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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822764/effect-of-nitric-oxide-releasing-derivative-of-indomethacin-on-prevotella-intermedia-lipopolysaccharide-induced-production-of-proinflammatory-mediators-in-murine-macrophages
#1
So-Hui Choe, Eun-Young Choi, Jin-Yi Hyeon, In Soon Choi, Sung-Jo Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of NCX 2121, a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivative of indomethacin, upon the generation of proinflammatory mediators using murine macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, which is one of the pathogens implicated in periodontal diseases. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as their relevant mRNA were significantly attenuated by NCX 2121 in RAW264.7 cells activated by P. intermedia LPS...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813704/p38-kinase-sgk1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-up-regulation-of-na-ca2-exchanger-expression-and-activity-following-tgf%C3%A3-1-treatment-of-megakaryocytes
#2
Tamer Al-Maghout, Lisann Pelzl, Itishri Sahu, Basma Sukkar, Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Ravi Gutti, Stefan Laufer, Jakob Voelkl, Burkert Pieske, Meinrad Gawaz, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND: TGFβ1, a decisive regulator of megakaryocyte maturation and platelet formation, has previously been shown to up-regulate both, store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange. The growth factor thus augments the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i) following release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and accelerates the subsequent decline of [Ca2+]i. The effect on SOCE is dependent on a signaling cascade including p38 kinase, serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, and nuclear factor NFκB...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792496/stabilization-of-diastolic-calcium-signal-via-calcium-pump-regulation-of-complex-local-calcium-releases-and-transient-decay-in-a-computational-model-of-cardiac-pacemaker-cell-with-individual-release-channels
#3
Alexander V Maltsev, Victor A Maltsev, Michael D Stern
Intracellular Local Ca releases (LCRs) from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) regulate cardiac pacemaker cell function by activation of electrogenic Na/Ca exchanger (NCX) during diastole. Prior studies demonstrated the existence of powerful compensatory mechanisms of LCR regulation via a complex local cross-talk of Ca pump, release and NCX. One major obstacle to study these mechanisms is that LCR exhibit complex Ca release propagation patterns (including merges and separations) that have not been characterized. Here we developed new terminology, classification, and computer algorithms for automatic detection of numerically simulated LCRs and examined LCR regulation by SR Ca pumping rate (Pup) that provides a major contribution to fight-or-flight response...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780165/the-na-ca-2-exchanger-and-the-plasma-membrane-ca-2-atpase-in-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
André Herchuelz, Nathalie Pachera
The rat pancreatic β-cell expresses 6 splice variants of the Plasma Membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) and two splice variants of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1). In the β-cell Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange displays a high capacity, contributes to both Ca(2+) outflow and influx and participates to the control of insulin release. Gain of function studies show that overexpression of PMCA2 or NCX1 leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) depletion with subsequent ER stress, decrease in β-cell proliferation and β-cell death by apoptosis...
August 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741840/stepwise-growth-of-fullerene-nanoparticles-through-guest-exchange-of-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-complexes-in-water
#5
Kouta Sugikawa, Kentaro Kozawa, Masafumi Ueda, Atsushi Ikeda
Stepwise growth of fullerene nanoparticles (nCx; x=60 or 70) was performed through guest exchange of a γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) complex. Fullerenes bicapped by γ-CD were mixed with presynthesized nCx in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in water. Fullerenes expelled from the γ-CD hosts by PEG were piled on the original nCx, resulting in the growth of nCx. This process could be repeated and the size of nCx increased according to the number of growth steps. The growth of fullerene nanoparticles was confirmed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering measurements, and transmission electron microscopy observations...
July 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720792/optical-read-out-of-neural-activity-in-mammalian-peripheral-axons-calcium-signaling-at-nodes-of-ranvier
#6
Arjun K Fontaine, Emily A Gibson, John H Caldwell, Richard F Weir
Current neural interface technologies have serious limitations for advanced prosthetic and therapeutic applications due primarily to their lack of specificity in neural communication. An optogenetic approach has the potential to provide single cell/axon resolution in a minimally invasive manner by optical interrogation of light-sensitive reporters and actuators. Given the aim of reading neural activity in the peripheral nervous system, this work has investigated an activity-dependent signaling mechanism in the peripheral nerve...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715135/chronic-pharmacological-blockade-of-the-na-ca-2-exchanger-modulates-the-growth-and-development-of-the-purkinje-cell-dendritic-arbor-in-mouse-cerebellar-slice-cultures
#7
Pradeep Sherkhane, Josef P Kapfhammer
The Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a bi-directional plasma membrane antiporter involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis in eukaryotes. NCX has three isoforms, NCX1-3, and all of them are expressed in the cerebellum. Immunostaining on cerebellar slice cultures indicates that NCX is widely expressed in the cerebellum, including expression in Purkinje cells. The pharmacological blockade of the forward mode of NCX (Ca(2+) efflux mode) by Bepridil moderately inhibited growth and development of Purkinje cell dendritic arbor in cerebellar slice cultures...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713161/functional-expression-of-the-ca-2-signaling-machinery-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#8
Ji-Jun Huang, Yi-Jie Wang, Min Zhang, Peng Zhang, He Liang, Hua-Jun Bai, Xiu-Jian Yu, Huang-Tian Yang
Emerging evidence suggests that Ca(2+) signals are important for the self-renewal and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, little is known about the physiological and pharmacological properties of the Ca(2+)-handling machinery in hESCs. In this study we used RT-PCR and Western blotting to analyze the expression profiles of genes encoding Ca(2+)-handling proteins; we also used confocal Ca(2+) imaging and pharmacological approaches to determine the contribution of the Ca(2+)-handling machinery to the regulation of Ca(2+) signaling in hESCs...
July 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696497/role-of-ca2-and-ion-channels-in-the-regulation-of-apoptosis-under-hypoxia
#9
REVIEW
Miaohong Wang, Jin Tan, Yuyang Miao, Mengmeng Li, Qiang Zhang
Hypoxia is a kind of common pathological condition existing in various diseases such as sleep apnea syndrome, myocardial infarction and stroke, which can precipitate the onset of diseases through inducing cell apoptosis. Ca²⁺ is the ubiquitous message in cell. Given the crucial role of Ca2²⁺ in physiology, intracellular Ca²⁺ overload is a significant regulator of apoptosis. Numerous experiments show that hypoxia may cause changes of multiple cellular Ca²⁺ channels, for instance, Na⁺/ Ca²⁺ Exchanger (NCX), L-type voltage dependent Ca²⁺ channel (L-VDCC), inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3R) and so on, which contribute to intracellular Ca²⁺ overload, thus eventually triggering cell apoptosis...
July 11, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683437/role-of-na-ca2-exchangers-in-therapy-resistance-of-medulloblastoma-cells
#10
Lisann Pelzl, Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Tamer Al-Maghout, Yogesh Singh, Itishri Sahu, Rosi Bissinger, Sebastian Schmidt, Saad Alkahtani, Christos Stournaras, Mahmoud Toulany, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alterations of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) are decisive in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation, migration and survival. Transport processes participating in the regulation of [Ca2+]i include Ca2+ extrusion through K+-independent (NCX) and/or K+-dependent (NCKX) Na+/Ca2+-exchangers. The present study thus explored whether medulloblastoma cells express Na+/Ca2+-exchangers, whether expression differs between therapy sensitive D283 and therapy resistant UW228-3 medulloblastoma cells, and whether Na+/Ca2+-exchangers participate in the regulation of cell survival...
July 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679838/fluorocitrate-mediated-depolarization-of-astrocytes-in-the-retrotrapezoid-nucleus-stimulates-breathing
#11
Cleyton R Sobrinho, Christopher M Gonçalves, Ana C Takakura, Daniel K Mulkey, Thiago S Moreira
Evidence indicates that CO2/H(+)-evoked ATP released from retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) astrocytes modulates the activity of CO2-sensitive neurons. RTN astrocytes also sense H+ by inhibition of Kir4.1 channels; however, the relevance of this pH-sensitive current remains unclear since ATP release appears to involve CO2-dependent gating of connexin 26 hemichannels. Considering that depolarization mediated by H(+) inhibition of Kir4.1 channels is expected to increase sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) conductance and favor Ca(2+) influx via the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), we hypothesize that depolarization in the presence of CO2 is sufficient to facilitate ATP release and enhance respiratory output...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655649/interregional-electro-mechanical-heterogeneity-in-the-rabbit-myocardium
#12
REVIEW
Franz F Dressler, Ilona Bodi, Marius Menza, Robin Moss, Heiko Bugger, Christoph Bode, Jan C Behrends, Gunnar Seemann, Katja E Odening
BACKGROUND: Increased electrical heterogeneity has been causatively linked to arrhythmic disorders, yet the knowledge about physiological heterogeneity remains incomplete. This study investigates regional electro-mechanical heterogeneities in rabbits, one of the key animal models for arrhythmic disorders. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 7 wild-type rabbits were examined by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in vivo to assess cardiac wall movement velocities. Using a novel data-processing algorithm regional contraction-like profiles were calculated...
June 24, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649039/pm2-5-exposure-in-utero-contributes-to-neonatal-cardiac-dysfunction-in-mice
#13
Vineeta Tanwar, Jeremy M Adelstein, Jacob A Grimmer, Dane J Youtz, Benjamin P Sugar, Loren E Wold
OBJECTIVE: Exposure of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to pregnant dams has been shown to be strongly associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in offspring at adulthood, however, effects evident during neonatal periods are unclear. We designed this study to examine cardiac function of neonatal mice (14 days old) exposed to in utero PM2.5. METHODS: Pregnant FVB female mice were exposed either to filtered air (FA) or PM2.5 at an average concentration of 91...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646126/how-a-helix-imposes-palmitoylation-of-a-membrane-protein-what-one-can-learn-from-ncx
#14
Daniel Khananshvili
Palmitoylation is a critical post-translational modification that anchors proteins to, and regulates transport across, the lipid bilayer. Palmitoylation enzymes have been assumed to select their substrates based on a protein's primary sequence, but a consensus sequence has been slow to emerge. A study of the sodium/calcium exchanger now suggests that secondary structure may hold the key to understanding the determinants of this modification.
June 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572509/dynamic-distinctions-in-the-na-ca-2-exchanger-adopting-the-inward-and-outward-facing-conformational-states
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Moshe Giladi, Liat van Dijk, Bosmat Refaeli, Lior Almagor, Reuben Hiller, Petr Man, Eric Forest, Daniel Khananshvili
Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) proteins operate through the alternating access mechanism, where the ion-binding pocket is exposed in succession either to the extracellular or the intracellular face of the membrane. The archaeal NCX_Mj (Methanococcus jannaschii NCX) system was used to resolve the backbone dynamics in the inward-facing (IF) and outward-facing (OF) states by analyzing purified preparations of apo- and ion-bound forms of NCX_Mj-WT and its mutant, NCX_Mj-5L6-8. First, the exposure of extracellular and cytosolic vestibules to the bulk phase was evaluated as the reactivity of single cysteine mutants to a fluorescent probe, verifying that NCX_Mj-WT and NCX_Mj-5L6-8 preferentially adopt the OF and IF states, respectively...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566634/effect-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-voltage-independent-ca-2-entry-pathways-in-cultured-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-stimulated-with-5-hydroxytryptamine
#16
Takuji Machida, Akina Onoguchi, Kenji Iizuka, Sayuri Ishibashi, Mikiko Yutani, Masahiko Hirafuji
We previously reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibits an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through a mechanism involving mainly voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels; however, the effect of DHA on voltage-independent pathways, such as store-operated and receptor-operated Ca(2+) entry, and Ca(2+) entry through Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), has not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DHA treatment on the expression of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels, capacitative Ca(2+) entry, and Ca(2+) entry through NCX in rat cultured VSMCs stimulated with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558076/functional-effects-of-hyperthyroidism-on-cardiac-papillary-muscle-in-rats
#17
Fabricio Furtado Vieira, Robson Ruiz Olivoto, Priscyla Oliveira da Silva, Julio Cesar Francisco, Rosalvo Tadeu Hochmuller Fogaça
BACKGROUND: Hyperthyroidism is currently recognized to affect the cardiovascular system, leading to a series of molecular and functional changes. However, little is known about the functional influence of hyperthyroidism in the regulation of cytoplasmic calcium and on the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) in the cardiac muscle. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the functional changes in papillary muscles isolated from animals with induced hyperthyroidism. METHODS: We divided 36 Wistar rats into a group of controls and another of animals with hyperthyroidism induced by intraperitoneal T3 injection...
December 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551786/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-during-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#18
Alicia E Consolini, María I Ragone, Patricia Bonazzola, Germán A Colareda
During ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) mitochondria suffer a deficiency to supply the cardiomyocyte with chemical energy, but also contribute to the cytosolic ionic alterations especially of Ca(2+). Their free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) mainly depends on mitochondrial entrance through the uniporter (UCam) and extrusion in exchange with Na(+) (mNCX) driven by the electrochemical gradient (ΔΨm). Cardiac energetic is frequently estimated by the oxygen consumption, which determines metabolism coupled to ATP production and to the maintaining of ΔΨm...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535874/coupling-between-the-trpc3-ion-channel-and-the-ncx1-transporter-contributed-to-vegf-induced-erk1-2-activation-and-angiogenesis-in-human-primary-endothelial-cells
#19
Petros Andrikopoulos, Suzanne A Eccles, Muhammad M Yaqoob
It has been previously demonstrated that the bi-directional transporter Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) working in the reverse (Ca(2+)-influx) - mode promotes the activation of ERK1/2 in response to the key pro-angiogenic cytokine VEGF in human endothelial cells (ECs). However, the molecular event(s) that elicit NCX reversal in VEGF-stimulated ECs remain unclear. Here we investigated whether Na(+) influx via the diacylglycerol (DAG) - activated non-selective cation channel TRPC3 was functionally associated with NCX and whether its activity was required for VEGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and angiogenesis...
May 20, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534960/cellular-na-handling-mechanisms-involved-in-airway-smooth-muscle-contraction-review
#20
Bettina Sommer, Edgar Flores-Soto, Georgina Gonzalez-Avila
A decrease in bronchial diameter is designated as bronchoconstriction (BC) and impedes the flow of air through the airway. Asthma is characterized by inflammation of the airways, reversible BC and nonspecific hyperreactivity. These last two symptoms are dependent on airway smooth muscle. Stimuli that trigger contraction can be characterized as chemical (neurotransmitters, cytokines and terpenoids) and physical (volume inspired, air pressure). Both stimuli activate signaling pathways by acting on membrane proteins and facilitating the passage of ions through the membrane, generating a voltage change and a subsequent depolarization...
July 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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