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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222189/molecular-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-in-brussels-2010-2013
#1
Christelle Vluggen, Karine Soetaert, Guido Groenen, Maryse Wanlin, Martine Spitaels, Wouter Arrazola de Oñate, Maryse Fauville-Dufaux, Claude Saegerman, Vanessa Mathys
The tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate in Brussels-Capital Region is 3-fold higher than in Belgium as a whole. Eight years after the realization of initial prospective population-based molecular epidemiology investigations in this Region, a similar study over the period 2010-2013 was conducted. TB strains isolated from 945 patients were submitted to genotyping by standardized 24-locus-MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the LAM (16.7%) and Haarlem (15.7%) branches are the two most prevalent TB lineages circulating in Brussels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219376/cooperate-a-paradigm-shift-for-health-equity
#2
REVIEW
Wei-Ching Chang, Joy H Fraser
The role of competition and cooperation in relation to the goal of health equity is examined in this paper. The authors explain why the win-lose mentality associated with avoidable competition is ethically questionable and less effective than cooperation in achieving positive outcomes, particularly as it relates to health and health equity. Competition, which differentiates winners from losers, often with the winner-takes-all reward system, inevitably leads to a few winners and many losers, resulting in social inequality, which, in turn, engenders and perpetuates health inequity...
February 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216951/a-qualitative-insight-on-complementary-and-alternative-medicines-used-by-hypertensive-patients
#3
Inas Rifaat Ibrahim, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Fahad Saleem, Haydar F Al Tukmagi
BACKGROUND: The self-treatment with complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) in chronic diseases is portraying an expanding trend worldwide. Yet, little is known concerning patients' motives to use CAM in the control of blood pressure. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the self-use of CAM in the management of hypertension and explore patients' attitudes, perceived benefits, and disclosure to the physician. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative technique was adopted and face-to-face interviews, using a validated interview guide, were carried out among twenty hypertensive patients...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215285/perspectives-on-perspective-taking-how-children-think-about-the-minds-of-others
#4
S A J Birch, V Li, T Haddock, S E Ghrear, P Brosseau-Liard, A Baimel, M Whyte
Perspective taking, or "theory of mind," involves reasoning about the mental states of others (e.g., their intentions, desires, knowledge, beliefs) and is called upon in virtually every aspect of human interaction. Our goals in writing this chapter were to provide an overview of (a) the research questions developmental psychologists ask to shed light on how children think about the inner workings of the mind, and (b) why such research is invaluable in understanding human nature and our ability to interact with, and learn from, one another...
2017: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212426/sustainability-of-common-pool-resources
#5
Raja Rajendra Timilsina, Koji Kotani, Yoshio Kamijo
Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211823/symptom-severity-and-life-satisfaction-in-brain-injury-the-mediating-role-of-disability-acceptance-and-social-self-efficacy
#6
Nicole Ditchman, Connie Sung, Amanda B Easton, Kristina S Johnson, Elisabeth Batchos
BACKGROUND: Although the negative impact of symptom severity on subjective well-being outcomes has been established among individuals with brain injury, the mediating and protective role that positive human traits might have on this relationship has not been adequately explored. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of social self-efficacy and disability acceptance on the relationship between symptom severity and life satisfaction among individuals with brain injury...
February 15, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210860/a-heat-vulnerability-index-to-improve-urban-public-health-management-in-san-juan-puerto-rico
#7
Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J McCarthy, Ernesto Rodríguez
Increased frequency and length of high heat episodes are leading to more cardiovascular issues and asthmatic responses among the population of San Juan, the capital of the island of Puerto Rico, USA. An urban heat island effect, which leads to foci of higher temperatures in some urban areas, can raise heat-related mortality. The objective of this research is to map the risk of high temperature in particular locations by creating heat maps of the city of San Juan. The heat vulnerability index (HVI) maps were developed using images collected by satellite-based remote sensing combined with census data...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203211/ethnic-minorities-impression-management-in-the-interview-helping-or-hindering
#8
Eva Derous
Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities' interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred 'entitlements' whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred 'opinion conformity' as IM-tactics...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202153/dyad-vs-network-effects-modeling-relationships-in-personal-networks-using-contextual-effects
#9
E C Hedberg
This paper proposes using contextual models to disentangle the effects of dyad characteristics from the effects of characteristics of the networks in which they reside. Multilevel models that nest dyads in personal networks can be coded for contextual analysis by entering both the dyad value of a predictor and the network mean of that predictor into the prediction equation. These models can then be used to measure a within-network effect for dyads and a network contextual effect. This paper conducts an example analysis of how dyad redundancy, and the network's average dyad redundancy, impact discussions of job opportunities...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202070/social-capital-and-job-satisfaction-among-substance-abuse-treatment-employees
#10
Andreas Tsounis, Dimitris Niakas, Pavlos Sarafis
BACKGROUND: Job satisfaction is an important predictor for management and clinical ratios. Although it is accepted that is affected by many aspects, the influence of social capital remains to be determined. The main purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and individual social capital for employees offering services in the treatment of addiction. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 239 employees from 14 therapeutic programs at KETEA (Therapy Center for Dependent Individuals in Greece) (KETHEA)...
February 15, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194125/all-you-need-is-facebook-friends-associations-between-online-and-face-to-face-friendships-and-health
#11
Maria Luisa Lima, Sibila Marques, Gabriel Muiños, Cristina Camilo
Positive social relations are known to have a beneficial impact on health, however, little is known about the links of health with online relationships. In this study, we compare face-to-face and virtual friendships in their association with health. By building on previous results of studies conducted on the well-being of college students, we expect to find stronger associations of face-to-face friendships with health than of those established through Facebook. Furthermore, we expect to test the mediating role of social capital variables in this process...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188563/how-do-kenyan-orphan-girls-experience-less-meaningful-lives-and-how-much-does-it-matter-for-health
#12
Michael L Goodman, Thomas M Johnson, Shannon Guillot-Wright, Katherine Ackerman Porter, Philip H Keiser, Stanley Gitari
BACKGROUND: Currently, 2.5 million orphaned children are living in Kenya and 56 million orphaned children are living across sub-Saharan Africa. No empirical research has investigated meaningfulness of life among this population, and few studies provide perspectives on the life-course consequences of losing a parent during childhood. METHODS: In this study, we assess life meaningfulness in cross section of Kenyan women (n = 1974) in a semi-rural area of the country (Meru County) collected during June 2015...
February 10, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188241/examination-of-the-influence-of-social-capital-on-depression-in-fragile-families
#13
Neil A Wilmot, Kim Nichols Dauner
BACKGROUND: While it appears that social capital has a positive effect on mental health, most studies have been cross-sectional in nature and/or employ weak measures of social capital or mental health. Even less attention has been paid to vulnerable populations, such as low-income women with children. Thus, our objective was to explore how different dimensions of social capital impact depression in this population. METHODS: We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, which has followed a cohort of children born in large US cities to mostly minority, unmarried parents for over 9 years...
March 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185595/exploring-pathways-for-building-trust-in-vaccination-and-strengthening-health-system-resilience
#14
Sachiko Ozawa, Ligia Paina, Mary Qiu
BACKGROUND: Trust is critical to generate and maintain demand for vaccines in low and middle income countries. However, there is little documentation on how health system insufficiencies affect trust in vaccination and the process of re-building trust once it has been compromised. We reflect on how disruptions to immunizations systems can affect trust in vaccination and can compromise vaccine utilization. We then explore key pathways for overcoming system vulnerabilities in order to restore trust, to strengthen the resilience of health systems and communities, and to promote vaccine utilization...
November 15, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182980/bowling-alone-dying-together-the-role-of-social-capital-in-mitigating-the-drug-overdose-epidemic-in-the-united-states
#15
Michael J Zoorob, Jason L Salemi
BACKGROUND: Drug overdose deaths have risen precipitously over the last fifteen years. Substantial geographic variation, beyond a simple rural-urban dichotomy, exists in the concentration of overdose deaths, suggesting the existence of as-yet unidentified environmental variables that predict resilience (or vulnerability) to drug overdoses. Motivated by reports highlighting the role of community fragility in the opioid epidemic, we explore whether social capital attenuates overdose death rates...
January 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182527/hidden-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-social-class
#16
Sébastien Goudeau, Jean-Claude Croizet
Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., higher cultural capital) experienced by middle-class students, whose upbringing affords them more familiarity with the academic culture than their working-class peers have...
February 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181866/raising-the-social-security-entitlement-age
#17
Julie Zissimopoulos, Barbara Blaylock, Dana P Goldman, John W Rowe
An aging America presents challenges but also brings social and economic capital. We quantify public revenues from, and public expenditures on, Americans aged 65 and older, the value of their unpaid, productive activities and financial gifts to family. Using microsimulation, we project the value of these activities, and government revenues and expenditures, under different scenarios of change to the Old Age and Survivors Insurance eligibility age through 2050. We find the value of unpaid productive activities and financial gifts are US$721 billion in 2010, while net (of tax revenues) spending on the 65 years and older is US$984 billion...
January 2017: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178971/building-social-capital-to-promote-adolescent-wellbeing-a-qualitative-study-with-teens-in-a-latino-agricultural-community
#18
Marissa Raymond-Flesch, Colette Auerswald, Linda McGlone, Megan Comfort, Alexandra Minnis
BACKGROUND: Latino youth, particularly in rural settings, experience significant disparities in rates of teen pregnancy and violence. Few data are available regarding social and structural influences on Latino youth's developmental trajectories, specifically on factors that promote wellbeing and protect them from engagement in high-risk sexual and violence-related behaviors. METHODS: Forty-two youth aged 13 to 19 years old were recruited from middle schools and youth leadership programs to participate in one of eight community-based focus groups in Salinas, a predominantly Latino, urban center in California's rural central coast...
February 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177147/shifting-dementia-discourses-from-deficit-to-active-citizenship
#19
Linda Birt, Fiona Poland, Emese Csipke, Georgina Charlesworth
Within western cultures, portrayals of dementia as 'a living death' are being challenged by people living with the diagnosis. Yet dementia remains one of the most feared conditions. The sociological lens of citizenship provides a conceptual framework for reviewing the role of society and culture in repositioning dementia away from deficit to a discourse of agency and interdependence. Awareness of cognitive change, and engaging with the diagnostic process, moves people into a transitional, or 'liminal' state of uncertainty...
February 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170406/youth-as-contested-sites-of-culture-the-intergenerational-acculturation-gap-amongst-new-migrant-communities-parental-and-young-adult-perspectives
#20
Andre M N Renzaho, Nidhi Dhingra, Nichole Georgeou
BACKGROUND: Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2) to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth...
2017: PloS One
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