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palmitic acid

Gergely Kosa, Boris Zimmermann, Achim Kohler, Dag Ekeberg, Nils Kristian Afseth, Jerome Mounier, Volha Shapaval
Background: Mucoromycota fungi are important producers of low- and high-value lipids. Mortierella alpina is used for arachidonic acid production at industrial scale. In addition, oleaginous Mucoromycota fungi are promising candidates for biodiesel production. A critical step in the development of such biotechnological applications is the selection of suitable strains for lipid production. The aim of the present study was to use the Duetz-microtiter plate system combined with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for high-throughput screening of the potential of 100 Mucoromycota strains to produce low- and high-value lipids...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
BingNan Liao, YouJin Hao, JunXing Lu, HuiYang Bai, Li Guan, Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Perilla frutescens is well known for its high α-linolenic acid (ALA) accumulation in seeds and medicinal values as well as a source of edible and general-purpose oils. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the biosynthesis of fatty acid in its seeds remain poorly understood due to the lacking of sequenced genome. For better understanding the regulation of lipid metabolism and further increase its oil content or modify oil composition, time-course transcriptome and lipid composition analyses were performed...
March 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
Keshav Gopal, Malak Almutairi, Rami Al Batran, Farah Eaton, Manoj Gandhi, John Reyes Ussher
Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase the risk for cardiomyopathy, which is the presence of ventricular dysfunction in the absence of underlying coronary artery disease and/or hypertension. As myocardial energy metabolism is altered during obesity/T2D (increased fatty acid oxidation and decreased glucose oxidation), we hypothesized that restricting myocardial glucose oxidation in lean mice devoid of the perturbed metabolic milieu observed in obesity/T2D would produce a cardiomyopathy phenotype, characterized via diastolic dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Ying Huang, Fang Liu, Fang Zhang, Pingsheng Liu, Tao Xu, Wenjun Ding
Numerous studies have demonstrated that vanadium compounds are able to improve lipemia and triglyceridemia in both humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of vanadium(IV) complex with 4-chlorodipicolinic acid (VOdipic-Cl)-induced autophagy on hepatic lipid accumulation. To explore the possible underlying mechanisms, primary rat hepatocytes, human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and liver tissue from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were used...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Ji-Sun Kim, Hyunjung Lee, Chang Hwa Jung, Sung-Joon Lee, Tae-Youl Ha, Jiyun Ahn
Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance. Although chicoric acid (CA) is known to have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, the involvement of mitochondrial function has not been elucidated yet. Here, we investigated the effect of CA on insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. In palmitate-induced insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes, CA improved impaired glucose uptake and insulin signaling pathways, along with enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption...
March 20, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kristina H Jackson, William S Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fatty acid (FA) profiles in different blood compartments are reflections of both diet and metabolism, and some FA levels are related to disease risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Perhaps the most studied FA-disease relationship is between long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite null results from recent large omega-3 FA supplementation trials, new research continues to support past studies showing that blood levels of EPA + DHA are inversely related to risk for total mortality and fatal CVD events...
March 20, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Naiqian Zhao, Xiaoyan Li, Ying Feng, Jinxiang Han, Ziling Feng, Xifeng Li, Yanfang Wen
Excessive triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes is the hallmark of obesity-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Elevated levels of the saturated free fatty acid palmitate in obesity are a major contributor to excessive hepatic lipid accumulation. The nuclear orphan receptor Nur77 is a transcriptional regulator and a lipotoxicity sensor. Using human HepG2 hepatoma cells, this study aimed to investigate the functional role of Nur77 in palmitate-induced hepatic steatosis. The results revealed that palmitate significantly induced lipid accumulation and suppressed lipolysis in hepatocytes...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maysa M Cruz, Andressa B Lopes, Amanda R Crisma, Roberta C C de Sá, Wilson M T Kuwabara, Rui Curi, Paula B M de Andrade, Maria I C Alonso-Vale
BACKGROUND: We have recently demonstrated that palmitoleic acid (16:1n7) increases lipolysis, glucose uptake and glucose utilization for energy production in white adipose cells. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that palmitoleic acid modulates bioenergetic activity in white adipocytes. METHODS: For this, 3 T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into mature adipocytes in the presence (or absence) of palmitic (16:0) or palmitoleic (16:1n7) acid at 100 or 200 μM...
March 20, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Wenhua Xue, Zhirui Fan, Yuanzhe Li, Lifeng Li, Tengfei Zhang, Jingli Lu, Bingjun Ma, Zijia Zhu, Jingyao Lian, Chaoqi Zhang, Xiaoqin Song, Dongxu Sun, Yunkai Zhai, Ruitai Fan, Yang Cao, Xiaoming Deng, Jie Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The current study was designed to investigate the protective role of alkannin (ALK) on liver injury in diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice and explore its potential mechanisms. METHODS: An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. The levels of insulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) were determined by commercial kits. The pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined by ELISA...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Mohammed Mansour Quradha, Rasool Khan, Mujeeb-Ur- Rehman, Abdulrahman Abohajeb
Chemical composition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimacrobial activities of essential oil obtained from leaves of Rumex nervosus has been evaluated here for the first time. GC/MS analysis reveals the presence of Palmitoleic Acid (28.35%) and Palmitic acid, (25. 37%) as their methyl ester as major components. The essential oil showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity (94.907 ± 0.1089% and 94.003 ± 0.0749%) at concentration (100 and 80) μg/mL respectively. The oil showed promising activity against staph aureus, while showed weak activity against (Hela and 3T3) cell lines...
March 19, 2018: Natural Product Research
Yi Wang, Yuanyuan Qian, Qilu Fang, Peng Zhong, Weixin Li, Lintao Wang, Weitao Fu, Yali Zhang, Zheng Xu, Xiaokun Li, Guang Liang
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13997.
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Hao Tu, Qin Zhou, Xun Zhang, Ting Wang, Cheng-Fu Yuan, Chang-Cheng Zhang, Ding Yuan, Zhao-Qi Liu
This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism and protective effect of total saponins of Panax japonicas (TSPJ) on HepG2 cells apoptosis induced by palmitic acid (PA).The HepG2 cells were cultured in vitro , and divided into five groups: the control group, the model group, the high-dose group (50 mg·L⁻¹), the middle-dose group (25 mg·L⁻¹) and the low-dose group (12.5 mg·L⁻¹).The cells of the five groups were cultured continuously for 24 hours. The cell viability was measured with MTT. HepG2 cells apoptosis was detected by Hoechest staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Alba Bosquet, Josefa Girona, Sandra Guaita-Esteruelas, Mercedes Heras, Paula Saavedra-García, Neus Martínez-Micaelo, Lluís Masana, Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo
AIMS: Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) inhibitors have been proposed as potential therapeutic approaches against insulin resistance-related inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which these molecules drive these effects in skeletal muscle remain unknown. Here, we assessed whether the FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 prevented lipid-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated inflammation in skeletal muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The BMS309403 treatment was assessed both in the skeletal muscle of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and in palmitate-stimulated C2C12 myotubes...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jian Bi, Kang Sun, Hao Wu, Xiuli Chen, Haiying Tang, Jingwei Mao
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) participates in the process of insulin resistance (IR), a crucial pathophysiology in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Meanwhile, suppressor of cytokine signaling3 (SOCS3) also regulates IR in NAFLD. Both PPARγ and SOCS3 play a role in NAFLD through regulating IR, while it is unclear whether these two proteins interact to regulate hepatic steatosis. PPARγ, SOCS3 and its associated JAK2/STAT3 pathway were analyzed using Kuppfer cells (KCs) treatment with LPS and BRL-3A cells treatment with palmitic acid, KC-conditioned medium (KCCM), PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (ROZ) or JAK2 inhibitor AG490 to demonstrate the role of PPARγ and SOCS3 in hepatocytes steatosis...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hans Demmelmair, Berthold Koletzko
Fat is the main energy providing component in human milk and comprising a complex mixture of different lipid species, with quantitative dominance of triglycerides. After elucidating the fatty acid composition, more recent research has looked at influencing factors and the importance of specific lipids. Here we review quantitative aspects of maternal metabolism which contribute to the milk fatty acid composition, especially considering essential fatty acids and their long chain polyunsaturated derivatives. In this context studies with stable isotopes have indicated the importance of maternal body pools for mediating the effects of diet on milk composition...
January 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Gregor Jezernik, Uroš Potočnik
Fatty acids and their derivatives play an important role in inflammation. Diet and genetics influence fatty acid profiles. Abnormalities of fatty acid profiles have been observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a group of complex diseases defined by chronic gastrointestinal inflammation. IBD associated fatty acid profile abnormalities were observed independently of nutritional status or disease activity, suggesting a common genetic background. However, no study so far has attempted to look for overlap between IBD loci and fatty acid associated loci or investigate the genetics of fatty acid profiles in IBD...
March 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Mateus Tonelli, Guilherme Gomes, Weliton D Silva, Nathália T C Magri, Durval M Vieira, Claudio L Aguiar, José Maurício S Bento
Insects have evolved multiple mechanisms to adapt to variations in environmental temperatures, including postural control of solar input, variations in diurnal activity, external morphological structures and selecting/generating microhabitats. Foam produced by Mahanarva fimbriolata nymphs (also known as root spittlebugs) was found to aid in creating a constant thermal microhabitat despite environmental temperature fluctuations. The temperature within the foam was found to be similar to that of soil during the day and remained constant despite fluctuating external temperatures...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ondrej Kuda, Marie Brezinova, Jan Silhavy, Vladimir Landa, Vaclav Zidek, Chandra Dodia, Franziska Kreuchwig, Marek Vrbacky, Laurence Balas, Thierry Durand, Norbert Hübner, Aron B Fisher, Jan Kopecky, Michal Pravenec
Fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) are lipid mediators with promising anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties that are formed in white adipose tissue (WAT) via de novo lipogenesis, but their biosynthetic enzymes are unknown. Using a combination of lipidomics in WAT, QTL mapping and correlation analyses in rat BXH/HXB recombinant inbred strains, and response to oxidative stress in murine models, we elucidated the potential pathway of biosynthesis of several FAHFAs.Comprehensive analysis of WAT samples identified ∼160 regioisomers documenting the complexity of this lipid class...
March 16, 2018: Diabetes
Mika Hilvo, Tuire Salonurmi, Aki S Havulinna, Dimple Kauhanen, Eva Ringdal Pedersen, Grethe S Tell, Klaus Meyer, Anna-Maria Teeriniemi, Tiina Laatikainen, Pekka Jousilahti, Markku J Savolainen, Ottar Nygård, Veikko Salomaa, Reijo Laaksonen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Ceramide lipids have a role in the development of insulin resistance, diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease. Here we investigated four ceramides and their ratios to find the best predictors of incident diabetes. METHODS: A validated mass-spectrometric method was applied to measure Cer(d18:1/16:0), Cer(d18:1/18:0), Cer(d18:1/24:0) and Cer(d18:1/24:1) from serum or plasma samples. These ceramides were analysed in a population-based risk factor study (FINRISK 2002, n = 8045), in a cohort of participants undergoing elective coronary angiography for suspected stable angina pectoris (Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort [WECAC], n = 3344) and in an intervention trial investigating improved methods of lifestyle modification for individuals at high risk of the metabolic syndrome (Prevent Metabolic Syndrome [PrevMetSyn], n = 371)...
March 15, 2018: Diabetologia
Eleni C Pappa, Thomas G Bontinis, Maria Tasioula-Margari, John Samelis
The microbiological quality of and changes in the main physicochemical parameters, together with the evolution of proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profiles of soft Xinotyri, a traditional Greek acid-curd cheese (pH≈4.4, moisture 65%, salt 1%) made from raw (RMC) or pasteurized (PMC) goat's milk without starters, were evaluated during aerobic storage at 4o C for 60 days. No statistically significant differences between the total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen fraction (% of TN) contents, the degradation of intact αs - or β-caseins, total free amino acid (FAA) contents, and the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides in the water-soluble fraction of RMC and PMC were found...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
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