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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772649/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Norris S H Lan, Benjamin D Massam, Sandeep S Kulkarni, Chim C Lang
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), the first category of pulmonary hypertension, is a chronic and progressive disorder characterised by angioproliferative vasculopathy in the pulmonary arterioles, leading to endothelial and smooth muscle proliferation and dysfunction, inflammation and thrombosis. These changes increase pulmonary vascular resistance and subsequent pulmonary arterial pressure, causing right ventricular failure which leads to eventual death if untreated. The management of PAH has advanced rapidly in recent years due to improved understanding of the condition's pathophysiology, specifically the nitric oxide, prostacyclin-thromboxane and endothelin-1 pathways...
May 16, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771821/the-effects-of-exercise-aspirin-and-celecoxib-in-an-atherogenic-environment
#2
Heather Grimm, Jan Kretzschmar, Marc D Cook, Michael D Brown
INTRODUCTION: Optimal vascular function is a hallmark of cardiovascular health. Specifically, the balance of vasoconstricting and vasodilating substances is recognized as a marker of vascular health. One of the greatest challenges to vascular health and vasodilatory balance is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) mediated inflammation. Uncovering effective strategies that maintain a vascular environment that is more vasodilatory and anti-thrombotic in the face of an inflammatory challenge is favorable...
April 30, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762820/relation-between-mycoplasma-infection-and-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion
#3
C-J Cao, Y-F Wang, D-M Fang, Y Hu
OBJECTIVE: This study explores the possible relation between cervical infections with Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma hominis (MH) and the occurrence of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 132 patients with RSA (observation group) and 96 normal pregnancy volunteers undergoing planned abortions (control group) were selected successively and enrolled in the investigation. Cervical secretion samples were obtained for each subject...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755548/ameliorative-effect-of-beraprost-sodium-on-celecoxib-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-rats
#4
Shafique Ahmad, Bibhu Prasad Panda, Mohammad Fahim, Neha Dhyani, Kiran Dubey
Selective COX-2 inhibitors are most widely used analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs; however, its maximal use is highly associated with various serious abnormal cardiovascular events. Beraprost sodium (BPS), prostacyclin analogue has been shown to vasodilatory, antiplatelates, anti-inflmmatory, and antioxidant activity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of BPS on celecoxib cardiotoxicity in rats. Toxicity was induced in male Albino rats (250-280 g) by celecoxib (100 mg/kg/day)...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741779/n1-methylnicotinamide-mnam-as-a-guardian-of-cardiovascular-system
#5
REVIEW
Hamid Reza Nejabati, Aynaz Mihanfar, Masoud Pezeshkian, Amir Fattahi, Zeinab Latifi, Naser Safaie, Mohammad Valiloo, Ahmad Reza Jodati, Mohammad Nouri
Atherosclerosis is identified as the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, which could initiate the formation of a blood clot in which its growth to coronary artery can lead to a heart attack. N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is an enzyme that converts the NAM (nicotinamide) to its methylated form, N1-methylnicotinamide (MNAM). Higher levels of MNAM have been reported in cases with coronary artery disease (CAD). Further, MNAM increases endothelial prostacyclin (PGI2) and nitric oxide (NO) and thereby causes vasorelaxation...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737254/pharmacological-treatment-of-hypertension-effects-in-endothelial-function
#6
Leonardo Cobos-Segarra, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos Ponte-Negretti Ci, Raul Villar, Ernesto Penaherrera
The vascular endothelium plays a crucial role to maintain the functional integrity of the cardiovascular system through the secretion of vasoactive substances such as prostacyclin and NO. Endothelial dysfunction participate in the genesis of HTA, but also hypertension produces endothelial damage. The mayor class of antihypertensive drugs have beneficial effects in the recuperation of the endothelial function, actions that are contributing to explain the impact of the adequate control of HTA in the reduction of CV events...
May 7, 2018: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733637/anticoagulant-properties-of-poly-sodium-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate-based-di-and-triblock-polymers
#7
Bartlomiej Kalaska, Kamil Kamiński, Joanna Miklosz, Keita Nakai, Shin-Ichi Yusa, Dariusz Pawlak, Maria Nowakowska, Andrzej Mogielnicki, Krzysztof Szczubiałka
Di- and triblock copolymers with low dispersity of molecular weight were synthesized using radical addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The copolymers contained anionic poly(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate) (PAMPS) block as an anticoagulant component. The block added to lower the toxicity was either poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC). The polymers prolonged clotting times both in vitro and in vivo. The influence of the polymer architecture and composition on the efficacy of anticoagulation and safety parameters was evaluated...
May 7, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728739/decreased-contraction-induced-by-endothelium-derived-contracting-factor-in-prolonged-treatment-of-rat-renal-artery-with-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-inducer
#8
Makoto Ando, Takayuki Matsumoto, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Recent evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the regulation of various physiological functions, including those of the vascular system. However, the relationship between ER stress and vascular function is poorly understood. The endothelial cells control the vascular tone by releasing endothelium-derived relaxing factors and contracting factors (EDCFs). We hypothesized that tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, modifies endothelium-dependent contraction and prostaglandins (PGs), a major class of EDCFs, induced contractions in the rat renal artery in rats...
May 4, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726733/fibronectin-modified-tio-2-nanotubes-modulate-endothelial-cell-behavior
#9
Ziyang Jin, Xufeng Yan, Guiyong Liu, Min Lai
Cardiovascular disease has become a great threat to the health of mankind; current titanium (Ti) stents fail due to late stent thrombosis caused by the lack of re-endothelialization of the Ti stent. The objective of this study was to design a novel cardiovascular Ti implant with improved surface biocompatibility. TiO2 nanotubes with a diameter of 110 nm were anodized at a constant voltage of 30 V, and fibronectin was immobilized onto the TiO2 nanotubes using polydopamine. The element composition, morphology, and wettability of the different substrate surfaces were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle measurements, respectively, confirming the successful immobilization of fibronectin...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721380/targeted-overexpression-of-prostacyclin-synthase-inhibits-lung-tumor-progression-by-recruiting-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-tumors-that-express-mhc-class-ii
#10
Howard Y Li, Maria McSharry, Deandra Walker, Amber Johnson, Jeff Kwak, Bonnie Bullock, Alexander Neuwelt, Joanna M Poczobutt, Trisha R Sippel, Robert L Keith, Mary C M Weiser-Evans, Eric Clambey, Raphael A Nemenoff
Lung-specific overexpression of prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) decreases tumor initiation in murine lung cancer models. Prostacyclin analogs prevent lung tumor formation in mice and reverse bronchial dysplasia in former smokers. However, the effect of prostacyclin on lung cancer progression has not been well studied. We investigated the effects of pulmonary PGIS overexpression in an orthotopic immunocompetent mouse model of lung cancer using two murine lung cancer cell lines. Pulmonary PGIS overexpression significantly inhibited CMT167 lung tumor growth, increased CXCL9 expression, and increased CD4+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720235/effects-of-selexipag-and-its-active-metabolite-in-contrasting-the-profibrotic-myofibroblast-activity-in-cultured-scleroderma-skin-fibroblasts
#11
Maurizio Cutolo, Barbara Ruaro, Paola Montagna, Renata Brizzolara, Emanuela Stratta, Amelia Chiara Trombetta, Stefano Scabini, Pier Paolo Tavilla, Aurora Parodi, Claudio Corallo, Nicola Giordano, Sabrina Paolino, Carmen Pizzorni, Alberto Sulli, Vanessa Smith, Stefano Soldano
BACKGROUND: Myofibroblasts contribute to fibrosis through the overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, primarily type I collagen (COL-1) and fibronectin (FN), a process which is mediated in systemic sclerosis (SSc) by the activation of fibrogenic intracellular signaling transduction molecules, including extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt). Selexipag is a prostacyclin receptor agonist synthesized for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension...
May 2, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698719/serum-chloride-levels-track-with-survival-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#12
Tawfeq Naal, Batool Abuhalimeh, Ghaleb Khirfan, Raed A Dweik, W H Wilson Tang, Adriano R Tonelli
BACKGROUND: Serum chloride is an important homeostatic biomarker in left heart failure, with significant prognostic implications. The impact of serum chloride in the long-term survival of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients is unknown. We tested whether serum chloride levels are associated with long-term survival in PAH patients. METHODS: We included patients with idiopathic or heritable PAH who had a basic metabolic panel performed at the time of their diagnostic right heart catheterization...
April 23, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672839/s-nitrosylation-of-prostacyclin-synthase-instigates-nitrate-cross-tolerance-in-vivo
#13
Sheng-Nan Zhou, Jun-Xiu Lu, Xue-Qing Wang, Mei-Rong Shan, Zhang Miao, Guo-Pin Pan, Xu Jian, Peng Li, Song Ping, Xin-Yan Pang, Yong-Ping Bai, Chao Liu, Shuang-Xi Wang
Development of nitrate tolerance is a major drawback to nitrate therapy. Prostacyclin (PGI2) is a powerful vasodilator produced from prostaglandin (PGH2) by prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) in endothelial cells. This study was to determine the role of PGIS S-nitrosylation in nitrate tolerance induced by nitroglycerin (GTN). In endothelial cells, GTN increased PGIS S-nitrosylation and disturbed PGH2 metabolism, which were normalized by mutants of PGIS cysteine 231/441 to alanine (C231/441A). Clearance of NO by carboxy-PTIO or inhibition of S-nitrosylation by N-acetyl-cysteine decreased GTN-induced PGIS S-nitrosylation...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644226/nitric-oxide-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
Adrian H Chester, Magdi H Yacoub, Salvador Moncada
The pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension remains undefined. Changes in the expression and effects mediated by a number of vasoactive factors have been implicated to play a role in the onset and progression of the disease. The source of many of these mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelin-1 (ET-1), is the pulmonary endothelium. This article focus in the role of nitric oxide in PAH, reviewing the evidence for its involvement in regulation of pulmonary a vascular tone under physiological conditions, the mechanisms by which it can contribute to the pathological changes seen in PAH and strategies for the use of NO as a therapy for treatment of the disease...
June 30, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627179/a-prostacyclin-agonist-and-an-omental-flap-increased-myocardial-blood-flow-in-a-porcine-chronic-ischemia-model
#15
Shin Yajima, Shigeru Miyagawa, Satsuki Fukushima, Yoshiki Sakai, Kayako Isohashi, Tadashi Watabe, Hayato Ikeda, Genki Horitsugi, Akima Harada, Ryoto Sakaniwa, Jun Hatazawa, Yoshiki Sawa
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that therapeutic efficacy may be augmented by a combination of placing a sheet immersed in ONO-1301SR, a slow-release synthetic prostacyclin agonist-inducing multiproangiogenic cytokines, over the left ventricle and a pedicled omental flap in a chronic myocardial infarct heart. METHODS: A minipig chronic myocardial infarction was generated by placing an ameroid constrictor ring around the left anterior descending artery for 4 weeks. The minipigs were then assigned into 4 groups of 6 each: sham, omental flap only, ONO-1301SR only, and ONO-1301SR combined with an omental flap (combined)...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625570/the-inhibition-of-human-lung-fibroblast-proliferation-and-differentiation-by-gs-coupled-receptors-is-not-predicted-by-the-magnitude-of-camp-response
#16
Maxine J Roberts, Rebecca E Broome, Toby C Kent, Steven J Charlton, Elizabeth M Rosethorne
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive fibrotic lung disease for which there is no cure. Current therapeutics are only able to slow disease progression, therefore there is a need to explore alternative, novel treatment options. There is increasing evidence that the 3', 5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway is an important modulator in the development of fibrosis, with increasing levels of cAMP able to inhibit cellular processes associated with IPF...
April 7, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621746/crocin-improves-the-endothelial-function-regulated-by-kca3-1-through-erk-and-akt-signaling-pathways
#17
Huike Yang, Xuemei Li, Yang Liu, Xinlei Li, Xiaodong Li, Mengnan Wu, Xiaohong Lv, Chun Chunhua, Xuansheng Ding, Yafang Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Based on the protective effect of crocin against cardiovascular diseases, we hypothesize that crocin could improve endothelial function through activating the eNOS(endothelial nitric oxide synthase) /NO pathway and/or the intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCa3.1). METHODS: In this study, rat aortic rings were used to assess the regulatory effect of crocin on vascular tone and nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and KCa3.1, all endothelial vasodilators, were analyzed for effects by crocin...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610176/pediatric-malignant-atrophic-papulosis
#18
Yung-Chieh Huang, Jiaan-Der Wang, Fang-Yi Lee, Lin-Shien Fu
Malignant atrophic papulosis (MAP), also known as Degos disease, is an extremely rare disease that is characterized by its unique skin presentation (namely, central, porcelain-white atrophic lesions with a telangiectatic rim). MAP has the following 2 variants: cutaneous MAP is manifested in the skin alone, whereas systemic MAP affects the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, lungs, and other internal organs. Some patients who presented with only cutaneous symptoms at first may develop systemic symptoms several years later...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609511/extended-release-oral-treprostinil-in-the-management-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-clinical-evidence-and-experience
#19
James C Coons, Taylor Miller
Treprostinil diolamine is the first oral prostacyclin approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) to improve exercise capacity. Clinical studies have demonstrated modest benefit as monotherapy, whereas no difference in exercise capacity was observed with combination therapy. However, these trials were limited by subtherapeutic dosing owing to intolerable adverse effects. Prostacyclin-related adverse effects, such as nausea, diarrhea, headache, flushing, and jaw pain, are prevalent. More recent pharmacokinetic and clinical studies illustrate the dose-response relationship and the importance of achieving clinically effective doses...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602480/-tunnelled-central-venous-catheter-infection-during-treatment-with-epoprostenol
#20
M Koszutski, M Faure, A Guillaumot, E Gomez, M Mercy, F Chabot, A Chaouat
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a pulmonary vascular disease with a poor prognosis. Continuous intravenous treatment with prostacyclin analogues requires the placement of a tunnelled catheter. The occurrence of catheter-related infections in this context is unusual due to the alkaline pH of the prostacyclin analogue solutions. OBSERVATION: A 50-year-old patient with inherited pulmonary artery hypertension, treated with bosentan, sildenafil and epoprostenol, experienced generalized malaise associated with a weight loss of 9kg over a 12-month period without evidence of a source of infection or malignancy...
March 28, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
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