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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339524/chronic-illness-self-management-a-mechanism-behind-the-relationship-between-neighbourhood-social-capital-and-health
#1
Geeke Waverijn, Monique Heijmans, Peter P Groenewegen
: Neighbourhood social capital might provide resources that can benefit chronic illness self-management. Improved self-management is a possible mechanism behind the relationship between neighbourhood social capital and health of people with chronic illness. : To test this mechanism, we collected data on self-management and self-rated health among a sample of 2091 people with chronic illness in 2013. Data on neighbourhood social capital were collected among 69 336 people in 3425 neighbourhoods between May 2011 and September 2012...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334680/assessing-driving-forces-of-land-use-and-land-cover-change-by-a-mixed-method-approach-in-north-eastern-ghana-west-africa
#2
Janina Kleemann, Gülendam Baysal, Henry N N Bulley, Christine Fürst
Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is the result of complex human-environmental interactions. The high interdependencies in social-ecological systems make it difficult to identify the main drivers. However, knowledge of key drivers of LULCC, including indirect (underlying) drivers which cannot be easily determined by spatial or economic analyses, is essential for land use planning and especially important in developing countries. We used a mixed-method approach in order to detect drivers of LULCC in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana by different qualitative and quantitative methods which were compared in a confidence level analysis...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334487/growing-up-with-perinatal-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-life-not-expected
#3
Elaine Fay Williams
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the lived experience of young adults with perinatally acquired HIV (PaHIV). BACKGROUND: The advancement of the highly active antiretroviral treatment, PaHIV-infection has transformed into a chronic lifelong illness that is faced by young adults who grew up with HIV. The known challenges that are associated with HIV are poverty, stigma and social and emotional isolation. DESIGN: This was a qualitative single interview study of a convenience sample of PaHIV-infected young adults receiving care at a large metropolitan pediatric hospital...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332203/margins-of-freedom-a-field-theoretic-approach-to-class-based-health-dispositions-and-practices
#4
Patrick John Burnett, Gerry Veenstra
Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice situates social practices in the relational interplay between experiential mental phenomena (habitus), resources (capitals) and objective social structures (fields). When applied to class-based practices in particular, the overarching field of power within which social classes are potentially made manifest is the primary field of interest. Applying relational statistical techniques to original survey data from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, we investigated whether smoking, engaging in physical activity and consuming fruit and vegetables are dispersed in a three-dimensional field of power shaped by economic and cultural capitals and cultural dispositions and practices...
March 23, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324806/social-networking-site-sns-use-by-adolescent-mothers-can-social-support-and-social-capital-be-enhanced-by-online-social-networks-a-structured-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Samantha Nolan, Joyce Hendricks, Sally Ferguson, Amanda Towell
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: to critically appraise the available literature and summarise the evidence relating to adolescent mothers' use of social networking sites in terms of any social support and social capital they may provide and to identify areas for future exploration. BACKGROUND: social networking sites have been demonstrated to provide social support to marginalised individuals and provide psycho-social benefits to members of such groups. Adolescent mothers are at risk of; social marginalisation; anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms; and poorer health and educational outcomes for their children...
March 7, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318289/parental-social-coaching-promotes-adolescent-peer-acceptance-across-the-middle-school-transition
#6
Kim D Gregson, Kelly M Tu, Stephen A Erath, Gregory S Pettit
The present study investigated longitudinal associations between behavioral and cognitive dimensions of parental social coaching (i.e., advice about how to behave or think about peer challenges) and young adolescents' peer acceptance, and whether such associations are moderated by youths' social skills. Time 1 (T1) participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years; 50% boys; 58.5% European American). Parents gave open-ended reports about their social coaching to hypothetical peer stress scenarios, which were coded from low to high quality on behavioral and cognitive dimensions...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316348/new-skills-new-jobs-return-migration-skill-transfers-and-business-formation-in-mexico
#7
Jacqueline Maria Hagan, Joshua Wassink
Numerous studies have documented a high propensity for self-employment and business formation among return migrants relative to non-migrants. The literature points to the importance of remitted savings, migration duration, and number and types of jobs abroad for business formation upon return. Implicit in this scholarship is the assumption that migrants acquire not only financial capital, but also human capital, which expands their opportunities upon return. Empirical work has demonstrated how the transfer of formal human capital, such as language skills and professional credentials, influences the mobility pathways of professional return migrants...
November 2016: Social Problems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302095/perceptions-of-community-based-field-workers-on-the-effect-of-a-longitudinal-biomedical-research-project-on-their-sustainable-livelihoods
#8
Christabelle S Moyo, Joseph Francis, Pascal O Bessong
BACKGROUND: Researchers involved in biomedical community-based projects rarely seek the perspectives of community fieldworkers, who are the 'foot soldiers' in such projects. Understanding the effect of biomedical research on community-based field workers could identify benefits and shortfalls that may be crucial to the success of community-based studies. The present study explored the perceptions of community-based field workers on the effect of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project" (MAL-ED) South Africa on their tangible and intangible capital which together comprise sustainable livelihoods...
March 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301506/measuring-complexity-in-brazilian-economic-crises
#9
Letícia P D Mortoza, José R C Piqueira
Capital flows are responsible for a strong influence on the foreign exchange rates and stock prices macroeconomic parameters. In volatile economies, capital flows can change due to several types of social, political and economic events, provoking oscillations on these parameters, which are recognized as economic crises. This work aims to investigate how these two macroeconomic variables are related with crisis events by using the traditional complex measures due to Lopez-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) and to Shiner-Davison-Landsberg (SDL), that can be applied to any temporal series...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301000/population-based-study-on-infant-mortality
#10
Jaqueline Costa Lima, Alexandre Marchezoni Mingarelli, Neuber José Segri, Arturo Alejandro Zavala Zavala, Olga Akiko Takano
Although Brazil has reduced social, economic and health indicators disparities in the last decade, intra- and inter-regional differences in child mortality rates (CMR) persist in regions such as the state capital of Mato Grosso. This population-based study aimed to investigate factors associated with child mortality in five cohorts of live births (LB) of mothers living in Cuiabá (MT), Brazil, 2006-2010, through probabilistic linkage in 47,018 LB. We used hierarchical logistic regression analysis. Of the 617 child deaths, 48% occurred in the early neonatal period...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298368/building-a-new-life-in-australia-an-analysis-of-the-first-wave-of-the-longitudinal-study-of-humanitarian-migrants-in-australia-to-assess-the-association-between-social-integration-and-self-rated-health
#11
Wen Chen, Li Ling, Andre M N Renzaho
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between social integration and physical and mental health among humanitarian migrants (HMs) in Australia. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We used the recently released first wave of data from the 2013 'Building a New Life in Australia' survey, which is an ongoing nationwide longitudinal study. A total of 2399 HMs participated in the survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-rated physical health was measured using four items selected from the SF-36 which is a generic measure of health status...
March 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297634/australian-gay-and-bisexual-men
#12
Garrett Prestage, Benjamin Bavinton, Denton Callander, Steven P Philpot, Iryna Zablotska, Johann Kolstee, Phillip Keen, Jack Bradley, Fengyi Jin
Background: Among gay and bisexual men (GBM), 'serosorting' is common and involves restricting sex, or at least condomless sex, to partners of the same HIV status. The prevalence of men conveying their serosorting preferences regarding partners they meet online remains unclear. Methods: This study reviewed 57178 Australian online profiles obtained directly from a popular gay website. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preferences for meeting HIV-positive partners. Results: Men could indicate their preferences from a list of 22 types of partners; 4358 profiles (7...
March 16, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295883/social-and-material-aspects-of-life-and-their-impact-on-the-physical-health-of-people-diagnosed-with-mental-illness
#13
Stephanie B Ewart, Brenda Happell, Julia Bocking, Chris Platania-Phung, Robert Stanton, Brett Scholz
BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with mental illness have shorter lives and poorer physical health, compared to the general population. These health inequities are usually viewed at an individual and clinical level, yet there is little research on the views of mental health consumers on clinical factors in broader contexts. OBJECTIVE: To elicit the views of consumers of mental health services regarding their physical health and experiences of accessing physical health-care services...
March 15, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291292/-psychotic-experiences-in-the-adaptation-process-to-a-new-social-environment
#14
Tolga Binbay, Emre Mısır, Ebru Onrat Özsoydan, Mert Artuk, Simay Fidan, Arzu Karakiraz, Ezgi Önder, Arjin Öztürk, Merve Buse Sayın, Halis Ulaş, Berna Akdede, Köksal Alptekin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between psychotic experiences (PEs) and social stress and discrimination during adaptation to a new social context. METHOD: First-term university students (n: 164) were screened to determine if they had had any PEs, social adaptation-related stress, and/or perceived discrimination in the prior six months. The positive dimension of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) was used to define PEs. Social relations and discrimination in the students' new social contexts (both narrow (i...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290123/the-gravity-of-high-skilled-migration-policies
#15
Mathias Czaika, Christopher R Parsons
Combining unique, annual, bilateral data on labor flows of highly skilled immigrants for 10 OECD destinations between 2000 and 2012, with new databases comprising both unilateral and bilateral policy instruments, we present the first judicious cross-country assessment of policies aimed to attract and select high-skilled workers. Points-based systems are much more effective in attracting and selecting high-skilled migrants than requiring a job offer, labor market tests, and shortage lists. Offers of permanent residency, while attracting the highly skilled, overall reduce the human capital content of labor flows because they prove more attractive to non-high-skilled workers...
March 13, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289832/indirect-costs-related-to-caregivers-absence-from-work-after-paediatric-tonsil-surgery
#16
Gunnhildur Gudnadottir, G Ragnarson Tennvall, J Stalfors, J Hellgren
Tonsillotomy has gradually replaced tonsillectomy as the surgical method of choice in children with upper airway obstruction during sleep, because of less postoperative pain and a shorter recovery time. The aim of this study was to examine the costs related to caregivers' absenteeism from work after tonsillectomy (TE) and tonsillotomy (TT). All tonsillectomies and tonsillotomies in Sweden due to upper airway obstruction during 1 year, reported to the National Tonsil Surgery Register in children aged 1-11 were included, n = 4534...
March 14, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288315/social-capital-deprivation-and-self-rated-health-does-reporting-heterogeneity-play-a-role-results-from-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#17
M G O'Doherty, D French, A Steptoe, F Kee
Self-rated health (SRH) is commonly assessed in large surveys, though responses can be influenced by different individuals' perceptions of and beliefs about health. Therefore, instead of providing evidence of 'true' health disparities across groups, findings may actually reflect reporting heterogeneity. Using data from participants aged 50 years and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) Wave 3 (2006/07; participation rate = 73%), associations between three dimensions of social capital (local area & trust, social support and social networks), deprivation and SRH were examined using the vignette methodology in 2341 individuals who completed both the self-report and at least one of the 18 vignettes...
March 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280291/the-impact-of-congestion-charging-on-social-capital
#18
Luke A Munford
We analyse a new data set to examine how congestion charging policies affect an individual's investment social capital. We exploit a (quasi-) natural experiment - the implementation of the Western Extension Zone (WEZ) to the London Congestion Charging zone in 2007. We measure investment in social capital by using the frequency of visits to friends and family before and after the implementation of the WEZ. Using longitudinal data collected in January and November 2007 made available by Transport for London, we perform difference-in-difference analysis, using both OLS and interval regression, with the treatment group defined as those who used a car to make visits pre-WEZ...
March 2017: Transportation Research. Part A, Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279924/physicians-responses-to-financial-and-social-incentives-a-medically-framed-real-effort-experiment
#19
Mylène Lagarde, Duane Blaauw
Because compensation policies have critical implications for the provision of health care, and evidence of their effects is limited and difficult to study in the real world, laboratory experiments may be a valuable methodology to study the behavioural responses of health care providers. With this experiment undertaken in 2013, we add to this new literature by designing a new medically framed real effort task to test the effects of different remuneration schemes in a multi-tasking context. We assess the impact of different incentives on the quantity (productivity) and quality of outputs of 132 participants...
March 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275207/whip-rule-breaches-in-a-major-australian-racing-jurisdiction-welfare-and-regulatory-implications
#20
Jennifer Hood, Carolyn McDonald, Bethany Wilson, Phil McManus, Paul McGreevy
Whip use in horseracing is increasingly being questioned on ethical, animal welfare, social sustainability, and legal grounds. Despite this, there is weak evidence for whip use and its regulation by Stewards in Australia. To help address this, we characterised whip rule breaches recorded by Stewards using Stewards Reports and Race Diaries from 2013 and 2016 in New SouthWales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). There were more recorded breaches at Metropolitan (M) than Country (C) or Provincial (P) locations, and by riders of horses that finished first, second, or third than by riders of horses that finished in other positions...
January 16, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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