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Sodium citrate

Tao He, Svetlana Farrell
Oral diseases, particularly caries and gingivitis, continue to be widespread. Incorporating a stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice into patients' daily oral hygiene routine is a convenient, cost effective approach to improve and protect their oral health and the appearance of their smile. Unlike other common fluorides that only provide anti-caries benefits (e.g., sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate), stabilized stannous fluoride formulations have demonstrated broader and significantly greater protection, also reducing plaque, gingivitis, erosion, sensitivity, and halitosis...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
Zia Ur Rahman, Ning Wei, Yange Feng, Xiaolong Zhang, Daoai Wang
A facile method was used to prepare hollow mesoporous TiO2 and Au@TiO2 spheres using polystyrene (PS) templates. Au nanoparticles (NPs) were simultaneously synthesized and attached on the surface of PS spheres by reducing AuCl4- ions using sodium citrate which resulted in the uniform deposition of Au NPs. The outer coating of titania via sol-gel produced PS@Au@TiO2 core-shell spheres. Removing the templates from these core-shell spheres through calcination produced hollow mesoporous and crystalline Au@TiO2 spheres with Au NPs inside the TiO2 shell in a single step...
January 12, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Helena Líbalová, Pedro M Costa, Magnus Olsson, Lucian Farcal, Simona Ortelli, Magda Blosi, Jan Topinka, Anna L Costa, Bengt Fadeel
The rapid dissolution of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with release of ions is thought to be one of the main factors modulating their toxicity. Here we assessed the cytotoxicity of a panel of CuO NPs (12 nm ± 4 nm) with different surface modifications, i.e., anionic sodium citrate (CIT) and sodium ascorbate (ASC), neutral polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and cationic polyethylenimine (PEI), versus the pristine (uncoated) NPs, using a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7). Cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cellular uptake were assessed...
December 29, 2017: Chemosphere
Silva Suvi, Martin Mooses, Saima Timpmann, Luule Medijainen, Daria Narõškina, Eve Unt, Vahur Ööpik
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of sodium citrate (CIT) ingestion (600 mg·kg<sup>‒1</sup>) during recovery from dehydrating cycling exercise (DE) on subsequent 40-km cycling performance in a warm environment (32 °C). Twenty male non-heat-acclimated endurance athletes exercised in the heat until 4% body mass (BM) loss occurred. After 16 h recovery with consumption of water ad libitum and prescribed diet (evening meal 20 kcal·kg<sup>‒1</sup>, breakfast 12 kcal·kg<sup>‒1</sup>) supplemented in a double-blind, randomized, crossover manner with CIT or placebo (PLC), they performed 40-km time-trial (TT) on a cycle ergometer in a warm environment...
January 11, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Jie He, Sarah Unser, Ian Bruzas, ReJeana Cary, Zhiwei Shi, Rajesh Mehra, Kenneth Aron, Laura Sagle
A common capping agent for gold nanorods, Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), is particularly problematic for biological studies because of its cytotoxicity. Several procedures have been developed to remove the CTAB from the surface of the gold nanorods, but most are lengthy, involving many steps, and use expensive reagents. Here, we present a simple, one-pot method for the complete removal of CTAB from the surface of gold nanorods, so that particles can be more effectively utilized in biological in vivo studies...
December 19, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Aleksandra Sklodowska, Sebastian Mielnicki, Lukasz Drewniak
The main aim of this study was the characterisation of novel Raoutella isolate, an iron-reducing and uranium-precipitating strain, originating from microbial mats occurring in the sediments of a closed down uranium mine in Kowary (SW Poland). Characterisation was done in the context of its potential role in the functioning of these mats and the possibility to use them in uranium removal/recovery processes. In our experiment, we observed the biological precipitation of iron and uranium's secondary minerals containing oxygen, potassium, sodium and phosphor, which were identified as ningyoite-like minerals...
December 22, 2017: Chemosphere
Jiayi Wang, Yiming Niu, Chi Zhang, Yiqiang Chen
A new micro-plate colorimetric assay was developed for rapid determination of zinc in animal feed, pet food and drinking water. Zinc ion was extracted from sample by trichloroacetic acid and then reacted with 2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]phenol (5-Br-PAPS) to form a Zn-PAPS complex to be detected by a micro-plate reader at 552 nm. An ion masking formula including salicylaldoxime, deferoxamine and sodium citrate were screened and applied to exclude the interference from other heavy metals and a partitioning correction approach was proposed to eliminate the matrix effect derived from feed sample...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Victor Ryu, David J McClements, Maria G Corradini, Lynne McLandsborough
The objective of this research was to study the impact of ripening inhibitor level and type on the formation, stability, and activity of antimicrobial thyme oil nanoemulsions formed by spontaneous emulsification. Oil-in-water antimicrobial nanoemulsions (10 wt%) were formed by titrating a mixture of essential oil, ripening inhibitor, and surfactant (Tween 80) into 5 mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 3.5). Stable nanoemulsions containing small droplets (d < 70 nm) were formed. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoemulsions decreased with increasing ripening inhibitor concentration which was attributed to a reduction in the amount of hydrophobic antimicrobial constituents transferred to the separated hydrophobic domain, mimicking bacterial cell membranes, by using dialysis and chromatography...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Xiao-Yu Li, Li Xu, Hong-Li Li, Jing Du, Xue-Song Liu, Feng-Hua Li
The present study aimed to prepare and characterize an Au-poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) complex, surfaced with gold nanoparticles (GNPs), and to assess its use as an ultrasound contrast agent for in vitro imaging. PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a modified double‑emulsion solvent evaporation method. GNPs were prepared via reduction with sodium citrate. Au‑PLGA complexes were created through the binding of polyethylene glycosylated GNPs to the surface of PLGA NPs. Various physical characteristics of PLGA NPs, GNPs and Au‑PLGA complexes, including morphology, size, dispersion, ζ potential and stability were observed and measured...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
M Praveen, G Aarthi, P K Meenapriya, S Senthil Kumar, N S Mohan Kumar, J V Karunakaran
Aim: This study aims to compare the smear layer removal efficacy of 2% chitosan (low molecular weight) (C-LMV), 4% chitosan citrate (CC), and 10% citric acid (CA) when used in specific irrigant protocols. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 single-rooted maxillary incisors and canines were decoronated, standardized to a root length of 15 mm, and prepared with rotary files up to protaper F3 size. Sodium hypochlorite was used as initial rinse [8 ml]. The samples were divided into experimental (Group III, IV, V, and VI) (n = 10) and control groups (I - 17% EDTA, II - normal saline) (n = 5) based on the type of final rinse solution (5 ml) used, that is, 2% C-LMV, 4% C-citrate, 10% CA, and 1% acetic acid...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Juliana Moura Costa, João Bruno Soares
INTRODUCTION: Bowel preparation for colonoscopy and/or colorectal surgery can cause electrolyte imbalances. The risk of electrolyte imbalances seems to be related to the type of bowel cleansing solution, age of patients and comorbidities. CASE REPORT: We report two cases of symptomatic hyponatremia (focal neurological signs and coma) after bowel preparation with sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate for colonoscopy. In both cases, symptoms related to hyponatremia rapidly disappeared after sodium level correction with intravenous administration of hypertonic saline (3% NaCl)...
November 29, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Samer Salameh, Dominique Nouel, Cecilia Flores, Daniel Hoops
Netrin-1, an axon guidance protein, is difficult to detect using immunohistochemistry. We performed a multi-step, blinded, and controlled protocol optimization procedure to establish an efficient and effective fluorescent immunohistochemistry protocol for characterizing Netrin-1 expression. Coronal mouse brain sections were used to test numerous antigen retrieval methods and combinations thereof in order to optimize the stain quality of a commercially available Netrin-1 antibody. Stain quality was evaluated by experienced neuroanatomists for two criteria: signal intensity and signal-to-noise ratio...
2018: MethodsX
Rajni Sharma, Jagdish Singh, Neelam Verma
The present work reveals the potential of biosurfactant producing P. aeruginosa PBS for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The biosurfactant production medium and culture conditions were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimization of media components and process parameters was consecutively executed in two sets of experimental runs designed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The maximum biosurfactant yield was attained with 2% fresh inoculum of P. aeruginosa PBS in minimal salt medium (pH 7), possessing 2...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Yangjie Wei, Joshua WonJoon Yang, Sai Hs Boddu, Rose Jung, Mariann D Churchwell
Background: Indwelling catheters deliver lifesaving medical treatments for many chronically ill patients but are frequently a source of infection. Treatment may include an antimicrobial agent(s) and anticoagulant solution dwelling within the catheter. In vitro determinations of solution compatibility and stability are necessary prior to use in patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the physical compatibility, chemical stability, and antimicrobial activity of vancomycin (5 or 10 mg/mL) with gentamicin (1 mg/mL) or 40% ethanol in 4% sodium citrate lock solution over 72 hours...
November 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
Jialiang Yao, Fenghua Zhao, Chunyang Pan, Jianle Zhuang
In this work, Er3+/Yb3+-codoped BaYF5 with different sizes and shapes have been synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. By changing the fluoride source, pH value, solvent, surfactants, Yb3+ concentration, temperature, and reaction time, the optimum synthetic conditions of BaYF5:Er3+, Yb3+ were found to improve the upconversion luminescent properties. It is found that the emission intensity of green and red light is enhanced for several times by the way of using NaBF4 as a fluoride source with the comparison of NH4F and NaF...
December 19, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Chong-Yu Zhang, Xin-Yuan Sun, Jian-Ming Ouyang, Bao-Song Gui
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the damage mechanism of nanosized hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) on mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (MOVASs) and the injury-inhibiting effects of diethyl citrate (Et2Cit) and sodium citrate (Na3Cit) to develop new drugs that can simultaneously induce anticoagulation and inhibit vascular calcification. Methods: The change in cell viability was evaluated using a cell proliferation assay kit, and the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released was measured using an LDH kit...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Yunlong Yang, Ershu Lin, Shaobin Huang
An aerobic denitrifying bacterium isolated from a bio-trickling filter treating NOx, Bacillus sp. K5, is able to convert ammonium to nitrite, in which hydroxylamine oxidase (HAO) plays a critical role. In the present study, the performance for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was investigated with batch experiments and an HAO was purified by an anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography from strain K5. The purified HAO's molecular mass was determined by SDS-PAGE and its activity by measuring the change in the concentration of ferricyanide, the electron acceptor...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Manuela Pellegrini, Silvia Graziano, Luisa Mastrobattista, Adele Minutillo, Francesco Paolo Busardo, Gianfranco Scarsella
BACKGROUND: It has been long recognized that ensuring analyte stability is of crucial importance in the use of any quantitative bioanalytical method. As analyses are usually not performed directly after collection of the biological samples, but after these have been processed and stored, it is essential that analyte stability be maintained over the relevant storage conditions in order to ensure that the obtained concentration results adequately reflect those directly after sampling. The conservation of urine samples in refrigerated/frozen conditions is strongly recommended; but not always feasible...
December 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Maria de Toro-Crespo, Jose M Maesa-Marquez, Victor Sanchez-Margalet, Concepcion Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Patricia Fernandez-Riejos
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study are to compare the effect of sodium fluoride and citrate on the stability of glucose in samples maintained at room temperature up to three hours, and to assess the clinical impact in the O'Sullivan test results after changing the additives in the collecting tubes. METHODS: The selected population was pregnant women between the 24th and 28th week of gestation, who were at the health center to undergo the O'Sullivan test as part of the screening program for GDM (gestacional diabetes mellitus)...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
Joong Hyun Kim, HyeungWoo Park, Soo Won Seo
We developed a straightforward method to fabricate antibacterial silicon films via the in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film. To grow AgNPs attached on the film, AgNP seeds were synthesized through the reduction of silver ions electrostatically bound to hydroxyl groups formed on the surface of the film after treatment with air plasma. In the growth reaction, silver ions were reduced on the seeds of AgNPs by sodium citrate in a solution of AgNO3, which allowed for the formation of AgNPs with sizes of up to ~ 500 nm, which The formed AgNPs on the films were characterized using UV-vis spectrophotometer, scattering electron microscope and induced coupled mass spectrometer...
2017: Nano Convergence
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