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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775413/human-cerebral-collateral-arteriole-function-in-normal-cognition-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-subjects
#1
Raymond Q Migrino, Seth Truran, Nina Karamanova, Geidy Serrano, Calvin Madrigal, Hannah A Davies, Jillian Madine, Peter Reaven, Thomas G Beach
Clinical and preclinical studies suggest a link between cardiovascular disease and dementia disorders but the role of collateral brain circulation in cognitive dysfunction remains unknown. We aim to test the hypothesis that leptomeningeal arteriole (LMA) function and response to metabolic stressors differ among dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal cognition (CN) subjects. Following rapid autopsy, LMA were isolated from CN (N=10), MCI (N=12) or dementia subjects (N=42, Alzheimer's disease [AD], vascular dementia [VaD], or Other Dementia) and endothelial and smooth muscle-dependent function were measured at baseline and following exposure to β-amyloid (Aβ42 2 μM), palmitic acid (PA 150 μM) or medin (5μM) and compared...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773670/high-%C3%AE-tocopherol-dosing-increases-lipid-metabolism-by-changing-redox-state-in-damaged-rat-gastric-mucosa-and-liver-after-ethanol-treatment
#2
Marisela Olguín-Martínez, Diego R Hernández-Espinosa, Rolando Hernández-Muñoz
Regeneration of ethanol-injured rat gastric mucosa must undergo changes in major metabolic pathways to achieve DNA replication and cell proliferation. These events are highly dependent on glucose utilization and inhibited by vitamin E (α-tocopherol) administration. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing lipid metabolism in the gastric mucosa and ethanol-induced gastric damage and the effect of α-tocopherol administration. For this, rates of fatty acid β-oxidation and lipogenesis were tested in gastric mucosa samples...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772372/palmitate-induces-nitric-oxide-production-and-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-zebrafish
#3
Seon-Heui Cha, Yongha Hwang, Kil-Nam Kim, Hee-Sook Jun
Inflammation markers in zebrafish embryos reflect a toxic response that is common to other animal models and humans. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are known to cause damage in various tissues by inducing inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether a FFA (palmitate) induces inflammation in zebrafish embryos. Nitrous oxide (NO) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression were increased in palmitate-treated zebrafish embryos in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), were also increased...
May 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771428/ampk-regulates-energy-metabolism-through-the-sirt1-signaling-pathway-to-improve-myocardial-hypertrophy
#4
H-W Dong, L-F Zhang, S-L Bao
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the correlations of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Silence information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and energy metabolism with myocardial hypertrophy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Myocardial hypertrophy experimental model was established via transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced myocardial hypertrophy and phenylephrine (PE)-induced hypertrophic myocardial cell culture. After activation of AMPK, the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expressions in myocardial tissue- and myocardial cell hypertrophy-related genes, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), were detected...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770713/component-composition-of-the-extracts-and-essential-oils-from-the-alhagi-canescens-growing-in-uzbekistan-and-their-antimicrobial-activity
#5
Sabir Nishanbaev, Khayrulla Bobakulov, Bakhodir Okhundedaev, Sobirdjan Sasmakov, Elvira Yusupova, Shakhnoz Azimova, Nasrulla Abdullaev
The volatile compounds of hexane, benzene extracts and essential oils (EOs) isolated by steam- and hydrodistillation methods from aerial part of Alhagi canescens were studied by GC-MS analysis. Seventeen components were found in the hexane and benzene extracts, among them palmitic acid (25.2 and 22.1%), neophytadiene (7.3 and 22.3%), cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (11.0% in benzene), cis-geranyl acetate (7.8% in benzene) were major components. The first time fifty-six volatile compounds were identified in the EOs and camphor (5...
May 17, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768267/type-2-diabetes-promotes-cell-centrosome-amplification-via-akt-ros-dependent-signalling-of-rock1-and-14-3-3%C3%AF
#6
Pu Wang, Yu Cheng Lu, Jie Wang, Lan Wang, Hanry Yu, Yuan Fei Li, Alice Kong, Juliana Chan, Shaochin Lee
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage which can cause centrosome amplification. Thus, the study investigated centrosome amplification in type 2 diabetes and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Centrosome numbers in human peripheral blood mononuclear blood cells (PBMC) from healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes were compared to access the association between type 2 diabetes and centrosome amplification. Colon cancer cells were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the centrosome amplification triggered by high glucose, insulin and palmitic acid...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768040/myristate-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-requires-ceramide-synthases-5-6-and-generation-of-c14-ceramide-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#7
Songhwa Choi, Justin M Snider, Nicole Olakkengil, Johana M Lambert, Andrea K Anderson, Jessica S Ross-Evans, L Ashley Cowart, Ashley J Snider
Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) have been shown to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and chronic inflammatory responses, as well as alter sphingolipid metabolism. Disruptions in ER stress and sphingolipid metabolism have also been implicated in intestinal inflammation. Therefore, to elucidate the roles of SFAs in ER stress and inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells, we examined myristate (C14:0) and palmitate (C16:0). Myristate, but not palmitate, induced ER stress signaling, including activation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) signaling...
May 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763542/insight-into-the-role-of-facultative-bacteria-stimulated-by-micro-aeration-in-continuous-bioreactors-converting-lcfa-to-methane
#8
Maria Salomé Duarte, Sérgio A Silva, Andreia F Salvador, Ana Júlia Cavaleiro, Alfons J M Stams, Maria Madalena Alves, Maria Alcina Pereira
Conversion of unsaturated long chain fatty acids (LCFA) to methane in continuous bioreactors is not fully understood. Palmitate (C16:0) often accumulates during oleate (C18:1) biodegradation in methanogenic bioreactors, and the reason why this happens and which microorganisms catalyze this reaction remains unknown. Facultative anaerobic bacteria are frequently found in continuous reactors operated at high LCFA loads, but their function is unclear. To get more insight on the role of these bacteria, LCFA conversion was studied under microaerophilic conditions...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763372/acetyl-coa-from-inflammation-induced-fatty-acids-oxidation-promotes-hepatic-malate-aspartate-shuttle-activity-and-glycolysis
#9
Tongxin Wang, Weilei Yao, Ji Li, Qiongyu He, Yafei Shao, Feiruo Huang
Hepatic metabolic syndrome is associated with inflammation, as it stimulates the reprogramming of nutrient metabolism and hepatic mitochondria-generated acetyl-CoA. But how acetyl-CoA affects the reprogramming of nutrient metabolism, especially glucose and fatty acids, in the condition of inflammation is still unclear. Here, we used an acute inflammation model in which pigs were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and found that hepatic glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation are both promoted. Acetyl-proteome profiling of LPS-infected pigs liver showed that inflammatory stress exacerbates the acetylation of mitochondrial proteins...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760333/binary-phase-behavior-of-saturated-unsaturated-mixed-acid-triacylglycerols-a-review
#10
Lu Zhang, Satoru Ueno, Kiyotaka Sato
Most natural lipids contain a complex mixture of individual triacylglycerols (TAGs). An in-depth knowledge of the mixing behavior of TAGs is necessary for the rational design and engineering of food materials. The binary phase diagram of TAGs is a simplified model that can be explored to help foster an understanding of the phase behavior of complex fats and oils. This article reviews recent research on the binary phase behavior of saturated-unsaturated mixed-acid TAGs, with special emphasis on the stearic-unsaturated and palmitic-unsaturated diacid TAGs...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760238/structural-and-ligand-binding-analysis-of-the-yap-binding-domain-of-transcription-factor-tead4
#11
Yan Li, Shuang Liu, Elizabeth Yihui Ng, Rong Li, Anders Poulsen, Jeffrey Hill, Ajaybabu V Pobatti, Alvin W Hung, Wanjin Hong, Thomas H Keller, CongBao Kang
The oncoprotein YAP requires the TEAD family of transcription factors for the upregulation of genes important for cell proliferation. Disrupting YAP-TEAD interaction is an attractive strategy for cancer therapy. Targeting TEADs using small molecules that either bind to the YAP-binding pocket or the palmitate-binding pocket is proposed to the disrupt YAP-TEAD interaction. There is a need for methodologies to facilitate robust and reliable identification of compounds that occupy either YAP-binding pocket or palmitate-binding pocket...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758895/chemical-speciation-including-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-and-toxicity-of-particles-emitted-from-meat-cooking-operations
#12
Nicholas Gysel, Poornima Dixit, Debra A Schmitz, Guenter Engling, Arthur K Cho, David R Cocker, Georgios Karavalakis
We assessed the chemical properties and oxidative stress of particulate matter (PM) emissions from underfired charbroiled meat operations with and without the use of aftertreatment control technologies. Cooking emissions concentrations showed a strong dependence on the control technology utilized, with all emission rates showing decreases with the control technologies compared to the baseline testing. The organic acids profile was dominated by the saturated nonanoic, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids, and the unsaturated oleic, elaidic, and palmitoleic acids...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758481/kaempferol-alleviates-palmitic-acid-induced-lipid-stores-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-through-ampk-mtor-mediated-lipophagy
#13
Ritu Varshney, Rajat Varshney, Rutusmita Mishra, Sumeet Gupta, Debabrata Sircar, Partha Roy
Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has the beneficial effects of preserving pancreatic β-cell mass and function, but its action on β-cell lipid metabolism still remains elusive. Recently, autophagy has been reported to play a major role in lipid metabolism in various cell types, but its role in pancreatic β-cell's lipid metabolism is rarely reported. Here, we investigated the role of kaempferol-induced autophagy in inhibition of lipid stores, ER stress and β-cell dysfunction in palmitic acid-challenged RIN-5F cells and isolated pancreatic islets...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755841/quantitative-pet-of-liver-functions
#14
REVIEW
Susanne Keiding, Michael Sørensen, Kim Frisch, Lars C Gormsen, Ole Lajord Munk
Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro- D -galactose (18 F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value ( SUV ) from a static liver 18 F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754287/protective-role-of-the-elovl2-docosahexaenoic-acid-axis-in-glucolipotoxicity-induced-apoptosis-in-rodent-beta-cells-and-human-islets
#15
Lara Bellini, Mélanie Campana, Claude Rouch, Marta Chacinska, Marco Bugliani, Kelly Meneyrol, Isabelle Hainault, Véronique Lenoir, Jessica Denom, Julien Véret, Nadim Kassis, Bernard Thorens, Mark Ibberson, Piero Marchetti, Agnieszka Blachnio-Zabielska, Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Carina Prip-Buus, Christophe Magnan, Hervé Le Stunff
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to influence glucose homeostasis. We recently showed that Elovl2 expression in beta cells, which regulates synthesis of endogenous DHA, was associated with glucose tolerance and played a key role in insulin secretion. The present study aimed to examine the role of the very long chain fatty acid elongase 2 (ELOVL2)/DHA axis on the adverse effects of palmitate with high glucose, a condition defined as glucolipotoxicity, on beta cells...
May 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753390/corrigendum-to-toxicogenetic-study-of-omeprazole-and-the-modulatory-effects-of-retinol-palmitate-and-ascorbic-acid-on-allium-cepa-chemosphere-204-2018-220-226
#16
Antonio Lima Braga, Ag-Anne Pereira Melo de Meneses, Jose Victor de Oliveira Santos, Antonielly Campinho Dos Reis, Rosalia Maria Torres de Lima, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira da Mata, Marcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Leane Brunelle Dos Santos Alves, Subrata Shaw, Shaikh Jamal Uddin, Razina Rouf, Asish Kumar Das, Shrabanti Dev, Manik Chandra Shill, Jamil A Shilpi, Ishaq N Khan, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Eunüs S Ali, Mohammad S Mubarak, Siddhartha Kumar Mishra, Jõao Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Ana Amelia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752433/palmitic-acid-but-not-high-glucose-induced-myocardial-apoptosis-is-alleviated-by-n%C3%A2-acetylcysteine-due-to-attenuated-mitochondrial-derived-ros-accumulation-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#17
Yang He, Lingyun Zhou, Zhiqiang Fan, Shikun Liu, Weijin Fang
Pharmacological inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a potential strategy to prevent diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. This study was designed to investigate precise effects of antioxidant N‑acetylcysteine (NAC) in alleviating diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Echocardiography and histologic studies were performed 12 weeks after streptozocin injection. Protein levels involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis were analyzed by western blotting in diabetic hearts or high-glucose (HG, 30 mM)- and palmitic acid (PA, 300 μM)-cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs)...
May 11, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752404/low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-1-dysfunction-synergizes-with-dietary-cholesterol-to-accelerate-steatohepatitis-progression
#18
Allyson N Hamlin, Sivaprakasam Chinnarasu, Yinyuan Ding, Xunde Xian, Joachim Herz, Anja Jaeschke, David Y Hui
Reduced low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) expression in the liver is associated with poor prognosis of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.  Previous studies have shown that hepatic LRP1 deficiency exacerbates palmitate-induced steatosis and toxicity in vitro and also promotes high fat diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in vivo   The current study examined the impact of liver-specific LRP1 deficiency in disease progression to steatohepatitis.  hLrp1+/+ mice with normal LRP1 expression and hLrp1-/- mice with hepatocyte-specific LRP1 inactivation were fed a high fat-high cholesterol (HFHC) diet for 16 weeks...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751738/transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analyses-reveal-that-bacteria-promote-plant-defense-during-infection-of-soybean-cyst-nematode-in-soybean
#19
Wenshu Kang, Xiaofeng Zhu, Yuanyuan Wang, Lijie Chen, Yuxi Duan
BACKGROUND: Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most devastating pathogen of soybean. Our previous study showed that the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus simplex strain Sneb545 promotes soybean resistance to SCN. Here, we conducted a combined metabolomic and transcriptomic analysis to gain information regarding the biological mechanism of defence enhancement against SCN in Sneb545-treated soybean. To this end, we compared the transcriptome and metabolome of Sneb545-treated and non-treated soybeans under SCN infection...
May 11, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750879/dha-upregulates-fads2-expression-in-primary-cortical-astrocytes-exposed-to-vitamin-a
#20
B Dziedzic, D Bewicz-Binkowska, E Zgorzynska, D Stulczewski, L Wieteska, B Kaza, A Walczewska
The fads2 gene encoding delta6-desaturase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the LCPUFA biosynthesis is expressed in astrocytes. Dietary fatty acids, which cross the blood-brain barrier may regulate the transcription of lipogenic enzymes through activation of transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The PPARs form the transcription complex with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) that are activated by 9-cis retinol, a metabolite of vitamin A (VA). The study examines whether challenge of astrocytes with VA, prior 24-hour treatment with palmitic acid (PA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has the effect on the FADS2 expression...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
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