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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243815/effect-of-grinding-at-modified-atmosphere-or-vacuum-on-browning-antioxidant-capacities-and-oxidative-enzyme-activities-of-apple
#1
Ah-Na Kim, Kyo-Yeon Lee, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jiyeon Chun, William L Kerr, Sung-Gil Choi
This study evaluated the effects of grinding at atmospheric pressure (control), under vacuum (∼2.67 kPa), or with modified atmosphere (N2 and CO2 ) on the browning, antioxidant activity, phenolics, and oxidative enzyme activity of apples as a function of time. The control group was affected most, showing distinct browning and losing most of the antioxidant activity and concentrations of the main phenolic compounds. The modified atmosphere groups retained color, antioxidant activity, and phenolic compounds better than the control group...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241321/the-suitability-of-different-probiotic-strains-for-the-production-of-fruit-whey-beverages
#2
Marek Sady, Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko, Jacek Domagała
BACKGROUND: When designing new probiotic products, one of the most important aspects is the selection of bacterial strains with high survival rates in the matrix of the product concerned. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the potential of selected strains of probiotic bacteria for the production of fruit-whey beverages. METHODS: Orange, apple and blackcurrant whey beverages were produced, and each was inoculated with one of the following probiotic strains: Bifidobacterium lactis HN019TM; Lactobacillus aci- dophilus NCFM®; Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37TM; Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001TM...
October 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239642/are-creative-individuals-bad-apples-a-dual-pathway-model-of-unethical-behavior
#3
Sejin Keem, Christina E Shalley, Eugene Kim, Inseong Jeong
Research has been inconsistent in its quest to discover whether dispositional creativity is associated with more or less unethical behavior. Drawing on social cognitive theory, we propose that moral disengagement and moral imagination are 2 parallel mechanisms that encourage or inhibit unethical behavior, and that which of these mediation processes occur depends on moral identity. Study 1, a 3-wave study of a food service organization, shows that employees high on both dispositional creativity and moral identity are less likely to be morally disengaged and behave less unethically...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239513/without-or-without-pheromone-habituation-possible-differences-between-insect-orders
#4
David Maxwell Suckling, Lloyd D Stringer, Alfredo Jiménez-Pérez, Gimme H Walter, Nicola Sullivan, Ashraf M El-Sayed
BACKGROUND: Habituation to sex pheromones is one of the key mechanisms in mating disruption, an insect control tactic. Male moths often show reduced sexual response after pre-exposure to female sex pheromone. Mating disruption is relatively rare in insect orders other than Lepidoptera. RESULTS: As a positive control we confirmed habituation in a moth (Epiphyas postvittana) using 24 h pre-exposure to sex pheromone to reduce subsequent activation behaviour. We then tested the impact of pre-exposure to sex or trail pheromone on subsequent behavioural response with insects from three other orders...
December 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238285/generation-of-an-infectious-clone-of-a-new-korean-isolate-of-apple-chlorotic-leaf-spot-virus-driven-by-dual-35s-and-t7-promoters-in-a-versatile-binary-vector
#5
Ik-Hyun Kim, Jae-Yeong Han, In-Sook Cho, HyeKyoung Ju, Jae Sun Moon, Eun-Young Seo, Hong Gi Kim, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim
The full-length sequence of a new isolate of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from Korea was divergent, but most closely related to the Japanese isolate A4, at 84% nucleotide identity. The full-length cDNA of the Korean isolate of ACLSV was cloned into a binary vector downstream of the bacteriophage T7 RNA promoter and the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Chenopodium quinoa was successfully infected using in vitro transcripts synthesized using the T7 promoter, detected at 20 days post inoculation (dpi), but did not produce obvious symptoms...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237800/an-integrated-clinic-community-partnership-for-child-obesity-treatment-a-randomized-pilot-trial
#6
Jessica Hoffman, Leah Frerichs, Mary Story, Jason Jones, Kiah Gaskin, Annie Apple, Asheley Skinner, Sarah Armstrong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Effective treatment of childhood obesity remains elusive. Integration of clinical and community systems may achieve effective and sustainable treatment. However, the feasibility and effectiveness of this integrated model are unknown. METHODS: We conducted a randomized clinical trial among children aged 5 to 11 presenting for obesity treatment. We randomized participants to clinical care or clinical care plus community-based programming at a local parks and recreation facility...
December 13, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234630/consensus-on-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-small-sized-hepatocellular-carcinoma-at-the-7th-asia-pacific-primary-liver-cancer-expert-meeting
#7
Zhao-Chong Zeng, Jinsil Seong, Sang Min Yoon, Jason Chia-Hsien Cheng, Ka-On Lam, Ann-Shing Lee, Ada Law, Jian-Ying Zhang, Yong Hu
Background: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an advanced technique of external beam radiation therapy that delivers large ablative doses of radiation. In the past decade, many cancer centers have adopted SBRT as one mode of radically treating small-sized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), based on encouraging clinical outcomes. SBRT thus seems reasonable as first-line treatment of inoperable HCC confined to the liver. However, most of the clinical studies to date have been retrospective in nature, with key issues still under investigation...
November 2017: Liver Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232282/selected-food-herb-drug-interactions-mechanisms-and-clinical-relevance
#8
Cecilia N Amadi, Amaka A Mgbahurike
BACKGROUND: Food/Herb-drug interactions have become a major problem in health care. These interactions can lead to loss of therapeutic efficacy or toxic effects of drugs. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: To probe the clinical relevance of such interactions, the impact of food/herb intake on the clinical effects of drug administration has to be evaluated. Failure to identify and efficiently manage food-drug interactions can lead to serious consequences. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms that underpin variability in disposition will help optimize therapy...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232127/measurement-of-fructose-asparagine-concentrations-in-human-and-animal-foods
#9
Jikang Wu, Anice Sabag-Daigle, Thomas O Metz, Brooke Deatherage Kaiser, Venkat Gopalan, Edward J Behrman, Vicki H Wysocki, Brian Ahmer
The food-borne bacterial pathogen, Salmonella enterica, can utilize fructose-asparagine (F-Asn) as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. F-Asn is the product of an Amadori rearrangement following the non-enzymatic condensation of glucose and asparagine. Heating converts F-Asn via complex Maillard reactions to a variety of molecules that contribute to the color, taste, and aroma of heated foods. Among these end derivatives is acrylamide, which is present in some foods, especially in fried potatoes. The F-Asn utilization pathway in Salmonella, specifically FraB, is a potential drug target because inhibition of this enzyme would lead to intoxication of Salmonella in the presence of F-Asn...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232043/an-erwinia-amylovora-yjek-mutant-exhibits-reduced-virulence-increased-chemical-sensitivity-and-numerous-environmentally-dependent-proteomic-alterations
#10
Sara Klee, Islam Mostafa, Sixue Chen, Craig Dufresne, Brian L Lehman, Judith P Sinn, Kari A Peter, Timothy W McNellis
The gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight, an economically-important disease of apples and pears. Elongation Factor P (EF-P) is a highly conserved protein that stimulates the formation of the first peptide bond of certain proteins and facilitates translation of certain proteins, including those with polyproline motifs. YjeK and YjeA are two enzymes involved in the essential post-translational β-lysylation of EF-P at a conserved lysine residue, K34. EF-P, YjeA, and YjeK have been shown to be essential for full virulence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, with efp, yjeA, and yjeK mutants having highly similar phenotypes...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230195/content-analysis-of-mobile-health-applications-on-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Syarafina Izahar, Qi Ying Lean, Mohammed Abdul Hameed, Muthu Kumar Murugiah, Rahul P Patel, Yaser Mohammed Al-Worafi, Tin Wui Wong, Long Chiau Ming
Diabetes self-management offers an opportunity to patients to be actively involved in managing their conditions and modifying lifestyle behaviors to attain positive health outcomes. With the unprecedented growth of mobile technology, smartphone plays a role in supporting diabetes self-management. Nonetheless, selecting appropriate mobile applications (apps) is challenging for patients. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate and compare the contents and features of mobile medical apps for diabetes self-management...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229015/risk-factors-for-acquisition-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-and-development-of-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infections
#12
U V Ukah, M Glass, B Avery, D Daignault, M R Mulvey, R J Reid-Smith, E J Parmley, A Portt, P Boerlin, A R Manges
We examined risk factors associated with the intestinal acquisition of antimicrobial-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) and development of community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) in a case-control study of young women across Canada. A total of 399 women were recruited; 164 women had a UTI caused by E. coli resistant to ⩾1 antimicrobial classes and 98 had a UTI caused by E. coli resistant to ⩾3 antimicrobial classes. After adjustment for age, student health service (region of Canada) and either prior antibiotic use or UTI history, consumption of processed or ground chicken, cooked or raw shellfish, street foods and any organic fruit; as well as, contact with chickens, dogs and pet treats; and travel to Asia, were associated with an increased risk of UTI caused by antimicrobial resistant E...
December 12, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228797/in-situ-microstructure-and-rheological-behavior-of-yeast-biofilms-from-the-juice-processing-industries
#13
María C Tarifa, Diego Genovese, Jorge E Lozano, Lorena I Brugnoni
The factors affecting the mechanical properties of biofilms formed by yeast species (Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Candida krusei, C. kefyr and C. tropicalis) isolated from the juice processing industries have been investigated. Variables studied were: the food matrix (apple/pear juice), the sugar concentration (6/12 °Bx) and the hydrodynamic conditions (static/turbulent flow). A range of environmental cues were included as the mechanical properties of biofilms are complex. Yeast counts were significantly higher in turbulent flow compared with under static conditions...
December 12, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228083/low-po2-contributes-to-potential-error-in-oxygen-saturation-calculations-using-a-point-of-care-assay
#14
Ian L Gunsolus, Sara A Love, Louis P Kohl, Martin Schmidt, Fred S Apple
Objectives: The present study addressed the accuracy of calculated oxygen saturation (sO2) using point-of-care (POC) testing compared with measured values on a blood gas analyzer. Methods: In total, 3,323 sO2 values were measured in 1,180 patients using a CO-oximeter (ABL 800 Flex; Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Measured parameters were then used to calculate an expected sO2 for the POC method (Abbott i-STAT; Abbott POC, Princeton, NJ). Cases in which calculated sO2 differed from measured sO2 by 10% or more were analyzed...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227906/to-disinfect-or-not-to-disinfect-in-postharvest-research-on-the-fungal-decay-of-apple
#15
Matthias Naets, Mattias van Dael, Els Vanstreels, Dirk Daelemans, Pieter Verboven, Bart Nicolaï, Wannes Keulemans, Annemie Geeraerd
Postharvest losses of fruit and vegetables can reach up to 30%, the main cause being microbial decay. For apple fruit, mostly fungal pathogens, such as Penicillium expansum, Colletotrichum spp., Neofabraea spp. and Botrytis cinerea, are important. As such losses are unsustainable in many ways, it is necessary that research is conducted to prevent them. Generally, for plants and fruit grown under non-sterile field conditions, disinfection is carried out prior to the start of a phytopathological experiment. The motivation for this practice is the removal of background contamination so that it will not affect the experimental outcome and its interpretation...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227203/therapeutic-charm-of-quercetin-and-its-derivatives-a-review-of-research-and-patents
#16
Ajay Sharma, Dharambir Kashyap, Katrin Sak, Hardeep Singh Tuli, Anil K Sharma
Bioactive polyphenolic compounds derived from plants are being utilized for prevention of various chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Quercetin, a potential poly-phenolic flavonol, found in onions, apples and berries, has been implicated against cancer proliferation, chronic inflammation and various other oxidative manifestations. Evidences suggested that quercetin negatively regulates the numerous crucial signaling pathways associated with life-threatening diseases. Major signaling pathways including NF-κB, MAPK, PI3K-AKT and mTOR are found to be regulated by quercetin...
December 11, 2017: Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226584/wool-derived-keratin-hydrogel-enhances-implant-osseointegration-in-cancellous-bone
#17
Warwick J Duncan, Philippa F C Greer, Min-Ho Lee, Carolina Loch, Jennifer H A Gay
AIM: This study investigated whether a keratin hydrogel derived from wool enhances ossointegration of dental implants, using a cancellous bone model in sheep. METHOD: Ten female sheep received one dental implant per hind leg in the distal femoral condyles. Test implants were coated with 1 mL of keratin hydrogel containing sulphonated keratin and hydroxyapatite; control implants remained uncoated; implants were not functionally loaded axially. Biomechanical stability was tested with resonance frequency analysis (RFA) at placement and euthanasia...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226582/proof-of-concept-testing-of-a-positive-reference-material-for-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-skin-irritation-testing
#18
Yusuke Nomura, Michelle Lee, Chie Fukui, Kayo Watanabe, Daniel Olsen, Audrey Turley, Yuki Morishita, Tsuyoshi Kawakami, Toshiyasu Yuba, Hideo Fujimaki, Kaoru Inoue, Midori Yoshida, Kumiko Ogawa, Yuji Haishima
In vivo and in vitro irritation testing is important for evaluating the biological safety of medical devices. Here, the performance of positive reference materials for skin irritation testing was evaluated. Four reference standards, referred to as Y-series materials, were analyzed: a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet spiked with 0 (Y-1), 1.0 (Y-2), 1.5 (Y-3), or 10 (Y-4) parts of Genapol X-080 per 100 parts of PVC by weight. Y-1, Y-2, and Y-3 did not induce skin irritation responses in an in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissue model, as measured by tissue viability or interleukin-1α release, or in an in vivo intracutaneous response test using rabbits...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226556/solvent-or-thermal-extraction-of-ethylene-oxide-from-polymeric-materials-medical-device-considerations
#19
Anne D Lucas, Christopher Forrey, David M Saylor, Katherine Vorvolakos
Ethylene oxide (EO) gas is commonly used to sterilize medical devices. Bioavailable residual EO, however, presents a significant toxicity risk to patients. Residual EO is assessed using international standards describing extraction conditions for different medical device applications. We examine a series of polymers and explore different extraction conditions to determine residual EO. Materials were sterilized with EO and exhaustively extracted in water, in one of three organic solvents, or in air using thermal desorption...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226553/design-and-properties-of-a-novel-radiopaque-injectable-apatitic-calcium-phosphate-cement-suitable-for-image-guided-implantation
#20
Myriam Le Ferrec, Charlotte Mellier, Florian Boukhechba, Thomas Le Corroller, Daphné Guenoun, Franck Fayon, Valérie Montouillout, Christelle Despas, Alain Walcarius, Dominique Massiot, François-Xavier Lefèvre, Caroline Robic, Jean-Claude Scimeca, Jean-Michel Bouler, Bruno Bujoli
An injectable purely apatitic calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was successfully combined to a water-soluble radiopaque agent (i.e., Xenetix® ), to result in an optimized composition that was found to be as satisfactory as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) formulations used for vertebroplasty, in terms of radiopacity, texture and injectability. For that purpose, the Xenetix dosage in the cement paste was optimized by injection of the radiopaque CPC in human cadaveric vertebrae under classical PMMA vertebroplasty conditions, performed by interventional radiologists familiar with this surgical procedure...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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