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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785182/reactive-oxygen-species-generation-in-human-cells-by-a-novel-magnetic-resonance-imaging-contrast-agent
#1
Li Wang, Eric Lin, Mary J Johansen, Timothy Madden, Edward Felix, Karen S Martirosyan, Steven J Frank
The novel positive-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker C4 consists of an aqueous solution of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) complexed with the chelator N-acetylcysteine (NAC). We evaluated whether the presence of C4 or its components would produce reactive oxygen species (ROS, including hydroxyl, peroxyl, or other reactive oxygen species) in cultured cells. Human cancer or normal cells were incubated with 1% (w/v) CoCl2 ·6H2 O or 2% NAC or a combination of both (1% CoCl2 ·6H2 O : 2% NAC in an aqueous solution, abbreviated as Co : NAC) in the presence or absence of H2 O2 ...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783624/growth-responses-of-preterm-pigs-fed-formulas-with-different-protein-levels-and-supplemented-with-leucine-or-%C3%AE-hydroxyl-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate
#2
Randal K Buddington, Scott C Howard, Harold W Lee, Karyl K Buddington
Growth after preterm birth is an important determinant of long-term outcomes. Yet, many preterm infants suffer ex utero growth retardation. We evaluated effects of leucine and the metabolite, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on growth of preterm pigs, a previously-validated translational model for preterm infants. After 48 h of parenteral nutrition preterm pigs were fed for 6 to 7 days isocaloric formulas with different levels of protein (50 or 100 g/L) with leucine (10 g/L, 76 mM) or HMB (at 1.1 g/L, 4 mM) added to stimulate protein synthesis or with alanine (6...
May 18, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780471/direct-observation-of-supramolecular-binding-of-light-hydrocarbons-in-vanadium-iii-and-iv-metal-organic-framework-materials
#3
Zhenzhong Lu, Harry G W Godfrey, Ivan da Silva, Yongqiang Cheng, Mathew Savage, Pascal Manuel, Svemir Rudić, Anibal J Ramirez-Cuesta, Sihai Yang, Martin Schröder
Fine tuning of host-guest supramolecular interactions in porous systems enables direct control over the properties of functional materials. We report here a modification of hydrogen bonding and its effect on guest binding in a pair of redox-active metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Oxidation of MFM-300(VIII ) {[VIII2(OH)2 (L)], LH4 = biphenyl-3,3',5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid} is accompanied by deprotonation of the bridging hydroxyl groups to afford isostructural MFM-300(VIV ), [VIV2O2 (L)]. The precise role of the hydroxyl groups, O -carboxylate centres and π-π interactions in the supramolecular binding of C2 hydrocarbons in these materials has been determined using neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering, coupled with DFT modelling...
April 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773393/comparative-study-of-physicochemical-properties-and-bioactivity-of-hericium-erinaceus-polysaccharides-at-different-solvent-extractions
#4
Jing-Kun Yan, Zhi-Chao Ding, Xianli Gao, Yao-Yao Wang, Yan Yang, Di Wu, He-Nan Zhang
In this study, hot water, 0.9% NaCl, citric acid, and 1.25 M NaOH/0.05% NaBH4 were separately used for the extraction of water-soluble H. erinaceus polysaccharides (HEPs; HEP-W, HEP-S, HEP-C, and HEP-A) from the fruit body of Hericium erinaceus. The physicochemical properties and biological activities were then investigated and compared. Results showed that the extraction solvents exhibited significant effects on the extraction yields, molecular weights, monosaccharide compositions, preliminary structural characteristics, microstructures of HEPs and on their contents, such as neutral sugar, uronic acid, protein, and β-(1 → 3)-glucan...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769633/chemical-fingerprints-of-cold-physical-plasmas-an-experimental-and-computational-study-using-cysteine-as-tracer-compound
#5
J-W Lackmann, K Wende, C Verlackt, J Golda, J Volzke, F Kogelheide, J Held, S Bekeschus, A Bogaerts, V Schulz-von der Gathen, K Stapelmann
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species released by cold physical plasma are being proposed as effectors in various clinical conditions connected to inflammatory processes. As these plasmas can be tailored in a wide range, models to compare and control their biochemical footprint are desired to infer on the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed effects and to enable the discrimination between different plasma sources. Here, an improved model to trace short-lived reactive species is presented. Using FTIR, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and molecular dynamics computational simulation, covalent modifications of cysteine treated with different plasmas were deciphered and the respective product pattern used to generate a fingerprint of each plasma source...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767200/nmr-analyses-on-n-hydroxymethylated-nucleobases-implications-for-formaldehyde-toxicity-and-nucleic-acid-demethylases
#6
S Shishodia, D Zhang, A H El-Sagheer, T Brown, T D W Claridge, C J Schofield, R J Hopkinson
Formaldehyde is produced in cells by enzyme-catalysed demethylation reactions, including those occurring on N-methylated nucleic acids. Formaldehyde reacts with nucleobases to form N-hydroxymethylated adducts that may contribute to its toxicity/carcinogenicity when added exogenously, but the chemistry of these reactions has been incompletely defined. We report NMR studies on the reactions of formaldehyde with canonical/modified nucleobases. The results reveal that hydroxymethyl hemiaminals on endocyclic nitrogens, as observed with thymidine and uridine monophosphates, are faster to form than equivalent hemiaminals on exocyclic nitrogens; however, the exocyclic adducts, as formed with adenine, guanine and cytosine, are more stable in solution...
May 16, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766296/characterization-of-in-vivo-metabolites-in-rat-urine-following-an-oral-dose-of-masitinib-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Adnan A Kadi, Sawsan M Amer, Hany W Darwish, Mohamed W Attwa
Masitinib (MST) is an orally administered drug that targets mast cells and macrophages, important cells for immunity, by inhibiting a limited number of tyrosine kinases. It is currently registered in Europe and USA for the treatment of mast cell tumors in dogs. AB Science announced that the European Medicines Agency has accepted a conditional marketing authorization application for MST to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In our work, we focused on studying in vivo metabolism of MST in Sprague-Dawley rats...
May 15, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751174/removal-of-alachlor-diuron-and-isoproturon-in-water-in-a-falling-film-dielectric-barrier-discharge-dbd-reactor-combined-with-adsorption-on-activated-carbon-textile-reaction-mechanisms-and-oxidation-by-products
#8
Patrick Vanraes, Niels Wardenier, Pieter Surmont, Frederic Lynen, Anton Nikiforov, Stijn W H Van Hulle, Christophe Leys, Annemie Bogaerts
A falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor combined with adsorption on activated carbon textile material was optimized to minimize the formation of hazardous oxidation by-products from the treatment of persistent pesticides (alachlor, diuron and isoproturon) in water. The formation of by-products and the reaction mechanism was investigated by HPLC-TOF-MS. The maximum concentration of each by-product was at least two orders of magnitude below the initial pesticide concentration, during the first 10 min of treatment...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749224/photoactivatable-rhodamine-spiroamides-and-diazoketones-decorated-with-universal-hydrophilizer-or-hydroxyl-groups
#9
Benoit Roubinet, Matthias Bischoff, Shamil Nizamov, Sergey Yan, Claudia Geisler, Stefan Stoldt, Gyuzel Y Mitronova, Vladimir N Belov, Mariano L Bossi, Stefan W Hell
Photoactivatable rhodamine spiroamides and spirocyclic diazoketones emerged recently as synthetic markers applicable in multicolor superresolution microscopy. However, their applicability in single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) is often limited by aggregation, unspecific adhesion and low reactivity caused by insufficient solubility and precipitation from aqueous solutions. We report here two synthetic modifications increasing the polarity of compact polycyclic and hydrophobic labels decorated with a reactive group: attachment of 3-sulfo-L-alanyl - beta-alanine dipeptide (a "universal hydrophilizer") or allylic hydroxylation in photosensitive rhodamine diazoketones (and spiroamides)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726876/study-on-influencing-factors-of-pickering-emulsions-stabilized-by-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticles-with-nonionic-surfactants
#10
Na Song, Ai-Juan Wang, Jun-Ming Li, Zhuo Zhu, Huijun Shi, Xiao-Long Ma, Dejun Sun
Emulsions were prepared using hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and nonionic surfactant sorbitan monooleate (Span 80) as emulsifier. Effects of Span 80 concentration, emulsification time, emulsification rate, poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) concentration and the surface chemical properties of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on emulsion properties were systematically studied. The results showed that emulsion would undergo a phase inversion from oil-in-water (O/W) type to water-in-oil (W/O) type with an increase in Span 80 concentration...
May 4, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720402/structural-characterization-of-the-p-1-intermediate-state-of-the-p-cluster-of-nitrogenase
#11
Stephen M Keable, Oleg A Zadvornyy, Lewis E Johnson, Bojana Ginovska, Andrew J Rasmussen, Karamatullah Danyal, Brian J Eilers, Gregory A Prussia, Axl X LeVan, Simone Raugei, Lance C Seefeldt, John W Peters
Nitrogenase is the enzyme that reduces atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 ) to ammonia (NH3 ) in biological systems. It catalyzes a series of single-electron transfers from the donor iron protein (Fe protein) to the molybdenum-iron protein (MoFe protein) that contains the iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) sites where N2 is reduced to NH3 The [8Fe-7S] P-cluster in the MoFe protein functions in nitrogenase catalysis as an intermediate electron carrier between the external electron donor, the Fe protein, and the FeMo-co sites of the MoFe protein...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701277/review-article-therapeutic-bile-acids-and-the-risks-for-hepatotoxicity
#12
REVIEW
K Ashby, E E Navarro Almario, W Tong, J Borlak, R Mehta, M Chen
BACKGROUND: Bile acids play important roles in cholesterol metabolism and signal through farnesoid X receptor and G protein-coupled receptors. Given their importance in liver biology, bile acid therapy enables therapeutic applications beyond the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. However, predicting hepatotoxicity of bile acids in humans is obscured due to inconsistent extrapolations of animal data to humans. AIM: To review the evidence that could explain discordant bile acids hepatotoxicity observed in humans and animals...
April 27, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674102/bioflocculant-production-from-streptomyces-platensis-and-its-potential-for-river-and-waste-water-treatment
#13
Mayowa Agunbiade, Carolina Pohl, Omotayo Ashafa
A bacterium isolated from Sterkfontein dam was confirmed to produce bioflocculant with excellent flocculation activity. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analyses revealed the bacteria to have 99% similarity to Streptomyces platensis strain HBUM174787 and the sequence was deposited in the Genbank as Streptomyces platensis with accession number FJ 486385.1. Culture conditions for optimal production of the bioflocculant included glucose as a sole carbon source, resulting in flocculating activity of 90%. Other optimal conditions included: peptone as nitrogen source; presence of Mg2+ as cations and inoculum size of 1...
April 5, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669620/fluorescent-nanodiamonds-in-biomedical-applications
#14
Katarzyna Anna Mitura, Elżbieta Włodarczyk
Nanoparticles have an extended surface and a large surface area, which is the ratio of the size of the surfacearea to the volume. A functionalized surface can give rise to more modifications and therefore allows this nanomaterial to have new properties. Fluorescent molecules contain fluorophore, which is capable of being excited via the absorption of light energy at a specific wavelength and subsequently emitting radiation energy of a longer wavelength. A chemically modified surface of nanodiamond (ND; by carboxylation) demonstrated biocompatibility with DNA, cytochrome C, and antigens...
April 18, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664293/oxidation-of-organic-compounds-in-water-by-unactivated-peroxymonosulfate
#15
Yi Yang, Gourab Banerjee, Gary W Brudvig, Jae-Hong Kim, Joseph J Pignatello
Peroxymonosulfate (HSO5-, PMS) is an optional bulk oxidant in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for treating wastewaters. Normally PMS is activated by the input of energy or reducing agent to generate sulfate and/or hydroxyl radicals. This study shows that PMS without explicit activation undergoes direct reaction with a variety of compounds, including antibiotics, pharmaceuticals, phenolics, and commonly-used singlet oxygen (1O2) traps and quenchers, specifically furfuryl alcohol (FFA), azide, and histidine...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661297/preparation-and-characterization-of-nanocomposite-films-from-oil-palm-pulp-nanocellulose-poly-vinyl-alcohol-by-casting-method
#16
Mohammad Asad, Naheed Saba, Abdullah M Asiri, M Jawaid, Eti Indarti, W D Wanrosli
TEMPO-oxidize nanocellulose (TONC) suspension has been obtained from total chlorine free (TCF) oil palm empty-fruit-bunches (OPEFB) pulp using 4-acetamido-TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidin-1-oxyl) mediated oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and sodium bromide in water at 25 °C and pH 10. TONC suspension with varied content from 0.5 to 6% (w/w) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer based nanocomposite films were prepared by the casting method. The structural interaction between the TONC and PVA was characterized by the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653047/understanding-electrochemically-activated-persulfate-and-its-application-to-ciprofloxacin-abatement
#17
Laura W Matzek, Matthew J Tipton, Abigail T Farmer, Andrew Steen, Kimberly E Carter
This study offers significant insight into the roles anodic and cathodic processes play in electrochemically-activated persulfate (EAP) and screens EAP as a viable technique for ciprofloxacin degradation in wastewater. Sulfate radical formation at a boron-doped diamond anode and persulfate activation at a graphite cathode were experimentally elucidated using different electrolytes and electrochemical set-ups. Rapid ciprofloxacin transformation occurred via pseudo-first order mechanisms in persulfate electrolyte, reaching 84% removal in 120 minutes using EAP...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642703/hydrogen-bond-regulated-boron-nitride-network-structures-for-improved-thermal-conductive-property-of-polyamide-imide-composites
#18
Fang Jiang, Siqi Cui, Na Song, Liyi Shi, Peng Ding
Highly thermal conductive polymer composites with minimized the content of fillers are desirable for handling the issue in thermal management in modern electronics. However, the difficulty of filler dispersion restrict the heat dissipation performance of thermoplastic composites and the intermolecular interaction is another crucial factor in this problem. In the present study, the hydrogen bond was used to regulate the formation of the three dimensional boron nitride (3D BN) interconnected network to act as a high thermal conductive network in thermoplastic polyamide-imide (PAI) materials...
April 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624053/large-scale-differentiation-and-site-specific-discrimination-of-hydroxyproline-isomers-by-electron-transfer-higher-energy-collision-dissociation-ethcd-mass-spectrometry
#19
Fengfei Ma, Rui-Xiang Sun, Daniel Tremmel, Sara Sackett, Jon Odorico, Lingjun Li
3- and 4- hydroxyprolines (HyP) are regioisomers that play different roles in various species and organs. Despite their distinct functions inside cells, they are generally considered indistinguishable using mass spectrometry due to their identical masses. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that characteristic w ions can be produced by electron-transfer/higher energy collision dissociation (EThcD) dual fragmentation technique to confidently discriminate 3-HyP/ 4-HyP isomers. An integrated and high throughput strategy was developed which combined online LC separation with EThcD for large-scale differentiation of 3-HyP/4-HyP in complex samples...
April 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621190/chlamydomonas-angulosa-green-alga-and-nostoc-commune-blue-green-alga-microalgae-cellulose-composite-aerogel-beads-manufacture-physicochemical-characterization-and-cd-ii-adsorption
#20
Kyojung Hwang, Gu-Joong Kwon, Jiwook Yang, Minyoung Kim, Won Joung Hwang, Wonjae Youe, Dae-Young Kim
This study presents composite aerogel beads prepared by mixing dissolved cellulose with Chlamydomonas angulosa and Nostoc commune cells, respectively, at 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% ( w / w ). The manufactured composites (termed regenerated cellulose (RC)), with C . angulosa (RCCA-(1, 3, and 5)), and with N . commune (RCNC-(1, 3, and 5)) were analyzed. Both RCCA-5 and RCNC-5 showed the high specific surface area to be about 261.3 and 332.8 m²·g-1 . In the microstructure analysis, network structures were observed in the cross-sections of RC, RCCA-5, and RCNC-5...
April 5, 2018: Materials
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