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Ioline D Henter, Rafael T de Sousa, Philip W Gold, Andre R Brunoni, Carlos A Zarate, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira
Real-world effectiveness trials suggest that antidepressant efficacy is limited in many patients with mood disorders, underscoring the urgent need for novel therapeutics to treat these disorders. Areas Covered: Here, we review the clinical evidence supporting the use of novel modulators for the treatment of mood disorders, including specific glutamate modulators such as: 1) high-trapping glutamatergic modulators; 2) subunit (NR2B)-specific N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists; 3) NMDA receptor glycine-site partial agonists; and 4) metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) modulators...
October 26, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Chao Han, Shuke Nie, Guiqin Chen, Kai Ma, Nian Xiong, Zhentao Zhang, Yan Xu, Tao Wang, Stella M Papa, Xuebing Cao
Long-term L-DOPA treatment of Parkinson's disease is accompanied with fluctuations of motor responses and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Phosphorylation of the dopamine and c-AMP regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) plays a role in the pathogenesis of LID, and thus dephosphorylation of this protein by activated calcineurin may help reduce LID. One important activator of calcineurin is the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin. Here, we investigated whether intrastriatal injection of ionomycin to hemiparkinsonian rats produced changes in L-DOPA responses including LID...
October 19, 2016: Neuroscience
Dan Wang, Jianbo Yu
In this study, C3H/HeNCrlVr mice are implanted with sarcoma NCTC 2472 cells into the intramedullary space of the femur to induce ongoing bone cancer-related pain behaviors. During the progress of the bone cancer pain, the down-regulation in spinal REST (Neuron-restrictive silencer factor, NRSF/REST) with concomitant up-regulation in spinal NR2B (2B subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, NR2B) protein expression are observed at days 5, 7, 10 and 14 post-inoculation. Immunofluorescence assay shows that almost all of REST and NR2B-positive signals encompass NeuN (neuron-specific nuclear protein, a neuronal marker)-positive signals in spinal cord of sham and tumor-bearing mice...
July 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Walid A Alsharafi, Bo Xiao, Jing Li
OBJECTIVES: Regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subunits NR2A and NR2B expression during status epilepticus (SE) remains incompletely understood. Here we explored the role of brain-enriched microRNA (miR)-139-5p in this process. METHODS: miRNA microarray was performed to examine changes in miRNA expression in the rat pilocarpine model following NMDA-receptor blockade. The dynamic expression patterns of miR-139-5p, NR2A, and NR2B levels were measured in rats during the three phases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) development using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot...
October 12, 2016: Epilepsia
Hui Shao, Yang Yang, Ze Mi, Guang-Xi Zhu, Ai-Ping Qi, Wei-Gang Ji, Zhi-Ru Zhu
Rhynchophylline (RIN) is a significant active component isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla. Several studies have demonstrated that RIN has a significant anticonvulsant effect in many types of epilepsy models in vivo. However, the mechanisms of the anticonvulsant effect remain elusive. Using combined methods of behavioral testing, immunofluorescence and electrophysiological recordings, we characterized the anticonvulsant effect of RIN in a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the underlying cellular mechanisms...
September 23, 2016: Neuroscience
Inseyah Bagasrawala, Fani Memi, Nevena V Radonjić, Nada Zecevic
N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a subtype of glutamate receptor, have important functional roles in cellular activity and neuronal development. They are well-studied in rodent and adult human brains, but limited information is available about their distribution in the human fetal cerebral cortex. Here we show that 3 NMDAR subunits, NR1, NR2A, and NR2B, are expressed in the human cerebral cortex during the second trimester of gestation, a period of intense neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. With increasing fetal age, expression of the NMDAR-encoding genes Grin1 (NR1) and Grin2a (NR2A) increased while Grin2b (NR2B) expression decreased...
September 24, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Fa-Ping Tu, Jun-Xiang Li, Qiang Li, Ji Wang
BACKGROUND: Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (hepatic I/R) has been found to induce cognitive dysfunction. The NR2B subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is a major factor in memory and learning processes, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may modulate this NMDA receptor. Therefore, in this study, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H2S) was administered in an animal model of hepatic I/R to investigate the effects of H2S on cognitive impairment and expression of NR2B. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NaHS (5 mg/kg) or normal saline was administered intraperitoneally once a day for 11 consecutive days, during which a rat model of 70% hepatic I/R was established on the fourth day...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Justin R Yates, Kerry A Breitenstein, Benjamin T Gunkel, Mallory N Hughes, Anthony B Johnson, Katherine K Rogers, Sara M Shape
Risky decision making can be measured using a probability-discounting procedure, in which animals choose between a small, certain reinforcer and a large, uncertain reinforcer. Recent evidence has identified glutamate as a mediator of risky decision making, as blocking the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor with MK-801 increases preference for a large, uncertain reinforcer. Because the order in which probabilities associated with the large reinforcer can modulate the effects of drugs on choice, the current study determined if NMDA receptor ligands alter probability discounting using ascending and descending schedules...
September 15, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Xinyu Xu, Chen Zheng, Nan Li, Hui Shen, Guolin Wang
Desflurane is one of the third generation inhaled anesthetics and can be used in obstetric and pediatric medicine. However, effects of exposure to desflurane on neonatal brain are largely unknown. In this work, 6-day-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1MAC or 1.5MAC desflurane for 2h. When the mice were 28-day-old, the open-field, spontaneous alternation Y-maze and fear conditioning tests were performed to evaluate general activity, working memory and long term memory, respectively. Levels of NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B expression in hippocampus were evaluated by western blot...
September 14, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Liu Ye, Li Xiao, Xue Bai, Shi-Ying Yang, Yuan Li, Yuan Chen, Y Cui, Y Chen
BACKGROUND: Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the spinal cord plays an important role in the development of hyperalgesia in several neuropathic pain models. The study examined the involvement of ROS-NMDA signaling pathway in remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia. METHODS: Nociceptive responses were measured by paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWL) before and up to day 5 after remifentanil infusion...
September 13, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Shalini Dogra, Ajeet Kumar, Deepmala Umrao, Amogh A Sahasrabuddhe, Prem N Yadav
Psychotomimetic and prodepressive effect by kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activation in rodents and human is widely known. Significantly, recent clinical investigations demonstrated the salutary effects of KOR antagonists in patients with treatment resistant depression, indicating essential role of KOR signaling in refractory depression. This study was undertaken to reveal the molecular determinant of KOR mediated depression and antidepressant response of KOR antagonist. We observed that chronic KOR activation by U50488, a selective KOR agonist, significantly increased depression like symptoms (behavioral despair, anhedonia and sociability) in C57BL/6J mice, which were blocked by KOR antagonist norBNI and antidepressant imipramine, but not by fluoxetine or citalopram...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hari Shanker Tiwari, Usha Kant Misra, Jayantee Kalita, Akanksha Mishra, Shubha Shukla
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an important cause of stroke in young especially in the developing countries. There is paucity of studies on the mechanism of cell damage in CVST. Aim of this study is to explore the role of glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress; and apoptosis in an experimental model of CVST. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis was induced by putting a strip of filter paper soaked in 40% ferric chloride on superior sagittal sinus. Brain was removed on day 1, 2 and 7 and oxidative stress markers (Mn-SOD, Catalase, GPx, LPO and GSH) were estimated spectrophotometrically...
September 19, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Yuto Takasaki, Takayoshi Koide, Chenyao Wang, Hiroki Kimura, Jingrui Xing, Itaru Kushima, Kanako Ishizuka, Daisuke Mori, Mariko Sekiguchi, Masashi Ikeda, Miki Aizawa, Naoko Tsurumaru, Yoshimi Iwayama, Akira Yoshimi, Yuko Arioka, Mami Yoshida, Hiromi Noma, Tomoko Oya-Ito, Yukako Nakamura, Shohko Kunimoto, Branko Aleksic, Yota Uno, Takashi Okada, Hiroshi Ujike, Jun Egawa, Hitoshi Kuwabara, Toshiyuki Someya, Takeo Yoshikawa, Nakao Iwata, Norio Ozaki
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity in the central nervous systems. Recent genetics studies in schizophrenia (SCZ) show that SCZ is susceptible to NMDARs and the NMDAR signaling complex. In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), several studies report dysregulation of NMDARs as a risk factor for ASD. To further examine the association between NMDARs and SCZ/ASD development, we conducted a mutation screening study of GRIN2B which encodes NR2B subunit of NMDARs, to identify rare mutations that potentially cause diseases, in SCZ and ASD patients (n = 574 and 152, respectively)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Davor Kin-Fan Chau, Angus Yiu-Ting Choi, Wen Yang, Wing Nang Leung, Chun Wai Chan
The etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) remains controversial. Deficits in social communication are one of the key criteria for ASD diagnosis. Valproic acid (VPA), which is an anti-epileptic and anti-depressive drug, is one of the teratogens to cause ASD onset. Moreover, synaptic dysfunction is suggested as one of the major causative factor in VPA-induced ASD in vitro and in vivo studies. Herein, this study aimed to determine the excitatory/inhibitory synaptic mRNA and protein expression in VPA-induced autistic mice...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Maowen Ba, Min Kong, Lina Guan, Maoli Yi, Hongli Zhang
Fluctuations of dopamine levels and upregulations of NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation in the striatum have been connected with levodopa (L-dopa)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is one of the noninvasive and potential method treating dyskinesia. Yet, the effect of rTMS on the above key pathological events remains unclear. In this study, we gave L-dopa treatment intraperitoneally for 22 days to 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned PD rats to prepare LID rats model, and subsequently applied rTMS daily for 3 weeks to LID rats model...
August 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Itsaso Buesa, Zigor Aira, Jon Jatsu Azkue
Dopamine can influence NMDA receptor function and regulate glutamate-triggered long-term changes in synaptic strength in several regions of the CNS. In spinal cord, regulation of the threshold of synaptic plasticity may determine the proneness to undergo sensitization and hyperresponsiveness to noxious input. In the current study, we increased endogenous dopamine levels in the dorsal horn by using re-uptake inhibitor GBR 12935. During the so-induced hyperdopaminergic transmission, conditioning low-frequency (1 Hz) stimulation (LFS) to the sciatic nerve induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of C-fiber-evoked potentials in dorsal horn neurons...
2016: PloS One
Mohammad Ejaz Ahmed, Yan Dong, Yujiao Lu, Donovan Tucker, Ruimin Wang, Quanguang Zhang
Aberrant calcium influx is a common feature following ischemic reperfusion (I/R) in transient global cerebral ischemia (GCI) and causes delayed neuronal cell death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Activation of calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) is a key event in calcium signaling in ischemic injury. The present study examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of tatCN21 in ischemic rats 3 h after GCI reperfusion. Cresyl violet and NeuN staining revealed that tatCN21 exerted neuroprotective effects against delayed neuronal cell death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons 10 days post-GCI...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Le Zhang, Gongming Wang, Jinben Ma, Chengxiao Liu, Xijiang Liu, Yufeng Zhan, Mengyuan Zhang
The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) plays an important role in pain affect. Previous investigations have reported that the rACC mediates the negative affective component of inflammatory pain and contributed to the aversive state of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent neuromodulator in the adult brain, is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the spinal cord. However, whether and how BDNF in the rACC regulates pain-related aversion due to peripheral nerve injury is largely unknown...
August 27, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Yingchun Shang, Xin Wang, Xueliang Shang, Hui Zhang, Zhipeng Liu, Tao Yin, Tao Zhang
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive technique, by which cognitive deficits can be alleviated. Furthermore, rTMS may facilitate learning and memory. However, its underlying mechanism is still little known. The aim of this study was to investigate if the facilitation of spatial cognition and synaptic plasticity, induced by rTMS, is regulated by enhancing pre- and postsynaptic proteins in normal rats. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to examine the spatial cognition...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Dan Tian, Miao Tian, Zhiming Ma, Leilei Zhang, Yunfeng Cui, Jinlong Li
Postoperative cognitive impairment is especially common in older patients following major surgery. Although exposure to sevoflurane is known to cause memory deficits, few studies have examined the putative approaches to reduce such impairments. This study tested the hypotheses that sevoflurane exposure can decrease NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptor activity in hippocampus of aged mice, and voluntary exercise may counteract the declining hippocampal functions. We found that long exposure (3 h/day for 3 days), but not short exposure (1 h/day for 3 days), to 3 % sevoflurane produced a long-lasting spatial memory deficits up to 3 weeks in aged mice, and such an effect was not due to the neuronal loss in the hippocampus, but was correlated with a long-term decrease in Fyn kinase expression and NR2B subunit phosphorylation in the hippocampus...
August 19, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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