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Prostacyclin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203404/the-role-of-cyclooxygenase-2-in-the-protection-against-apoptosis-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-induced-by-cigarette-smoking
#1
Zhihui Shi, Yan Chen, Yanfang Pei, Yingjiao Long, Caihong Liu, Jun Cao, Ping Chen
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis has been demonstrated to be an important upstream event in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) seems to be biologically relevant in COPD. However, the role of COX-2 in the apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) remains to be elucidated. Our recent study found that the prostacyclin, one of the COX products in the microvascular endothelium, inhibited apoptosis in the emphysematous lungs of rats induced by CSE...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190786/survival-in-portopulmonary-hypertension-outcomes-of-the-united-kingdom-national-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-registry
#2
Sasiharan Sithamparanathan, Arun Nair, Logan Thirugnanasothy, J Gerry Coghlan, Robin Condliffe, Konstantinos Dimopoulos, Charlie A Elliot, Andrew J Fisher, Sean Gaine, J Simon R Gibbs, Michael A Gatzoulis, Clive E Handler, Luke S Howard, Martin Johnson, David G Kiely, James L Lordan, Andrew J Peacock, Joanna Pepke-Zaba, Benjamin E Schreiber, Karen K K Sheares, Stephen J Wort, Paul A Corris
BACKGROUND: Portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) is a rare condition associated with poor survival, and the effect of modern therapies that target pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) on long-term outcome is unknown. This study investigated the baseline characteristics and survival in the cohort of patients diagnosed with PoPH in the United Kingdom National Pulmonary Hypertension Service. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all incident treatment-naïve patients with PoPH within the United Kingdom national registry diagnosed between January 2001 and December 2010...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190469/proanthocyanidins-from-vitis-vinifera-inhibit-oxidative-stress-induced-vascular-impairment-in-pulmonary-arteries-from-diabetic-rats
#3
Christian Pinna, Paolo Morazzoni, Angelo Sala
BACKGROUND: Vitis vinifera L. (grape seed extract) is a natural source of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. HYPOTHESIS: Grape seed extract supplementation may prevent vascular endothelium impairment associated with diabetes mellitus in rat pulmonary artery. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated endothelial function of rat pulmonary artery ex-vivo at the intermediate stage (4 weeks) of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168563/right-atrial-strain-is-predictive-of-clinical-outcomes-and-invasive-hemodynamic-data-in-group-1-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#4
Nicole M Bhave, Scott H Visovatti, Brian Kulick, Theodore J Kolias, Vallerie V McLaughlin
Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a practical and widely used tool for risk stratification in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that right atrial (RA) reservoir function, represented by peak RA systolic strain, correlates with invasive hemodynamic measurements and clinical outcomes in PAH. Patients with group 1 PAH who had TTE within 6 months of index PAH clinic visit and right heart catheterization were included in this retrospective study. Peak RA strain in the 2D apical 4-chamber view was measured with speckle-tracking software...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165064/role-of-e-type-prostaglandin-receptor-ep3-in-the-vasoconstrictor-activity-evoked-by-prostacyclin-in-thromboxane-prostanoid-receptor-deficient-mice
#5
Zhenhua Li, Yingzhan Zhang, Bin Liu, Wenhong Luo, Hui Li, Yingbi Zhou
Prostacyclin, also termed as prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), evokes contraction in vessels with limited expression of the prostacyclin receptor. Although the thromboxane-prostanoid receptor (TP) is proposed to mediate such a response of PGI2, other unknown receptor(s) might also be involved. TP knockout (TP(-/-)) mice were thus designed and used to test the hypothesis. Vessels, which normally show contraction to PGI2, were isolated for functional and biochemical analyses. Here, we showed that the contractile response evoked by PGI2 was indeed only partially abolished in the abdominal aorta of TP(-/-) mice...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151502/-clinical-trials-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-glimpse-of-history
#6
Alberto Maria Marra, Michele D'Alto, Anna Agnese Stanziola, Antonio Cittadini, Eduardo Bossone
Clinical trials have remarkably changed the natural history of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Despite the relevant progresses achieved in terms of prognosis, PAH is still burned by high mortality rates, disability and low levels of quality of life. The aim of this review is to look over the history of clinical trials in PAH, starting from the little studies with prostacyclin analogues to the recent large randomized placebo-controlled trials. Moreover, the future perspectives of PAH management are addressed...
December 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139770/platelet-activation-determines-the-severity-of-thrombocytopenia-in-dengue-infection
#7
Amrita Ojha, Dipika Nandi, Harish Batra, Rashi Singhal, Gowtham K Annarapu, Sankar Bhattacharyya, Tulika Seth, Lalit Dar, Guruprasad R Medigeshi, Sudhanshu Vrati, Naval K Vikram, Prasenjit Guchhait
Thrombocytopenia is common in patients with dengue virus (DENV) infections. With a focus on understanding the possible mechanism of thrombocytopenia in DENV infections we described a direct correlation between activation and depletion of platelets in patients. Our data showed a sharp decrease in platelet counts at day 4 of fever in patients. The high DENV genome copies in platelets correlated directly with the elevated platelet activation along with increased binding of complement factor C3 and IgG on their surface at day 4...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134777/the-anti-inflammatory-and-vasodilating-effects-of-three-selected-dietary-organic-sulfur-compounds-from-allium-species
#8
Chin-Chen Chu, Wen-Shiann Wu, Ja-Ping Shieh, Heuy-Ling Chu, Chia-Pu Lee, Pin-Der Duh
The anti-inflammatory and vasodilating effects of three selected dietary organic sulfur compounds (OSC), including diallyl disulfide (DADS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and propyl disulfide (PDS), from Allium species were investigated. In the anti-inflammatory activity assay, the three OSC demonstrated significant inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in activated RAW 264...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132118/regulation-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-mass-dynamics-by-prostaglandin-signaling
#9
REVIEW
Bethany A Carboneau, Richard M Breyer, Maureen Gannon
Prostaglandins (PGs) are signaling lipids derived from arachidonic acid (AA), which is metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or 2 and class-specific synthases to generate PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2 (prostacyclin), and thromboxane A2. PGs signal through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and are important modulators of an array of physiological functions, including systemic inflammation and insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. The role of PGs in β-cell function has been an active area of interest, beginning in the 1970s...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126964/prostacyclin-analog-therapy-in-sickle-cell-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
Nargues A Weir, Rehan Saiyed, Shoaib Alam, Anna Conrey, Himanshu D Desai, M Patricia George, Jennifer H Keeley, Elizabeth S Klings, Alem Mehari, James G Taylor, Caterina P Minniti, Gregory J Kato
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January 25, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118627/prostacyclin-as-an-anticoagulant-for-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-in-children
#11
Akash Deep, Mohammad Zoha, Pompa Dutta Kukreja
Effective delivery of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) depends on the longevity of the filter and circuit used in the CRRT machine. Safe and effective anticoagulation is crucial for maintaining the patency of these circuits. In children, heparin and citrate are the commonly used anticoagulants but they are limited by serious side effects and thus calls for meticulous monitoring. In conditions where neither of these can be used, prostacyclin can be an effective alternative. Prostacyclin is a platelet inhibitor that can be safely used as an efficient anticoagulant in CRRT...
January 25, 2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118376/urine-eicosanoids-in-the-metabolic-abnormalities-telmisartan-and-hiv-infection-math-trial
#12
Catherine N Le, Todd Hulgan, Chi-Hong Tseng, Ginger L Milne, Jordan E Lake
OBJECTIVES: Arachidonic acid metabolites (eicosanoids) reflect oxidative stress and vascular health and have been associated with anthropometric measures and sex differences in cross-sectional analyses of HIV-infected (HIV+) persons. Telmisartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker and PPAR-γ agonist with potential anti-inflammatory and metabolic benefits. We assessed telmisartan's effects on urine eicosanoids among HIV+ adults with central adiposity on suppressive antiretroviral therapy enrolled in a prospective clinical trial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117739/affinin-spilanthol-isolated-from-heliopsis-longipes-induces-vasodilation-via-activation-of-gasotransmitters-and-prostacyclin-signaling-pathways
#13
Jesús Eduardo Castro-Ruiz, Alejandra Rojas-Molina, Francisco J Luna-Vázquez, Fausto Rivero-Cruz, Teresa García-Gasca, César Ibarra-Alvarado
Heliopsis longipes roots have been widely used in Mexican traditional medicine to relieve pain, mainly, toothaches. Previous studies have shown that affinin, the major alkamide of these roots, induces potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of H. longipes root extracts and affinin on the cardiovascular system have not been investigated so far. In the present study, we demonstrated that the dichloromethane and ethanolic extracts of H. longipes roots, and affinin, isolated from these roots, produce a concentration-dependent vasodilation of rat aorta...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116728/isolation-and-culture-of-endothelial-cells-from-large-vessels
#14
Augusto C Montezano, Karla B Neves, Rheure A M Lopes, Francisco Rios
The endothelium, which is at the interface between circulating blood and the vascular wall, comprises a simple squamous layer of cells that lines the inner surface of all blood vessels. Endothelial cells are highly metabolically active and play an important role in many physiological functions, including control of vasomotor tone, blood cell trafficking, vascular permeability, and maintenance of vascular integrity (Mensah, Vascul Pharmacol 46(5):310-314, 2007; Yetik-Anacak and Catravas, Vascul Pharmacol 45(5):268-276, 2006)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105284/discovery-of-novel-seven-membered-prostacyclin-analogues-as-potent-and-selective-prostaglandin-fp-and-ep3-dual-agonists
#15
Isamu Sugimoto, Tohru Kambe, Tomotaka Okino, Tetsuo Obitsu, Nobukazu Ohta, Taihei Nishiyama, Akihiro Kinoshita, Taku Fujimoto, Hiromu Egashira, Shinsaku Yamane, Satoshi Shuto, Kousuke Tani, Toru Maruyama
A novel series of prostaglandin analogues with a seven-membered ring scaffold was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for the functional activation of prostaglandin receptors to identify potent and subtype-selective FP and EP3 dual agonists. Starting from the prostacyclin derivative 5b, a nonselective agonist for prostaglandin receptors, replacement of the core structure with an octahydro-2H-cyclopenta[b]oxepine scaffold led to the discovery of the potent and selective FP and EP3 dual agonist 11b as a lead compound for the development of an antiglaucoma agent...
January 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102731/microfluidic-whole-blood-testing-of-platelet-response-to-pharmacological-agents
#16
Ruizhi Li, Tilo Grosser, Scott L Diamond
Platelets present a number of intracellular and transmembrane targets subject to pharmacological modulation, either for cardiovascular disease reduction or as an unintended drug response. Microfluidic devices allow human blood to clot on a defined surface under controlled hemodynamic and pharmacological conditions. The potencies of a number of antiplatelet and anticancer drugs have been tested with respect to platelet deposition on collagen under flow. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) reduce platelet deposition, either when added ex vivo to blood or ingested orally by patients prior to testing...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098251/unsaturated-lipid-bodies-as-a-hallmark-of-inflammation-studied-by-raman-2d-and-3d-microscopy
#17
K Czamara, K Majzner, A Selmi, M Baranska, Y Ozaki, A Kaczor
Endothelial HMEC-1 cells incubated with pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α for 6 and 24 hours were studied as a model of inflammation using Raman imaging. Striking changes in distribution, composition and concentration of cellular lipids were observed after exposure to TNF-α compared to the control. In particular, 3D Raman imaging revealed a significant increase in the amount of lipid entities formed under inflammation. Lipid bodies were randomly distributed in the cytoplasm and two types of droplets were assembled: more saturated one, in spectral characteristics resembling phosphatidylcholine and saturated cholesteryl esters, observed also in the control, and highly unsaturated one, containing also cholesterols, being a hallmark of inflamed cells...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097042/the-relaxant-activity-of-safranal-in-isolated-rat-aortas-is-mediated-predominantly-via-an-endothelium-independent-mechanism-vasodilatory-mechanism-of-safranal
#18
Bibi Marjan Razavi, Mojtaba Alipoor Amanloo, Mohsen Imenshahidi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
OBJECTIVES: Safranal is a pharmacologically active component of saffron and is responsible for the unique aroma of saffron. The hypotensive effect of safranal has been shown in previous studies. This study evaluates the mechanism for the vasodilatory effects induced by safranal on isolated rat aortas. METHODS: To study the vasodilatory effects of safranal (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mM), we contracted isolated rat thoracic aorta rings by using 10(-6)-M phenylephrine (PE) or 80-mM KCl...
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096285/epoprostenol-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-20%C3%A2-years-of-clinical-experience
#19
REVIEW
Olivier Sitbon, Anton Vonk Noordegraaf
Epoprostenol was the first therapy to be approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In the 20 years since the introduction of this prostacyclin analogue, the outlook for patients with PAH has improved, with survival rates now double those from the era before the development of disease-specific treatments. Today, there are a large amount of data on the clinical role of prostacyclin treatments and a body of evidence attesting the efficacy of epoprostenol in improving exercise capacity, key haemodynamic parameters and PAH symptoms, as well as in reducing mortality...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090307/hemodynamic-response-to-treatment-of-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-longitudinal-insights-from-an-implantable-hemodynamic-monitor
#20
Muddassir Mehmood, Richa Agarwal, Amresh Raina, Priscilla Correa-Jaque, Raymond L Benza
Despite new therapeutic options, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a progressive disease associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. As such, additional strategies for monitoring and adjunctive management of this disease are important. A 59-year-old woman with scleroderma-associated PAH received an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) as part of a research protocol at our institution. Pulmonary artery pressures, heart rate, and cardiac output (sensor-based algorithm) were measured on a daily basis, and parameters of right ventricular (RV) performance and afterload were calculated...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
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