of the COX products in the microvascular endothelium, inhibited apoptosis in the emphysematous lungs of rats induced by CSE...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190786/survival-in-portopulmonary-hypertension-outcomes-of-the-united-kingdom-national-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-registry
#12
Sasiharan Sithamparanathan, Arun Nair, Logan Thirugnanasothy, J Gerry Coghlan, Robin Condliffe, Konstantinos Dimopoulos, Charlie A Elliot, Andrew J Fisher, Sean Gaine, J Simon R Gibbs, Michael A Gatzoulis, Clive E Handler, Luke S Howard, Martin Johnson, David G Kiely, James L Lordan, Andrew J Peacock, Joanna Pepke-Zaba, Benjamin E Schreiber, Karen K K Sheares, Stephen J Wort, Paul A Corris
BACKGROUND: Portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) is a rare condition associated with poor survival, and the effect of modern therapies that target pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) on long-term outcome is unknown. This study investigated the baseline characteristics and survival in the cohort of patients diagnosed with PoPH in the United Kingdom National Pulmonary Hypertension Service. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all incident treatment-naïve patients with PoPH within the United Kingdom national registry diagnosed between January 2001 and December 2010...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190469/proanthocyanidins-from-vitis-vinifera-inhibit-oxidative-stress-induced-vascular-impairment-in-pulmonary-arteries-from-diabetic-rats
#13
Christian Pinna, Paolo Morazzoni, Angelo Sala
BACKGROUND: Vitis vinifera L. (grape seed extract) is a natural source of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. HYPOTHESIS: Grape seed extract supplementation may prevent vascular endothelium impairment associated with diabetes mellitus in rat pulmonary artery. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated endothelial function of rat pulmonary artery ex-vivo at the intermediate stage (4 weeks) of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168563/right-atrial-strain-is-predictive-of-clinical-outcomes-and-invasive-hemodynamic-data-in-group-1-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#14
Nicole M Bhave, Scott H Visovatti, Brian Kulick, Theodore J Kolias, Vallerie V McLaughlin
Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a practical and widely used tool for risk stratification in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that right atrial (RA) reservoir function, represented by peak RA systolic strain, correlates with invasive hemodynamic measurements and clinical outcomes in PAH. Patients with group 1 PAH who had TTE within 6 months of index PAH clinic visit and right heart catheterization were included in this retrospective study. Peak RA strain in the 2D apical 4-chamber view was measured with speckle-tracking software...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165064/role-of-e-type-prostaglandin-receptor-ep3-in-the-vasoconstrictor-activity-evoked-by-prostacyclin-in-thromboxane-prostanoid-receptor-deficient-mice
#15
Zhenhua Li, Yingzhan Zhang, Bin Liu, Wenhong Luo, Hui Li, Yingbi Zhou
Prostacyclin, also termed as prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), evokes contraction in vessels with limited expression of the prostacyclin receptor. Although the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor (TP) is proposed to mediate such a response of PGI2, other unknown receptor(s) might also be involved. TP knockout (TP(-/-)) mice were thus designed and used to test the hypothesis. Vessels, which normally show contraction to PGI2, were isolated for functional and biochemical analyses. Here, we showed that the contractile response evoked by PGI2 was indeed only partially abolished in the abdominal aorta of TP(-/-) mice...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151502/-clinical-trials-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-glimpse-of-history
#16
Alberto Maria Marra, Michele D'Alto, Anna Agnese Stanziola, Antonio Cittadini, Eduardo Bossone
Clinical trials have remarkably changed the natural history of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Despite the relevant progresses achieved in terms of prognosis, PAH is still burned by high mortality rates, disability and low levels of quality of life. The aim of this review is to look over the history of clinical trials in PAH, starting from the little studies with prostacyclin analogues to the recent large randomized placebo-controlled trials. Moreover, the future perspectives of PAH management are addressed...
December 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139770/platelet-activation-determines-the-severity-of-thrombocytopenia-in-dengue-infection
#17
Amrita Ojha, Dipika Nandi, Harish Batra, Rashi Singhal, Gowtham K Annarapu, Sankar Bhattacharyya, Tulika Seth, Lalit Dar, Guruprasad R Medigeshi, Sudhanshu Vrati, Naval K Vikram, Prasenjit Guchhait
Thrombocytopenia is common in patients with dengue virus (DENV) infections. With a focus on understanding the possible mechanism of thrombocytopenia in DENV infections we described a direct correlation between activation and depletion of platelets in patients. Our data showed a sharp decrease in platelet counts at day 4 of fever in patients. The high DENV genome copies in platelets correlated directly with the elevated platelet activation along with increased binding of complement factor C3 and IgG on their surface at day 4...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134777/the-anti-inflammatory-and-vasodilating-effects-of-three-selected-dietary-organic-sulfur-compounds-from-allium-species
#18
Chin-Chen Chu, Wen-Shiann Wu, Ja-Ping Shieh, Heuy-Ling Chu, Chia-Pu Lee, Pin-Der Duh
The anti-inflammatory and vasodilating effects of three selected dietary organic sulfur compounds (OSC), including diallyl disulfide (DADS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and propyl disulfide (PDS), from Allium species were investigated. In the anti-inflammatory activity assay, the three OSC demonstrated significant inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in activated RAW 264...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132118/regulation-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-mass-dynamics-by-prostaglandin-signaling
#19
REVIEW
Bethany A Carboneau, Richard M Breyer, Maureen Gannon
Prostaglandins (PGs) are signaling lipids derived from arachidonic acid (AA), which is metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or 2 and class-specific synthases to generate PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2 (prostacyclin), and thromboxane A2. PGs signal through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are important modulators of an array of physiological functions, including systemic inflammation and insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. The role of PGs in β-cell function has been an active area of interest, beginning in the 1970s...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126964/prostacyclin-analog-therapy-in-sickle-cell-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
Nargues A Weir, Rehan Saiyed, Shoaib Alam, Anna Conrey, Himanshu D Desai, M Patricia George, Jennifer H Keeley, Elizabeth S Klings, Alem Mehari, James G Taylor, Caterina P Minniti, Gregory J Kato
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January 25, 2017: Haematologica
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