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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530710/engineering-protein-stability-with-atomic-precision-in-a-monomeric-miniprotein
#1
Emily G Baker, Christopher Williams, Kieran L Hudson, Gail J Bartlett, Jack W Heal, Kathryn L Porter Goff, Richard B Sessions, Matthew P Crump, Derek N Woolfson
Miniproteins simplify the protein-folding problem, allowing the dissection of forces that stabilize protein structures. Here we describe PPα-Tyr, a designed peptide comprising an α-helix buttressed by a polyproline II helix. PPα-Tyr is water soluble and monomeric, and it unfolds cooperatively with a midpoint unfolding temperature (TM) of 39 °C. NMR structures of PPα-Tyr reveal proline residues docked between tyrosine side chains, as designed. The stability of PPα is sensitive to modifications in the aromatic residues: replacing tyrosine with phenylalanine, i...
May 22, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521107/formation-of-fluorohydroxyapatite-with-silver-diamine-fluoride
#2
M L Mei, F Nudelman, B Marzec, J M Walker, E C M Lo, A W Walls, C H Chu
Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is found to promote remineralization and harden the carious lesion. Hydroxyapatite crystallization is a crucial process in remineralization; however, the role of SDF in crystal formation is unknown. We designed an in vitro experiment with calcium phosphate with different SDF concentrations (0.38, 1.52, 2.66, 3.80 mg/mL) to investigate the effect of this additive on the nucleation and growth of apatite crystals. Two control groups were also prepared-calcium phosphate (CaCl2·2H2O + K2HPO4 in buffer solution) and SDF (Ag[NH3]2F in buffer solution)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521100/single-step-synthesis-of-small-azide-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-versatile-water-dispersible-reagents-for-click-chemistry
#3
Edward W Elliott, Aurora L Ginzburg, Zachary C Kennedy, Zhenshuo Feng, James E Hutchison
Nanoparticles possessing functional groups that can be readily conjugated (e.g. through click chemistry) are important precursors for the preparation of customized nanohybrid products. Such nanoparticles, if they are stable against agglomeration, are easily dispersible and have well-defined surface chemistry and size. As click-ready reagents, they can be stored until their time of use and then simply dispersed and reacted with an appropriate substrate. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are excellent candidates for this purpose and some clickable gold nanoparticles have been developed; however, AuNPs for use in aqueous systems are often prepared through difficult multistep processes and/or can be poorly dispersible in water...
May 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520746/dna-recognition-by-an-rna-guided-bacterial-argonaute
#4
Kevin W Doxzen, Jennifer A Doudna
Argonaute (Ago) proteins are widespread in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and share a four-domain architecture capable of RNA- or DNA-guided nucleic acid recognition. Previous studies identified a prokaryotic Argonaute protein from the eubacterium Marinitoga piezophila (MpAgo), which binds preferentially to 5'-hydroxylated guide RNAs and cleaves single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and DNA (ssDNA) targets. Here we present a 3.2 Å resolution crystal structure of MpAgo bound to a 21-nucleotide RNA guide and a complementary 21-nucleotide ssDNA substrate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516768/trimetallic-nitride-endohedral-fullerenes-carboxyl-gd3n-c80-a-new-theranostic-agent-for-combating-oxidative-stress-and-resolving-inflammation
#5
Tinghui Li, Li Xiao, Jiezuan Yang, Mengmeng Ding, Zhiguo Zhou, Leslie LaConte, Li Jin, Harry C Dorn, Xudong Li
Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes carboxyl-Gd3N@C80, a newly developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, were investigated. All hydrochalarone and carboxyl-functionalized fullerenes showed effective radical (hydroxyl and superoxide anion) scavenging, whereas the carboxyl-Gd3N@C80 more efficiently attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress in macrophages. Carboxyl-Gd3N@C80 also suppressed LPS-elicited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and upregulated antioxidative enzyme axis Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1, possibly via ERK but not AKT signaling pathways...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514863/surface-dependent-contact-activation-of-factor-xii-and-blood-plasma-coagulation-induced-by-mixed-thiol-surfaces
#6
James W Bauer, Li-Chong Xu, Erwin A Vogler, Christopher A Siedlecki
Studies of the activation of FXII in both platelet poor plasma and in neat buffer solutions were undertaken for a series of mixed thiol self-assembled monolayers spanning a broad range of water wettability. A wide spectrum of carboxyl/methyl-, hydroxyl/methyl-, and amine/methyl-thiol modified surfaces were prepared, characterized, and then utilized as the procoagulant materials in a series of FXII activation studies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to verify the sample surface's thiol composition and contact angles measured to determine the sample surface's wettability...
May 17, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507700/stepwise-observation-and-quantification-and-mixed-matrix-membrane-separation-of-co2-within-a-hydroxy-decorated-porous-host
#7
Christopher G Morris, Nicholas M Jacques, Harry G W Godfrey, Tamoghna Mitra, Detlev Fritsch, Zhenzhong Lu, Claire A Murray, Jonathan Potter, Tom M Cobb, Fajin Yuan, Chiu C Tang, Sihai Yang, Martin Schröder
The identification of preferred binding domains within a host structure provides important insights into the function of materials. State-of-the-art reports mostly focus on crystallographic studies of empty and single component guest-loaded host structures to determine the location of guests. However, measurements of material properties (e.g., adsorption and breakthrough of substrates) are usually performed for a wide range of pressure (guest coverage) and/or using multi-component gas mixtures. Here we report the development of a multifunctional gas dosing system for use in X-ray powder diffraction studies on Beamline I11 at Diamond Light Source...
April 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506197/high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-confirms-the-presence-of-a-hydroxyproline-hyp-post-translational-modification-in-the-ggggp-linker-of-an-fc-fusion-protein
#8
Chris Spahr, Gunasekaran Kannan, Kenneth W Walker, Stone D-H Shi
Flexible and protease resistant (G4S)n linkers are used extensively in protein engineering to connect various protein domains. Recently, a number of groups have observed xylose-based O-glycosylation at linker Ser residues that yield unwanted heterogeneity and may affect product quality. Because of this, an engineering effort was implemented to explore different linker sequence constructs. Here, we demonstrate the presence of an unexpected hydroxylation of a prolyl residue in the linker, made possible through the use of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) and MSn...
May 16, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500400/bioflocculation-potentials-of-a-uronic-acid-containing-glycoprotein-produced-by-bacillus-sp-aemreg4-isolated-from-tyhume-river-south-africa
#9
Nozipho Ntsangani, Kunle Okaiyeto, Nwodo U Uchechukwu, Ademola O Olaniran, Leonard V Mabinya, Anthony I Okoh
Bioflocculants are secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms during their growth which have received attentions due to their biodegradability, innocuousness and lack of secondary pollution from degradation intermediates. This study reports on a bioflocculant produced by Bacillus specie isolated from Thyume River in South Africa. The bacterial isolate was identified through 16S rDNA sequencing and the BLAST analysis of the nucleotide sequences revealed 99% similarity to Bacillus sp. BCT-7112. The sequence was subsequently deposited in the GenBank as Bacillus sp...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498653/recovering-rare-earth-elements-from-aqueous-solution-with-porous-amine-epoxy-networks
#10
Walter Christopher Wilfong, Brian W Kail, Tracy L Bank, Bret H Howard, McMahan L Gray
Recovering aqueous rare earth elements (REEs) from domestic water sources is one key strategy to diminish the U.S.'s foreign reliance of these precious commodities. Herein, we synthesized an array of porous, amine-epoxy monolith and particle REE recovery sorbents from different polyamine, namely tetraethylenepentamine, and diepoxide (E2), triepoxide (E3), and tetra-epoxide (E4) monomer combinations via a polymer-induced phase separation (PIPS) method. The polyamines provided -NH2 (primary amine) plus -NH (secondary amine) REE adsorption sites, which were partially reacted with C-O-C (epoxide) groups at different amine/epoxide ratios to precipitate porous materials that exhibited a wide range of apparent porosities and REE recoveries/affinities...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497526/prevention-removal-and-inactivation-of-escherichia-coli-and-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms-using-selected-monoterpenes-of-essential-oils
#11
A Borges, J C Lopez-Romero, D Oliveira, E Giaouris, M Simões
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiofilm potential of five essential oils (EOs) components with cyclic (sabinene-SAB, carveol-C1, carvone-C2) and acyclic (citronellol-C3 and citronellal-C4) structures against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS AND RESULTS: The selected EOs components prevented biofilm set-up, with C3 and C4 causing remarkable effects. When applied against pre-established biofilms, they promoted high biomass removal and inactivation of biofilm cells...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497356/n3-and-o2-protonated-conformers-of-the-cytosine-mononucleotides-coexist-in-the-gas-phase
#12
R R Wu, L A Hamlow, C C He, Y-W Nei, G Berden, J Oomens, M T Rodgers
The gas-phase conformations of the protonated forms of the DNA and RNA cytosine mononucleotides, [pdCyd+H](+) and [pCyd+H](+), are examined by infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy over the IR fingerprint and hydrogen-stretching regions complemented by electronic structure calculations. The low-energy conformations of [pdCyd+H](+) and [pCyd+H](+) and their relative stabilities are computed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) and MP2(full)/6-311+G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) levels of theory...
May 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493648/detection-of-localized-hepatocellular-amino-acid-kinetics-by-using-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-stable-isotopes
#13
Martijn Arts, Zita Soons, Shane R Ellis, Keely A Pierzchalski, Benjamin Balluff, Gert B Eijkel, Ludwig J Dubois, Natasja G Lieuwes, Stijn M Agten, Tilman M Hackeng, Luc J C van Loon, Ron M A Heeren, Steven W M Olde Damink
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) simultaneously detects and identifies the spatial distribution of numerous molecules throughout tissues. Currently, MSI is limited to providing a static and ex vivo snapshot of highly dynamic systems in which molecules are constantly synthesized and consumed. Herein, we demonstrate an innovative MSI methodology to study dynamic molecular changes of amino acids within biological tissues by measuring the dilution and conversion of stable isotopes in a mouse model. We evaluate the method specifically on hepatocellular metabolism of the essential amino acid l-phenylalanine, associated with liver diseases...
May 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492282/accumulation-of-heme-biosynthetic-intermediates-contributes-to-the-antibacterial-action-of-the-metalloid-tellurite
#14
Eduardo H Morales, Camilo A Pinto, Roberto Luraschi, Claudia M Muñoz-Villagrán, Fabián A Cornejo, Scott W Simpkins, Justin Nelson, Felipe A Arenas, Jeff S Piotrowski, Chad L Myers, Hirotada Mori, Claudio C Vásquez
The metalloid tellurite is highly toxic to microorganisms. Several mechanisms of action have been proposed, including thiol depletion and generation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, but none of them can fully explain its toxicity. Here we use a combination of directed evolution and chemical and biochemical approaches to demonstrate that tellurite inhibits heme biosynthesis, leading to the accumulation of intermediates of this pathway and hydroxyl radical. Unexpectedly, the development of tellurite resistance is accompanied by increased susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide...
May 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443898/assessing-the-predictability-of-anharmonic-vibrational-modes-at-the-example-of-hydroxyl-groups-ad-hoc-construction-of-localised-modes-and-the-influence-of-structural-solute-solvent-motifs
#15
Manuel J Schuler, Thomas S Hofer, Christian W Huck
The performance of the grid-based Numerov procedure for the prediction of fundamental as well as the first vibrational overtone has been systematically probed for harmonic and anharmonic model systems. In addition to monitor the prediction with respect to the spacing of the potential grid the influence of higher order approximations to the second derivative (i.e. stencils) in Schrödingers equation is evaluated. The latter enable a significant increase of the grid-spacing to achieve results of similar accuracy obtained with smaller stencil sizes...
May 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435103/magnetization-transfer-contrast-and-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-mri-features-and-analysis-of-the-field-dependent-saturation-spectrum
#16
Peter C M van Zijl, Wilfred W Lam, Jiadi Xu, Linda Knutsson, Greg J Stanisz
Magnetization Transfer Contrast (MTC) and Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) experiments measure the transfer of magnetization from molecular protons to the solvent water protons, an effect that becomes apparent as an MRI signal loss ("saturation"). This allows molecular information to be accessed with the enhanced sensitivity of MRI. In analogy to Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), these saturation data are presented as a function of the chemical shift of participating proton groups, e.g. OH, NH, NH2, which is called a Z-spectrum...
April 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434137/cholesterol-hydroperoxide-generation-translocation-and-reductive-turnover-in-biological-systems
#17
Albert W Girotti, Witold Korytowski
Cholesterol is like other unsaturated lipids in being susceptible to peroxidative degradation upon exposure to strong oxidants like hydroxyl radical or peroxynitrite generated under conditions of oxidative stress. In the eukaryotic cell plasma membrane, where most of the cellular cholesterol resides, peroxidation leads to membrane structural and functional damage from which pathological states may arise. In low density lipoprotein, cholesterol and phospholipid peroxidation have long been associated with atherogenesis...
April 22, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421825/seizures-in-patients-with-acute-pesticide-intoxication-with-a-focus-on-glufosinate-ammonium
#18
S Park, D E Kim, S Y Park, H W Gil, S Y Hong
The incidence and clinical aspects of seizures remain to be elucidated in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The present study included subjects who ingested pesticide with the intention of committing suicide and were treated at Soonchunhyang University Hospital (Cheonan, Korea) between January 2011 and December 2014. We analyzed the incidence and characterized the type and frequency of seizure, from the medical records of 464 patients with acute pesticide intoxication, according to the pesticide class...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416657/role-of-atmospheric-oxidation-in-recent-methane-growth
#19
Matthew Rigby, Stephen A Montzka, Ronald G Prinn, James W C White, Dickon Young, Simon O'Doherty, Mark F Lunt, Anita L Ganesan, Alistair J Manning, Peter G Simmonds, Peter K Salameh, Christina M Harth, Jens Mühle, Ray F Weiss, Paul J Fraser, L Paul Steele, Paul B Krummel, Archie McCulloch, Sunyoung Park
The growth in global methane (CH4) concentration, which had been ongoing since the industrial revolution, stalled around the year 2000 before resuming globally in 2007. We evaluate the role of the hydroxyl radical (OH), the major CH4 sink, in the recent CH4 growth. We also examine the influence of systematic uncertainties in OH concentrations on CH4 emissions inferred from atmospheric observations. We use observations of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (CH3CCl3), which is lost primarily through reaction with OH, to estimate OH levels as well as CH3CC3 emissions, which have uncertainty that previously limited the accuracy of OH estimates...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410519/in-utero-exposure-to-atrazine-analytes-and-early-menarche-in-the-avon-longitudinal-study-of-parents-and-children-cohort
#20
Gonza Namulanda, Ethel Taylor, Mildred Maisonet, Dana Boyd Barr, W Dana Flanders, David Olson, Judith R Qualters, John Vena, Kate Northstone, Luke Naeher
BACKGROUND: Evidence from experimental studies suggests that atrazine and its analytes alter the timing of puberty in laboratory animals. Such associations have not been investigated in humans. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between in utero exposure to atrazine analytes and earlier menarche attainment in a nested case-control study of the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. METHODS: Cases were girls who reported menarche before 11...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Research
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