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Richa Pandey, Julia B Zella, Jinge G Zhu, Lori A Plum, Margaret Clagett-Dame, William J Blaser, Wendy Bedale, Hector F DeLuca, Daniel W Coyne
BACKGROUND: 2-Methylene-19-nor-(20S)-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (DP001 or 2MD) is a novel, potent 1α-hydroxylated vitamin D analog that binds to the vitamin D receptor and suppresses parathyroid hormone synthesis and secretion with potential for an improved safety profile compared to existing active vitamin D analogs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of DP001 given orally after hemodialysis. METHODS: DP001 (550 ng) was given orally to 11 hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism after each dialysis session (3 times/week) for 4 weeks...
September 13, 2017: Drugs in R&D
Whitney R Craig, Tessa W Baker, Amy R Marts, Daniel T DeGenova, David P Martin, Garrett C Reed, Robert M McCarrick, Michael W Crowder, Seth M Cohen, David L Tierney
A combination of XAS, UV-vis, NMR, and EPR was used to examine the binding of a series of α-hydroxythiones to CoCA. All three appear to bind preferentially in their neutral, protonated forms. Two of the three clearly bind in a monodentate fashion, through the thione sulfur alone. Thiomaltol (TM) appears to show some orientational preference, on the basis of the NMR, while it appears that thiopyromeconic acid (TPMA) retains rotational freedom. In contrast, allothiomaltol (ATM), after initially binding in its neutral form, presumably through the thione sulfur, forms a final complex that is five-coordinate via bidentate coordination of ATM...
September 12, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Zeyuan Li, Likun Xue, Xue Yang, Qiaozhi Zha, Yee Jun Tham, Chao Yan, Peter K K Louie, Connie W Y Luk, Tao Wang, Wenxing Wang
Atmospheric oxidizing capacity (AOC), dominated by the hydroxyl radical (OH), is an important index of the self-cleaning capacity of atmosphere and plays a vital role in the tropospheric chemistry. To better understand the key processes governing the chemistry of rural atmosphere of southern China, we analyzed the oxidation capacity and radical chemistry at a regional background site in Hong Kong from 23 August to 22 December 2012, which covered the summer, autumn and winter seasons. A chemical box model built on the latest Master Chemical Mechanism (v3...
September 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Megan J Bester, Albert W H Neitz, Anabella R M Gaspar
Bioactive peptides are emerging as promising class of drugs that could serve as α-glucosidase inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This article identifies structural and physicochemical requirements for the design of therapeutically-relevant α-glucosidase inhibitory peptides. So far, a total of 43 fully sequenced α-glucosidase inhibitory peptides have been reported and 13 of them had IC50 values several folds lower than acarbose. Analysis of the peptides indicates that the most potent peptides are tri- to hexapeptides with amino acids containing a hydroxyl or basic side chain at the N-terminal...
September 8, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Fanyana M Mtunzi, Ikechukwu P Ejidike, Imelda Ledwaba, Aroke Ahmed, Vusumzi E Pakade, Michael J Klink, Sekomeng J Modise
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biological activities of Combretum erythrophyllum (C. erythrophyllum) leaf extracts against infectious diseases' pathogenesis and their cytotoxicity potentials. METHODS: Powdered leaf material (300 g) of C. erythrophyllum was extracted (1:10 w/v) using acetone to obtain the crude extract. Liquid-liquid fractionation was performed on the crude acetone extract (30 g) using solvents of different polarity. The bioautographic method was used to detect the inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth by active compounds present in the crude and fractions...
July 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Marissa L Estep, W James Morgan, Alexander T Winkles, Adam S Abbott, Nery Villegas-Escobar, J Wayne Mullinax, Walter E Turner, Xiao Wang, Justin M Turney, Henry F Schaefer
Vinyl alcohol and acetaldehyde are isoelectronic products of incomplete butanol combustion. Along with the radicals resulting from the removal of atomic hydrogen or the hydroxyl radical, these species are studied here using ab initio methods as complete as coupled cluster theory with single, double, triple, and perturbative quadruple excitations [CCSDT(Q)], with basis sets as large as cc-pV5Z. The relative energies provided herein are further refined by including corrections for relativistic effects, the frozen core approximation, and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation...
September 4, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lan Yao, Haitao Yang, Chang Geun Yoo, Xianzhi Meng, Mi Li, Yunqiao Pu, Arthur J Ragauskas, Robert W Sykes
Broussonetia papyrifera, known as paper mulberry, is a potential feed stock for bioethanol production because of its cellulose-rich composition. Lignin in dilute acid pretreated Broussonetia papyrifera was fractionated to three different fractions, and their physiochemical properties were determined by FT-IR, GPC and NMR analyses. Different structural characteristics were observed from each lignin fraction. Cellobiohydrolases I (CBH) adsorption to each lignin was understood by the lignin properties. The results showed that aliphatic hydroxyl groups in lignin showed positive correlations with the maximum binding ability of CBH onto lignin samples...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ji-Guang Li, Xuejiao Wang, Weigang Liu, Qi Zhu, Xiaodong Li, Xudong Sun
Phase-pure (La0.97RE0.01Yb0.02)2O2S upconversion (UC) nanophosphors (average crystallite size ~ 45 nm; RE=Ho, Er) were annealed from their hydrothermally crystallized layered hydroxyl sulfate precursors in flowing hydrogen at 1200 °C for 1 h, with water vapor as the only exhaust. Under 978-nm laser excitation (up to 2.0 W), the Ho(3+)-doped phosphor exhibited green (medium), red (weak), and near-infrared (strong) emissions at ~ 546 ((5)F4 → (5)I8), 658 ((5)F7 → (5)I8), and 763 nm ((5)F4 → (5)I7), respectively, and has the stable chromaticity coordinates of about (0...
August 24, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Haihua Guo, Fansheng Kong, Chunyan Yan
BACKGROUND: The purple sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. It is one of the most widely consumed tubers in Asia and is found in many dishes. Many people with diabetes eat purple sweet potato tubers to help reduce blood glucose in China. OBJECTIVE: To predict the ultrasonic conditions for getting the optimal in vitro antioxidant and antiglycated activity of ultrasonic extracted polysaccharides from purple sweet potato (I. batatas) tubers, the artificial neural network (ANN) regression models was used in this study...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Andrew W Gardner, Polly S Montgomery, Yan D Zhao, Zoltan Ungvari, Anna Csiszar, William E Sonntag
We determined whether 6-minute walk total distance and pain-free distance were associated with circulating biomarkers of antioxidant capacity and inflammation and with cultured endothelial cell inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in 251 patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD). In multivariate analyses, pain-free distance during the 6-minute walk test was negatively associated with dyslipidemia ( P < .001), chronic kidney disease ( P = .004), and transient transfection, nuclear factor κ-Light-Chain-Enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) cultured endothelial cells ( P = ...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
Min Xiao, Joronia Chéry, Ivan Keresztes, David B Zax, Margaret W Frey
A non-acid-based, di-functional epoxide, neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether (NPGDGE), was used to modify cotton fabrics. Direct characterization of the modified cotton was conducted by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) without grinding the fabric into a fine powder. NaOH and MgBr2 were compared in catalyzing the reaction between the epoxide groups of NPGDGE and the hydroxyl groups of cellulose. Possible reaction routes were discussed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that while the MgBr2-catalyzed reaction resulted in self-polymerization of NPGDGE, the NaOH-catalyzed reaction did not...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yen-Wen Huang, Hwai-I Yang, Ying-Ta Wu, Tsui-Ling Hsu, Tzu-Wen Lin, Jeffery W Kelly, Chi-Huey Wong
N-glycosylation is an important co- and/or post-translational modification that occurs on the vast majority of the 1/3 of the mammalian proteome that traverses the cellular secretory pathway, regulating glycoprotein folding and functions. Previous studies on the sequence requirements for N-glycosylation have yielded the Asn-X-Ser/Thr (NXS/T) sequon and the enhanced aromatic sequons (Phe-X-Asn-X-Thr and Phe-X-X-Asn-X-Thr) which can be efficiently N-glycosylated. To further investigate the influence of sequence variation on N-glycosylation efficiency in the context of a 5-residue enhanced aromatic sequon, we used the human CD2 adhesion domain (hCD2ad) to screen the i-2, i-1, i+1 and i+2 residues flanking Asn at the i position...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Vishnu Kumar, Ranjana Singh, Farzana Mahdi, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Raj Kumar Singh
The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Cassia tora (C. tora) seeds extract against streptozotocin induced diabetes in experimental rats to scientifically validate its use against diabetes. Ethanolic extract of C. tora seeds extract and standard drug (glibenclamide) prepared in aqueous gum acacia (2 %, w/v) suspension and fed orally to streptozotocin induced male adult diabetic rats of Charles Foster strain for 15 days. Biochemical parameters in normal, diabetic control, standard (600 μg/kg bw p...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Sanjaya Kuruppu, Niwanthi W Rajapakse, Helena C Parkington, A Ian Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Maggie Ng, Daniel K W Mok, Edmond P F Lee, John M Dyke
A theoretical study, involving the calculation of reaction enthalpies, activation energies, mechanisms, and rate coefficients, was made of the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with methyl nitrate, an important process for methyl nitrate removal in the earth's atmosphere. Four reaction channels were considered: formation of H2O + CH2ONO2, CH3OOH + NO2, CH3OH + NO3, and CH3O + HNO3. For all channels, geometry optimization and frequency calculations were performed at the M06-2X/6-31+G** level, while relative energies were improved at the UCCSD(T*)-F12/CBS level...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Shingo Esaki, Marina G Evich, Noa Erlitzki, Markus W Germann, Gregory M K Poon
The eponymous DNA-binding domain of ETS (E26 transformation specific) transcription factors binds a single sequence-specific site as a monomer over a single helical turn. Following our previous observation by titration calorimetry that the ETS member PU.1 dimerizes sequentially at a single sequence-specific DNA binding site to form a 2:1 complex, we have carried out an extensive spectroscopic and biochemical characterization of site-specific PU.1 ETS complexes. While 10 bp of DNA was sufficient to support PU...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Amanda Chikaosolu Okolie, Oluwafemi Ezekiel Kale, Odutola Osilesi
Recent studies have shown that Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in rats can result through a synergy that link obesity to insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. This present study achieved T2D via high fructose (20%(w/v), p.o.), streptozotocin single dose (40 mg/kg, i.p.) (HFSTZ) in rats. Also, chemoprotective potential of butanol fraction of buchholzia coriacea (BFBC) was demonstrated. Control normal and diabetic untreated (HFSTZ-induced T2D) rats received carboxymethyl cellulose (1 mg/kg, p.o.). Diabetic rats received intragastric BFBC (20, 200, 400 mg/kg), glibenclamide (0...
August 8, 2017: Bioscience Reports
Liang Jing, Bing Chen, Diya Wen, Jisi Zheng, Baiyu Zhang
This study shed light on removing atrazine from pesticide production wastewater using a pilot-scale UV/O3/ultrasound flow-through system. A significant quadratic polynomial prediction model with an adjusted R(2) of 0.90 was obtained from central composite design with response surface methodology. The optimal atrazine removal rate (97.68%) was obtained at the conditions of 75 W UV power, 10.75 g h(-1) O3 flow rate and 142.5 W ultrasound power. A Monte Carlo simulation aided artificial neural networks model was further developed to quantify the importance of O3 flow rate (40%), UV power (30%) and ultrasound power (30%)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Virginia W Manner, John D Yeager, Brian M Patterson, David J Walters, Jamie A Stull, Nikolaus L Cordes, Darby J Luscher, Kevin C Henderson, Andrew M Schmalzer, Bryce C Tappan
The microstructure of plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) is known to influence behavior during mechanical deformation, but characterizing the microstructure can be challenging. For example, the explosive crystals and binder in formulations such as PBX 9501 do not have sufficient X-ray contrast to obtain three-dimensional data by in situ, absorption contrast imaging. To address this difficulty, we have formulated a series of PBXs using octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) crystals and low-density binder systems...
June 10, 2017: Materials
Christopher J Martin, Alan T L Lee, Ralph W Adams, David A Leigh
We describe a small-molecule "walker" that uses enzyme catalysis to discriminate between the relative positions of its "feet" on a track and thereby move with net directionality. The bipedal walker has identical carboxylic acid feet, and "steps" along an isotactic hydroxyl-group-derivatized polyether track by the formation/breakage of ester linkages. Lipase AS catalyzes the selective hydrolysis of the rear foot of macrocyclized walkers (an information ratchet mechanism), the rear foot producing an (R)-stereocenter at its point of attachment to the track...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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