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palmitic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340361/hdl-inhibits-saturated-fatty-acid-mediated-augmentation-of-innate-immune-responses-in-endothelial-cells-by-a-novel-pathway
#1
Wei-Yang Zhang, Daniel A Franco, Eric Schwartz, Karen D'Souza, Sheetal Karnick, Peter D Reaven
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Peripheral insulin resistance is associated with several metabolic abnormalities, including elevated serum fatty acids that contribute to vascular injury and atherogenesis. Our goals were to examine whether saturated fatty acids can modify innate immune responses to subclinical concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in endothelial cells, and to explore the underlying pathway and determine whether it is modified by high density lipoprotein (HDL) and other factors commonly altered in insulin resistance...
September 8, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333667/effect-of-penetration-enhancers-on-the-percutaneous-delivery-of-pain-management-actives
#2
John Trimble, Bob Light
Transdermal compositions for pain management are comprised of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioid drugs, and adjuvant drugs acting on: voltage-gated channels, gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, acute musculoskeletal pain, and as an antidepressant. In this work, baclofen, bupivacaine, cyclobenzaprine, diclofenac, gabapentin, ibuprofen, ketamine, and pentoxifylline were loaded in transdermal compositions, prepared using a mixture of lipids (isopropyl palmitate and mineral oil) and one of two selected penetration enhancer mixtures: alkyl dimethicone, phenyl trimethicone, and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate; and cetostearyl polyoxyethylene ether and ethylene oxide/propylene oxide copolymer...
May 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332071/the-nutritive-value-of-marula-sclerocarya-birrea-seed-cake-for-broiler-chickens-nutritional-composition-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-oxidative-and-mycotoxin-status
#3
Doctor Mziwenkosi Nhlanhla Mthiyane, Bhekumusa Sabelo Mhlanga
This study was aimed at investigating the nutritive value of marula seed cake (MSC) as an alternative protein source for broilers. In a completely randomised design involving six replicate pens of five chickens assigned to each of five treatments, body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and carcass characteristics were measured in an experiment in which 150 28-day-old broilers were fed maize-based diets containing, respectively, 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% MSC at finisher phase. The results showed MSC to be remarkably high in CP (470...
March 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330255/ascorbyl-palmitate-synthesis-in-an-organic-solvent-system-using-a-celite-immobilized-commercial-lipase-lipolase-100l
#4
Shivika Sharma, Kriti Kanwar, Shamsher S Kanwar
Ascorbyl palmitate was synthesized using a Celite-immobilized commercial lipase (Lipolase 100L) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as an organic solvent system. Lipase immobilized by surface adsorption onto Celite 545 matrix and subsequently exposed to 1 % glutaraldehyde showed 75 % binding of protein. The Celite-bound lipase was optimally active at 75 °C and pH 8.5 under shaking and showed maximum hydrolytic activity toward p-NPP as a substrate. The bound lipase was found to be stimulated only in the presence of Al(3+) and EDTA...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330161/in-vitro-propagation-carotenoid-fatty-acid-and-tocopherol-content-of-ajuga-multiflora-bunge
#5
Iyyakkannu Sivanesan, Ramesh Kumar Saini, Rafi Noorzai, Ahmad Jawid Zamany, Doo Hwan Kim
The effect of plant growth regulators on shoot proliferation from shoot tip explants of Ajuga multiflora was studied. The highest number of shoots (17.1) was observed when shoot tip explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 8.0 µM 6-Benzyladenine (BA) and 2.7 µM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The mean number of shoots per explant was increased 1.6-fold in liquid medium as compared with semi-solid medium. Maximum rooting (100 %) with an average of 7.2 roots per shoot was obtained on MS basal medium...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328738/inhibition-of-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-by-high-fat-diets-is-it-related-to-an-effect-of-palmitic-acid-involving-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3
#6
Ana Contreras, Danila Del Rio, Ana Martínez, Carmen Gil, Lidia Morales, Mariano Ruiz-Gayo, Nuria Del Olmo
High-fat diets (HFD) impair hippocampal-dependent learning and memory and produce important changes in synaptic transmission by enhancing glutamate uptake, decreasing synaptic efficacy, and inhibiting plasticity mechanisms such as N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated long-term depression (LTD) within the hippocampus. Adolescent animals seem to be particularly susceptible to the detrimental effect of HFD as dietary treatments carried out between weaning and early adulthood are much more efficient in terms of hippocampal damage that those carried out during the adult period...
March 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327709/fish-oil-supplementation-inhibits-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-improves-insulin-resistance-involvement-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#7
Wenqi Yang, Xu Chen, Ming Chen, Yanping Li, Qing Li, Xinwei Jiang, Yan Yang, Wenhua Ling
The beneficial effects of fish oil consumption on glucose metabolism have been generally reported. However, the mechanism underlying the fish oil-induced protective effects against insulin resistance remains unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is recognized as an important contributor to insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether fish oil supplementation reduces ER stress and ameliorates insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice, and to investigate the molecular mechanism of fish oil-induced benefits on ER stress...
March 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323924/guanabenz-sensitizes-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-to-lipotoxic-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-apoptosis
#8
Baroj Abdulkarim, Miriam Hernangomez, Mariana Igoillo Esteve, Daniel A Cunha, Lorella Marselli, Piero Marchetti, Laurence Ladriere, Miriam Cnop
Deficient as well as excessive/prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling can lead to pancreatic β cell failure and the development of diabetes. Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs) such as palmitate induce lipotoxic ER stress in pancreatic β cells. One of the main ER stress response pathways is under the control of the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), leading to phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). The antihypertensive drug guanabenz has been shown to inhibit eIF2α dephosphorylation and protect cells from ER stress...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323206/ligands-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-promote-glutamate-transporter-1-endocytosis-in-astrocytes
#9
Hui-Ting Huang, Chih-Kai Liao, Wen-Tai Chiu, Shun-Fen Tzeng
Astrocytes, a stellate-shape glial population in the central nervous system (CNS), maintain glutamate homeostasis in adult CNS by undergoing glutamate uptake at the synapse through their glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) can be activated by endogenous saturated fatty acids to regulate astrocytic lipid metabolism and functions. However, it is unclear if PPARα can exert the regulatory action on GLT-1 expression in astrocytes. This study showed that treatment with palmitic acid (PA) and the other two PPARα agonists (GW 7647 and WY 14,643) caused no change in the morphology of astrocytes, whereas membranous GLT-1 protein levels in astrocytes were significantly decreased by PA and PPARα agonists...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322865/palmitic-acid-elicits-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-through-inflammasomes-and-hedgehog-signaling
#10
Na-Na Duan, Xue-Jing Liu, Jian Wu
AIMS: Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays a pivotal role at the center of the fibrogenic progression in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, it is poorly understood that how various molecules interact within HSCs during the progression of NASH to fibrosis. The aim of the present study is to delineate how inflammasome molecules, hedgehog signaling and autophagy provoke HSC activation using palmitic acid (PA) as a major insult. MAIN METHODS: Inflammasome activation, hedgehog signaling activity and autophagy in PA-exposed HSCs were determined to investigate their role in activation of human and rodent HSC lines or primary HSCs...
March 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315769/the-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism-by-a-hypothetical-p-loop-ntpase-and-its-impact-on-fecundity-of-the-brown-planthopper
#11
Rui Pang, Jieqi Qiu, Tengchao Li, Pan Yang, Lei Yue, Yixin Pan, Wenqing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Insect fecundity can be regulated by multiple genes in several important signaling pathways which form an extremely complicated regulatory network. However, there are still many genes that have significant impact on insect fecundity but their action mode are still unknown. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunofluorescence and western blot were used to study the expression profile of Nl23867 in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens...
March 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315731/evaluation-of-the-drug-loading-capacity-of-different-lipid-nanoparticle-dispersions-by-passive-drug-loading
#12
Karin M Rosenblatt, Heike Bunjes
When using lipid nanoparticles as drug carrier system it is important to know how much drug can be loaded to the nanoparticles. The mainly used drug loading procedure is an empirical approach dissolving the drug in the liquid lipid during preparation of the nanoparticles. This approach does not necessarily lead to the truly loadable amount, as the lipid can, e.g. be overloaded, in particular when it is processed in the heat. In this work, a different procedure, passive drug loading, was evaluated to determine the drug loading capacity of various lipid nanoparticles (supercooled trimyristin emulsion droplets, solid trimyristin nanoparticles, tristearin nanoparticles in the α-modification and cholesteryl myristate nanoparticles in the supercooled smectic as well as in the crystalline state)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304381/tnf-%C3%AE-stimulates-endothelial-palmitic-acid-transcytosis-and-promotes-insulin-resistance
#13
Wenjing Li, Xiaoyan Yang, Tao Zheng, Shasha Xing, Yaogong Wu, Fang Bian, Guangjie Wu, Ye Li, Juyi Li, Xiangli Bai, Dan Wu, Xiong Jia, Ling Wang, Lin Zhu, Si Jin
Persistent elevation of plasma TNF-α is a marker of low grade systemic inflammation. Palmitic acid (PA) is the most abundant type of saturated fatty acid in human body. PA is bound with albumin in plasma and could not pass through endothelial barrier freely. Albumin-bound PA has to be transported across monolayer endothelial cells through intracellular transcytosis, but not intercellular diffusion. In the present study, we discovered that TNF-α might stimulate PA transcytosis across cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, which further impaired the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by cardiomyocytes and promoted insulin resistance...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304295/palmitate-increases-%C3%AE-site-a%C3%AE-pp-cleavage-enzyme-1-activity-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-genesis-by-evoking-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-subsequent-c-ebp-homologous-protein-activation
#14
Gurdeep Marwarha, Stephen Rostad, Jaclyn Lilek, Mason Kleinjan, Jared Schommer, Othman Ghribi
Epidemiological studies implicate diets rich in saturated free fatty acids (sFFA) as a potential risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, high plasma levels of the sFFA palmitic acid (palmitate) were shown to inversely correlate with cognitive function. However, the cellular mechanisms by which sFFA may increase the risk for AD are not well known. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as one of the signaling pathways initiating and fostering the neurodegenerative changes in AD by increasing the aspartyl protease β-site AβPP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and amyloid-β (Aβ) genesis...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303042/effect-of-dehulling-germination-and-cooking-on-nutrients-anti-nutrients-fatty-acid-composition-and-antioxidant-properties-in-lentil-lens-culinaris
#15
R S Pal, Anuradha Bhartiya, Pradhuman Yadav, Lakshmi Kant, K K Mishra, J P Aditya, A Pattanayak
The changes in chemical composition, antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of lentil flour after dehulling, germination and cooking of seeds were investigated. Dehulling showed no significant effect on protein content, however, protein content decreased in most of the varieties after germination and cooking. Total soluble sugars (TSS) content increased significantly after dehulling (2.0-41.64 %) and cooking (2.08-31.07 %) whereas, germination had no significant effect on TSS content. Total lipids increased significantly after dehulling (21...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302654/palmitate-induced-vacuolar-type-h-atpase-inhibition-feeds-forward-into-insulin-resistance-and-contractile-dysfunction
#16
Yilin Liu, Laura K M Steinbusch, Miranda Nabben, Dimitris Kapsokalyvas, Marc van Zandvoort, Patrick Schönleitner, Gudrun Antoons, Peter J Simons, Will A Coumans, Amber Geomini, Dipanjan Chanda, Jan F C Glatz, Dietbert Neumann, Joost J F P Luiken
Dietary fat overconsumption leads to myocardial lipid accumulation through mechanisms that are incompletely resolved. Previously, we identified increased translocation of the fatty acid transporter CD36 from its endosomal storage compartment to the sarcolemma as primary mechanism of excessive myocellular lipid import. Here, we show that increased CD36 translocation is caused by alkalinization of endosomes due to inhibition of proton pumping activity of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (v-ATPase). Endosomal alkalinization was observed in hearts from rats fed a lard-based high fat-diet and in rodent and human cardiomyocytes upon palmitate overexposure, and appeared as early lipid-induced event preceding the onset of insulin resistance...
March 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302626/sting-irf3-triggers-endothelial-inflammation-in-response-to-free-fatty-acid-induced-mitochondrial-damage-in-diet-induced-obesity
#17
Yun Mao, Wei Luo, Lin Zhang, Weiwei Wu, Liangshuai Yuan, Hao Xu, Juhee Song, Keigi Fujiwara, Jun-Ichi Abe, Scott A LeMaire, Xing Li Wang, Ying H Shen
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic stress in obesity induces endothelial inflammation and activation, which initiates adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying endothelial inflammation induction are not completely understood. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an important molecule in immunity and inflammation. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of STING in palmitic acid-induced endothelial activation/inflammation...
March 16, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294174/docosahexaenoic-acid-enrichment-in-nafld-is-associated-with-improvements-in-hepatic-metabolism-and-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-a-pilot-study
#18
L Hodson, L Bhatia, E Scorletti, D E Smith, N C Jackson, F Shojaee-Moradie, M Umpleby, P C Calder, C D Byrne
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Treatment of subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) suggests high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) tissue enrichment decrease liver fat content. We assessed whether changes in erythrocyte DHA enrichment (as a surrogate marker of changes in tissue enrichment) were associated with alterations in hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), postprandial FA partitioning and hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in a sub-study of the WELCOME trial (Wessex Evaluation of fatty Liver and Cardiovascular markers in NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) with OMacor thErapy)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292195/phytotoxic-activity-and-chemical-composition-of-cassia-absus-seeds-and-aerial-parts
#19
I Zribi, H Sbai, N Ghezal, G Richard, D Trisman, M L Fauconnier, R Haouala
The present study was conducted to assess the phytotoxic potential and the phytochemical composition of Cassia absus. Aqueous extracts caused significant reduction in root growth of Lactuca sativa. Seed extract was more effective than aerial part extract. Successive extractions of this plant were performed using solvents with increasing polarities. The methanolic seed extract exerted strong phytotoxic effect on seedling growth, followed by petroleum ether extract of the aerial part. The phytochemical investigation showed that among the organic extracts, methanol extracts of seeds and aerial parts contained the highest amounts of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins...
March 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289420/evaluation-of-exotically-derived-soybean-breeding-lines-for-seed-yield-germination-damage-and-composition-under-dryland-production-in-the-midsouthern-usa
#20
Nacer Bellaloui, James R Smith, Alemu Mengistu, Jeffery D Ray, Anne M Gillen
Although the Early Soybean Production System (ESPS) in the Midsouthern USA increased seed yield under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, heat stress and drought still lead to poor seed quality in heat sensitive soybean cultivars. Our breeding goal was to identify breeding lines that possess high germination, nutritional quality, and yield potential under high heat and dryland production conditions. Our hypothesis was that breeding lines derived from exotic germplasm might possess physiological and genetic traits allowing for higher seed germinability under high heat conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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