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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433191/enzymatic-synthesis-of-isomaltotriose-palmitate-and-evaluation-of-its-emulsifying-property
#1
Kuan-Ju Liu
Enzymatic syntheses of oligosaccharide fatty acid esters are important owing to their wide range of industrial applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Transesterification of isomaltotriose and palmitic acid vinyl ester, catalyzed by the metalloprotease thermolysin, was performed in organic solvents. The process parameters (reaction time and temperature) were optimized to achieve the highest yield of isomaltotriose palmitate (IP). The water content of the reaction system played a key role in the acylation of isomaltotriose...
June 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429609/chemical-evaluation-of-the-rhynchophorus-ferrugineus-larvae-fed-on-different-substrates-as-human-food-source
#2
Annarita Cito, Santi Longo, Giuseppe Mazza, Elena Dreassi, Valeria Francardi
We investigated the chemical composition of the weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae, traditionally used as human food in Asia and known worldwide as one of the most significant pest for palm trees. Total fat content and fatty acid composition were analyzed using standard methodologies in (1) weevil larvae reared on apple fruit slices and wild specimens collected from attacked (2) Phoenix canariensis and (3) Syagrus romanzoffiana palm trees. Total fat content was extremely high in all the specimens (ranged between 57...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429326/wax-ester-fermentation-and-its-application-for-biofuel-production
#3
Hiroshi Inui, Takahiro Ishikawa, Masahiro Tamoi
In Euglena cells under anaerobic conditions, paramylon, the storage polysaccharide, is promptly degraded and converted to wax esters. The wax esters synthesized are composed of saturated fatty acids and alcohols with chain lengths of 10-18, and the major constituents are myristic acid and myristyl alcohol. Since the anaerobic cells gain ATP through the conversion of paramylon to wax esters, the phenomenon is named "wax ester fermentation". The wax ester fermentation is quite unique in that the end products, i...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427626/manothermosonication-as-a-useful-tool-for-lipid-extraction-from-oleaginous-microorganisms
#4
A Meullemiestre, C Breil, M Abert-Vian, F Chemat
Manothermonication is a recognized and efficient method used for sterilization in food preservation. The synergistic effect of sonication combined with pressure and temperature allows enhancing the cavitation activity. Never employed for extraction, this study is about the transposition of this process as a tool of extraction. In this study, Rhodosporidium toruloides yeast was submitted to extraction by four modes of sonication, with a temperature ranged from 20 to 55°C and a pressure between 1 to 2bars. The lipids extraction yields were compared to the conventional maceration...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424855/analysis-of-multiple-soybean-phytonutrients-by-near-infrared-reflectance-spectroscopy
#5
Gaoyang Zhang, Penghui Li, Wenfei Zhang, Jian Zhao
Improvement of the nutritional quality of soybean is usually facilitated by a vast range of soybean germplasm with enough information about their multiple phytonutrients. In order to acquire this essential information from a huge number of soybean samples, a rapid analytic method is urgently required. Here, a nondestructive near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method was developed for rapid and accurate measurement of 25 nutritional components in soybean simultaneously, including fatty acids palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid, vitamin E (VE), α-VE, γ-VE, δ-VE, saponins, isoflavonoids, and flavonoids...
April 19, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424190/odd-chain-fatty-acids-as-a-biomarker-for-dietary-fiber-intake-a-novel-pathway-for-endogenous-production-from-propionate
#6
Karolin Weitkunat, Sara Schumann, Daniela Nickel, Silke Hornemann, Klaus J Petzke, Matthias B Schulze, Andreas Fh Pfeiffer, Susanne Klaus
Background: The risk of type 2 diabetes is inversely correlated with plasma concentrations of odd-chain fatty acids [OCFAs; pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0)], which are considered as biomarkers for dairy fat intake in humans. However, rodent studies suggest that OCFAs are synthesized endogenously from gut-derived propionate. Propionate increases with dietary fiber consumption and has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity.Objective: We hypothesized that OCFAs are produced in humans from dietary fibers by a novel endogenous pathway...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424185/very-long-chain-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acid-supplements-and-adipose-tissue-functions-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Kazanna C Hames, Maria Morgan-Bathke, Debra A Harteneck, Lendia Zhou, John D Port, Ian R Lanza, Michael D Jensen
Background: Increased omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption is reported to benefit patients with metabolic syndrome, possibly due to improved adipose tissue function.Objective: We tested the effects of high-dose, very-long-chain ω-3 fatty acids on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin regulation of lipolysis.Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared 6 mo of 3.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/d (4.2 g total ω-3/d; n = 12) with a placebo (4.2 g oleate/d; n = 9) in insulin-resistant adults...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420500/does-different-bmi-influence-oocyte-and-embryo-quality-by-inducing-fatty-acid-in-follicular-fluid
#8
Parvaneh Mirabi, Mohammad Javad Chaichi, Sedighe Esmaeilzadeh, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Ali Bijani, Mahjobeh Ehsani
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of obesity-related follicular fluid (FF) fatty acids (FAs) on the number and quality of oocytes, good embryo quality rate, and pregnancy rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 105 infertile women under the age of 38, who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) from March 2015 to October 2015. They were grouped into three body mass index (BMI) categories. The fatty acids composition of the FF was analyzed by GC-MS head space method...
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420093/potential-role-of-free-fatty-acids-in-the-pathogenesis-of-periodontitis-and-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Yosuke Shikama, Yasusei Kudo, Naozumi Ishimaru, Makoto Funaki
Clinical studies have shown that metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia are associated with increased risk of oral-related diseases, such as periodontitis and Sjögren's syndrome. Although changes in the immune system are critical in both of these metabolic disorders and oral-related diseases, the mechanism underlying the interaction between these diseases remains largely unknown. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are known to be associated with higher concentrations of free fatty acids in blood...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419827/antihyperglycemic-antioxidant-activities-of-tucum%C3%A3-oil-astrocaryum-vulgare-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice-and-identification-of-fatty-acid-profile-by-gas-chromatograph-new-natural-source-to-treat-hyperglycemia
#10
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Thirssa H Grando, Luciana F Cossetin, Michele R Sagrillo, Kátia Nascimento, Aleksandro S da Silva, Alencar K Machado, Ivana B M da Cruz, Lenita M Stefani, Bruna Klein, Roger Wagner, Silvia G Monteiro
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the oral administration of tucumã oil (Astrocaryum vulgare) on glucose and insulin levels, oxidative status, and pancreatic genotoxic parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 6 each): control/water; control/tucumã oil; diabetic/water; diabetic/tucumã oil treated for 14 days with 5.0 mL kg(-1) via oral gavage. Gas chromatograph characterization demonstrated that oleic/elaidic fatty acid is the most abundant component present in this oil, followed by palmitic and stearic fatty acids...
April 15, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418007/saturated-fatty-acids-induce-development-of-both-metabolic-syndrome-and-osteoarthritis-in-rats
#11
Sunderajhan Sekar, Siti Raihanah Shafie, Indira Prasadam, Ross Crawford, Sunil K Panchal, Lindsay Brown, Yin Xiao
The predominant saturated fatty acids (SFA) in human diets are lauric acid (LA, C12:0), myristic acid (MA, C14:0), palmitic acid (PA, C16:0) and stearic acid (SA, C18:0). The aim of this study was to investigate whether diets containing individual SFA together with excess simple carbohydrates induce osteoarthritis (OA)-like changes in knee joints and signs of metabolic syndrome in rats. Rats were given either a corn starch diet or a diet composed of simple carbohydrates together with 20% LA, MA, PA, SA or beef tallow for 16 weeks...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415630/resveratrol-alleviates-ffa-and-ccl4-induced-apoptosis-in-hepg2-cells-via-restoring-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#12
Fenghua Li, Yang Yang, Lili Yang, Kai Wang, Xing Zhang, Yunlong Zong, Yixin Ding, Changhong Wang, Li Zhang, Guang Ji
Cell apoptosis often induces inflammation and injury in the liver, with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as the most possible reason. Resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to prevent hepatic steatosis and alleviate apoptosis, however, the exact mechanisms underlying the effects still need to be explored. Here we co-cultured HepG2 cells with free fatty acid (FFA) solution (oleic acid: palmitic acid = 2:1) and then exposed to a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) solution to induce apoptosis. To evaluate the therapeutic effects, RSV (2...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414811/tissue-expression-profiles-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-elongase-of-very-long-chain-fatty-acid-6-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#13
Si Chen, Hua He, Xiaolin Liu
In mammals, very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) perform pleiotropic roles in a wide range of biological processes, such as cell membrane formation, cell signal transduction, and endocrine regulation. Beef and milk are abundant of palmitic acid which can be further elongated into stearic acid for synthesizing VLCFAs. Elongase of very long chain fatty acid 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme for converting palmitic acid to stearic acid. Consequently, investigating the tissue expression patterns and transcriptional regulation of bovine ELOVL6 can provide new insights into improving the composition of beneficial fats in cattle and expanding the knowledge of transcriptional regulation mechanism among domestic animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414449/time-dependent-ph-scanning-of-the-acid-induced-unfolding-of-human-serum-albumin-reveals-stabilization-of-the-native-form-by-palmitic-acid-binding
#14
Alessandra Del Giudice, Cedric Dicko, Luciano Galantini, Nicolae Viorel Pavel
The most abundant plasma protein, Human Serum Albumin (HSA), is known to undergo several conformational transitions in acidic environment. To avoid buffer effects and correlate global and local structural changes, we developed a continuous acidification method and simultaneously monitored the protein changes by both small-angle scattering (SAXS) and fluorescence. The progressive acidification, based on the hydrolysis of glucono-δ-lactone from pH 7 to pH 2.5, highlighted a multi-step unfolding involving the putative F form (pH 4) and an extended and flexible conformation (pH < 3...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413191/length-scale-specific-crystalline-structural-changes-induced-by-molecular-randomization-of-pequi-oil
#15
Andréa Madalena Maciel Guedes, Rosemar Antoniassi, Melicia Cintia Galdeano, Renato Grimaldi, Mario Geraldo de Carvalho, Allan Eduardo Wilhelm, Alejandro Gregorio Marangoni
Pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb) is considered important since its pulp has a high content of oil and carotenoids. The oil's triacylglycerols (TAGs) contain mainly oleic (~57%) and palmitic (~36%) fatty acids, distributed primarily among POO, POP/PPO, and OOO TAGs. It displays a tendency to fractionate upon storage and has a relatively low melting temperature (SFC of 4% at 25°C). Pequi oil was modified through chemical interesterification, which increased the PPP content to ~6%. This caused a flattening in the SFC-temperature profile, raising the end of melt temperature significantly (SFC of 4% at 39°C)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412693/feeding-angptl4-mice-trans-fat-promotes-foam-cell-formation-in-mesenteric-lymph-nodes-without-leading-to-ascites
#16
Antwi Boasiako Oteng, Asmita Bhattacharya, Susanne Brodesser, Ling Qi, Nguan Soon Tan, Sander Kersten
ANGPTL4 regulates plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase. Inactivation of ANGPTL4 decreases plasma triglycerides and reduces risk of coronary artery disease. Unfortunately, targeting ANGPTL4 for the therapeutic management of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis is hampered by the observation that mice and monkeys in which ANGPTL4 is inactivated exhibit lipid accumulation in mesenteric lymph nodes. In mice these pathological events exclusively unfold upon feeding a high saturated fatty acid diet and are followed by an ultimately lethal pro-inflammatory response and chylous ascites...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411435/the-effect-of-surfactant-crystallization-on-partial-coalescence-in-o-w-emulsions
#17
Lucie Goibier, Sophie Lecomte, Fernando Leal-Calderon, Chrystel Faure
Partial coalescence is a ubiquitous instability in emulsions whose dispersed phase is partially crystallized. When emulsions are stabilized with proteins, interfacial stiffness and long-range repulsive surface forces hinder this type of instability. The addition of low molecular weight surfactants modifies the interfacial properties and surface forces, generally promoting partial coalescence. In the present work, various surfactants (Tween® 80, palmitic acid and monoglycerides) differing in their crystallization temperature were probed for their ability to induce partial coalescence in model O/W emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411053/fostering-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-novel-oleaginous-yeast-cryptococcus-psychrotolerans-iitrfd-utilizing-groundnut-shell-for-improved-biodiesel-production
#18
Farha Deeba, Vikas Pruthi, Yuvraj S Negi
The investigation was carried out to examine the potential of triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation by novel oleaginous yeast isolate Cryptococcus psychrotolerans IITRFD on utilizing groundnut shell acid hydrolysate (GSH) as cost-effective medium. The maximum biomass productivity and lipid productivity of 0.095±0.008g/L/h and 0.044±0.005g/L/h, respectively with lipid content 46% was recorded on GSH. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile obtained by GC-MS analysis revealed oleic acid (37.8%), palmitic (29.4%) and linoleic (32...
April 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410612/milk-protein-based-formulas-containing-different-oils-affect-fatty-acids-balance-in-term-infants-a-randomized-blinded-crossover-clinical-trial
#19
Carolina Oliveira de Souza, Maria Efigênia Q Leite, John Lasekan, Geraldine Baggs, Lorena Silva Pinho, Janice Izabel Druzian, Tereza Cristina M Ribeiro, Ângela P Mattos, José A Menezes-Filho, Hugo Costa-Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Palm olein is used in infant formula fat blends in order to match the fatty acid profile of human milk. While the effects on fatty acid balance have been evaluated, the use of palm olein in combination with palm kernel oil and supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) has not been similarly assessed in infants. This study evaluated the effects of infant formulas containing different fat compositions on the balance of fat, fatty acids, and calcium...
April 14, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410488/understanding-the-potency-of-fatty-acids-with-the-amino-acid-side-chains-of-bovine-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-a-quantum-chemical-approach
#20
Deepa Palanisamy, B Vijaya Pandiyan, Thirumeignanam Duraisamy, Ponmalai Kolandaivel
The present study aims to spotlight on the strength of interaction between different fatty acids with the Bovine-lactoglobulin (LGB) protein side chains along with the crystal water molecules at M062X/def2-QZVP level of theory. To analyse the role of carboxylic acid and its interaction with side chains and to reveal the significance of carboxylic acid, it was replaced by Acyl chloride (COCl), Acyl Bromide (COBr) and Acyl-Fluorine (COF) group and COS group. The ligands are linear with a straight and branched chain of carbon atoms, but extended methyl group make the ligand bend resulting in non-planar geometry...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
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