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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314129/crack-cocaine-inhalation-induces-schizophrenia-like-symptoms-and-molecular-alterations-in-mice-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Lorena Bianchine Areal, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Cristina Martins-Silva, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires
Crack cocaine (crack) addiction represents a major social and health burden, especially seeing as users are more prone to engage in criminal and violent acts. Crack users show a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities - particularly antisocial personality disorders - when compared to powder cocaine users. They also develop cognitive deficits related mainly to executive functions, including working memory. It is noteworthy that stimulant drugs can induce psychotic states, which appear to mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia among users...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304288/changes-in-synaptic-plasticity-and-glutamate-receptors-in-type-2-diabetic-kk-ay-mice
#2
Huajing Yin, Weiping Wang, Wenwen Yu, Jiang Li, Nan Feng, Ling Wang, Xiaoliang Wang
In the present study, the progressive alteration of cognition and the mechanisms of reduction in long-term potentiation (LTP) in spontaneous obese KK-Ay type 2 diabetic mice were investigated. In the study, 3-, 5-, and 7-month-old KK-Ay mice were used. The results indicated that KK-Ay mice showed cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze test beginning at the age of 3 months. LTP was significantly impaired in KK-Ay mice during whole study period (3 to 7 months). The above deficits were reversible at an early stage (3 to 5 months old) by diet intervention...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284898/role-of-probdnf-and-bdnf-in-dendritic-spine-plasticity-and-depressive-like-behaviors-induced-by-an-animal-model-of-depression
#3
Hui Qiao, Shu-Cheng An, Chang Xu, Xin-Ming Ma
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorder, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Increasing evidence shows that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the structural plasticity induced by depression. Considering the opposite effects of BDNF and its precursor proBDNF on neural plasticity, we hypothesized that the balance of BDNF and proBDNF plays a critical role in chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive-like behaviors and structural plasticity in the rodent hippocampus...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264928/inhibition-of-coactivator-associated-arginine-methyltransferase-1-modulates-dendritic-arborization-and-spine-maturation-of-cultured-hippocampal-neurons
#4
Chol Seung Lim, Daniel L Alkon
An improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms in synapse formation provides insight into both learning and memory and the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is a protein methyltransferase that negatively regulates synaptic gene expression and inhibits neuronal differentiation. Despite its regulatory function in neurons, little is known about CARM1's cellular location and its role in dendritic maturation and synapse formation. Here, we examined the effects of CARM1 inhibition on dendritic spine and synapse morphology in the rat hippocampus...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255683/modulation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-nmdar-bcl-2-and-c-fos-gene-expressions-on-exposure-to-individual-and-mixtures-of-low-concentration-metals-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#5
Samuel Jerry Cobbina, Guanghua Mao, Ting Zhao, Hai Xu, Zhen Zhang, Hongyang Liu, Yanmin Zou, Xiangyang Wu, Liuqing Yang
Currently, there is limited information on the toxicity of low concentration of metal mixtures in the environment. Of particular interest is the effect of low levels of metal mixtures on neurodevelopment of aquatic organisms. This study reports the neurological gene expressions after exposing zebrafish embryos to low concentration toxic heavy metals, 120 h post fertilization (hpf). Embryos were exposed to low concentration individual and mixtures of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and cadmium (Cd). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess gene expressions...
March 2, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244951/the-role-of-nr2b-creb-mir212-132-crtc1-creb-signal-network-in-pain-regulation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Tianjiao Xia, Shuaishuai Chu, Yin Cui, Fangxia Xu, Yue Liu, Jia Song, Yue Qian, Xueming Shao, Xiuxiu Li, Xiaoping Gu, Zhengliang Ma
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a debilitating threat to human health, and its molecular mechanism remains undefined. Previous studies have illustrated a key role of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in pain regulation; CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) and microRNA212/132 (miR212/132) are also vital in synaptic plasticity. However, little is known about the interaction among these factors in pain condition. We conducted this experiment mainly to determine the crosstalk between CREB, CRTC1, and miR212/132 in vitro...
February 24, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240305/increased-pkc-activity-and-altered-gsk3%C3%AE-nmdar-function-drive-behavior-cycling-in-hint1-deficient-mice-bipolarity-or-opposing-forces
#7
Javier Garzón-Niño, María Rodríguez-Muñoz, Elsa Cortés-Montero, Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez
Mice with histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion exhibit manic-like symptoms that evolve into depressive-like behavior in response to stressful paradigms. Molecular and electrophysiological studies have indicated that HINT1(-/-) mice exhibit increased PKC, PKA, and GSK3β activities, as well as glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) and NR2B/NR2A subunit ratios. Pharmacological interventions stabilized their behavior but through different mechanisms...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239767/down-regulation-of-pin1-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-and-mouse-model
#8
Lan Tang, Yanke Zhang, Guojun Chen, Yan Xiong, Xuefeng Wang, Binglin Zhu
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) is a unique PPIase belonging to the parvulin family, and it isomerizes peptide bond between phospho-(Ser/Thr) and Pro. Pin1 has been linked to the pathogenesis of various human diseases; however, its exact biological functions remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the expression pattern of Pin1 in patients with refractory epilepsy and in a chronic pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Using Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis, we found that Pin1 protein was mainly distributed in neurons, demonstrated by colocalization with the dendritic marker, MAP2...
February 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229104/prenatal-stressors-in-rodents-effects-on-behavior
#9
REVIEW
Marta Weinstock
The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222697/magnesium-sulphate-attenuate-remifentanil-induced-postoperative-hyperalgesia-via-regulating-tyrosine-phosphorylation-of-the-nr2b-subunit-of-the-nmda-receptor-in-the-spinal-cord
#10
Jiehao Sun, Hai Lin, Guodong He, Wendong Lin, Jianping Yang
BACKGROUND: Remifentanil induced hyperalgesia (RIH) is characterized by stimulation evoked pain including allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia after remifentanil infusion. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was reported to be involved in the progress of RIH. We hypothesized that intrathecal MgSO4 could relieve hyperalgesia after remifentanil infusion via regulating phosphorylation of NMDA receptor NR2B subunit activity in this study. METHODS: Thirty two rats were randomly allocated into control group, model of RIH group, RIH plus 100ug MgSO4 group, RIH plus 300ug MgSO4 group...
February 21, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213064/juvenile-treatment-with-a-novel-mglur2-agonist-mglur3-antagonist-compound-ly395756-reverses-learning-deficits-and-cognitive-flexibility-impairments-in-adults-in-a-neurodevelopmental-model-of-schizophrenia
#11
Meng-Lin Li, Yelena Gulchina, Sarah A Monaco, Bo Xing, Brielle R Ferguson, Yan-Chun Li, Feng Li, Xi-Quan Hu, Wen-Jun Gao
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder, in which cognitive function becomes disrupted at early stages of the disease. Although the mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments remain unclear, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) hypofunctioning in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated. Moreover, cognitive symptoms in SCZ are usually unresponsive to treatment with current antipsychotics and by onset, disruption of the dopamine system, not NMDAR hypofunctioning, dominates the symptoms...
February 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206989/il-4-mediated-by-hsv-vector-suppresses-morphine-withdrawal-response-through-decreasing-tnf%C3%AE-nr2b-and-pc-ebp%C3%AE-in-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-rats
#12
H Yi, T Iida, S Liu, D Ikegami, Q Liu, A Iida, D A Lubarsky, S Hao
Chronic opiates induce the development of physical dependence. Opioid physical dependence characterized by withdrawal symptoms, may have very long-lasting effects on the motivation for reward, including the incubation of cue-induced drug-seeking behavior. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in physical dependence is crucial to developing more effective treatment strategies for opioid dependence. Chronic morphine induces production of proinflammatory cytokines in regional-specific sites of the brain. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a prototypical anti-inflammatory cytokine that globally suppresses proinflammatory cytokines...
February 16, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182698/prevention-of-remifentanil-induced-postoperative-hyperalgesia-by-dexmedetomidine-via-regulating-the-trafficking-and-function-of-spinal-nmda-receptors-as-well-as-pkc-and-camkii-level-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#13
Yuan Yuan, Zhe Sun, Yi Chen, Yuxin Zheng, Ke-Liang Xie, Ying He, Zhifen Wang, Guo-Lin Wang, Yong-Hao Yu
Remifentanil-induced secondary hyperalgesia has been demonstrated in both animal experiments and clinical trials. Enhancement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor trafficking as well as protein kinase C (PKC) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) have been reported to be involved in the induction and maintenance of central sensitization. In the current study, it was demonstrated that dexmedetomidine could prevent remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia (RIH) via regulating spinal NMDAR-PKC-Ca2+/ CaMKII pathway in vivo and in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167788/crystal-structure-of-the-adenosine-a2a-receptor-bound-to-an-antagonist-reveals-a-potential-allosteric-pocket
#14
Bingfa Sun, Priti Bachhawat, Matthew Ling-Hon Chu, Martyn Wood, Tom Ceska, Zara A Sands, Joel Mercier, Florence Lebon, Tong Sun Kobilka, Brian K Kobilka
The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160495/nmda-receptor-subunit-composition-controls-dendritogenesis-of-hippocampal-neurons-through-camkii-creb-p-and-h3k27ac
#15
Fernando J Bustos, Nur Jury, Pablo Martinez, Estibaliz Ampuero, Matias Campos, Sebastian Abarzúa, Karen Jaramillo, Susanne Ibing, Muriel D Mardones, Henny Haensgen, Julia Kzhyshkowska, Maria Florencia Tevy, Rachael Neve, Magdalena Sanhueza, Lorena Varela-Nallar, Martín Montecino, Brigitte van Zundert
Dendrite arbor growth, or dendritogenesis, is choreographed by a diverse set of cues, including the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunits NR2A and NR2B. While NR1NR2B receptors are predominantly expressed in immature neurons and promote plasticity, NR1NR2A receptors are mainly expressed in mature neurons and induce circuit stability. How the different subunits regulate these processes is unclear, but this is likely related to the presence of their distinct C-terminal sequences that couple different signaling proteins...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108357/sigma-1-receptor-deficiency-reduces-gabaergic-inhibition-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-leading-to-ltd-impairment-and-depressive-like-behaviors
#16
Baofeng Zhang, Ling Wang, Tingting Chen, Juan Hong, Sha Sha, Jun Wang, Hang Xiao, Ling Chen
Sigma-1 receptor knockout (σ1R(-/-)) in male mice causes depressive-like phenotype. We observed the expression of σ1R in principal neurons of basolateral amygdala (BLA), a main region for affective regulation. The present study investigated the influence of σ1R deficiency in BLA neurons on synaptic properties and plasticity at cortico-BLA pathway. In comparison with wild-type (WT) mice, the slopes of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were reduced in σ1R(-/-) mice with the increases in paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and paired-pulse inhibition (PPI) values...
January 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108334/a-study-of-glutamate-levels-nr1-nr2a-nr2b-receptors-and-oxidative-stress-in-rat-model-of-japanese-encephalitis
#17
Prashant Singh Chauhan, Usha Kant Misra, Jayantee Kalita
There is paucity of studies on the role of glutamate excitotoxicity in cell damage in Japanese encephalitis. In this study the glutamate levels and its NMDA receptors, and oxidative stress markers in different brain regions have been evaluated and correlated with neurobehavioral changes at different time points. Twelve day old Wistar rats were inoculated with 3×10(6)pfu/ml intracerebrally. The neurobehavioral effects were evaluated by spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA), grip strength and rota rod test on 10, 33 and 48days post inoculation (dpi)...
March 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092020/early-life-social-isolation-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats-results-in-microglial-activation-and-neuronal-histone-methylation-that-are-mitigated-by-minocycline
#18
Hong-Tao Wang, Fu-Lian Huang, Zhao-Lan Hu, Wen-Juan Zhang, Xiao-Qing Qiao, Yan-Qing Huang, Ru-Ping Dai, Fang Li, Chang-Qi Li
Early-life stress is a potent risk factor for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression. The underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used the early-life social isolation (ESI) model of early-life stress in rats to characterize development of depressive-like behavior, the role of microglia, levels of histone methylation, as well as expression of glutamate receptor subunits in the hippocampus. We found that depressive-like behavior was induced after ESI as determined by sucrose preference and forced swimming tests...
January 16, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064424/gender-related-hippocampal-proteomics-study-from-young-rats-after-chronic-unpredicted-mild-stress-exposure
#19
Lin-Na Ning, Teng Zhang, Jiang Chu, Na Qu, Li Lin, Ying-Yan Fang, Yan Shi, Peng Zeng, Er-Li Cai, Xiao-Ming Wang, Qun Wang, You-Ming Lu, Xin-Wen Zhou, Qi Zhang, Qing Tian
Clinical data have shown women are more susceptible to depression. This study was performed to identify differentially regulated proteins from hippocampus in chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS)-exposed male and female young rats. After 7 weeks of CUMS, depressed male (M-D) and female rats (F-D) and unstressed male (M-C) and female controls (F-C) were studied. By proteomics analysis, 74 differential proteins in F-C/M-C, 79 in F-D/M-D, 77 in F-D/F-C, and 32 in M-D/M-C were found. Further, the synapse-related proteins, cytoskeleton protein tau, and stress-related kinases in hippocampus were assayed by Western blotting...
January 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039089/the-asymmetry-defect-of-hippocampal-circuitry-impairs-working-memory-in-%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-deficient-mice
#20
Kazuhiro Goto, Isao Ito
Left-right (L-R) asymmetry is a fundamental feature of brain function, but the mechanisms underlying functional asymmetry remain largely unknown. We previously identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus that result from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B) subunits. By examining the synaptic distribution of ε2 subunits, we found that β2-microglobulin (β2m)-deficient mice that are defective in the stable cell surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) lack this circuit asymmetry...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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