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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920551/four-acyltransferases-uniquely-contribute-to-phospholipid-heterogeneity-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Peter Oelkers, Keshav Pokhrel
Diverse acyl-CoA species and acyltransferase isoenzymes are components of a complex system that synthesizes glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has four main acyl-CoA species, two main glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferases (Gat1p, Gat2p), and two main 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferases (Lpt1p, Slc1p). The in vivo contribution of these isoenzymes to phospholipid heterogeneity was determined using haploids with compound mutations: gat1Δlpt1Δ, gat2Δlpt1Δ, gat1Δslc1Δ, and gat2Δslc1Δ...
2016: Lipid Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919362/the-effect-of-omega-3-carboxylic-acids-on-apolipoprotein-ciii-containing-lipoproteins-in-severe-hypertriglyceridemia
#2
Allyson M Morton, Jeremy D Furtado, Jane Lee, William Amerine, Michael H Davidson, Frank M Sacks
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein subspecies containing apoCIII adversely affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; for example, low density lipoprotein (LDL) with apoCIII is a stronger CVD predictor than LDL without apoCIII. The Epanova for Lowering Very High Triglycerides (EVOLVE) trial showed that Epanova (omega-3 carboxylic acids [OM3-CA]) significantly lowered TG and apoCIII but raised LDL-C. However, it is unknown what subspecies of LDL were affected by treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine how lipoprotein subspecies are affected by omega-3 fatty acid treatment, we studied the effect of OM3-CA on apoCIII concentrations in high density lipoprotein (HDL), LDL, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and on the concentrations of subspecies of HDL, LDL, and VLDL that contain or do not contain apoCIII...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916118/an-in%C3%A2-vitro-approach-for-lipolysis-measurement-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-and-partial-least-squares-based-analysis
#3
Wen-Qi Chang, Jian-Liang Zhou, Yi Li, Zi-Qi Shi, Li Wang, Jie Yang, Ping Li, Li-Fang Liu, Gui-Zhong Xin
The elevation of free fatty acids (FFAs) has been regarded as a universal metabolic signature of excessive adipocyte lipolysis. Nowadays, in vitro lipolysis assay is generally essential for drug screening prior to the animal study. Here, we present a novel in vitro approach for lipolysis measurement combining UHPLC-Orbitrap and partial least squares (PLS) based analysis. Firstly, the calibration matrix was constructed by serial proportions of mixed samples (blended with control and model samples). Then, lipidome profiling was performed by UHPLC-Orbitrap, and 403 variables were extracted and aligned as dataset...
January 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914812/protective-effects-of-gomisin-n-against-hepatic-steatosis-through-ampk-activation
#4
Ye-Rang Yun, Ji-Hyun Kim, Ji Ha Kim, Myeong Ho Jung
Gomisin N (GN) is a phytochemical derived from Schisandra chinensis. It has been reported to exert a protective effect against hepatic steatosis by attenuating endoplasmic recticulum (ER) stress. However, the detailed mechanism by which GN inhibits hepatic steatosis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined whether GN activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and exerts therapeutic effects on liver X receptor (LXR)- or palmitic acid (PA)-induced triglyceride (TG) accumulation in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, in vivo protective effects of GN against hepatic steatosis were assessed in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914513/fatty-acid-profile-in-cord-blood-of-neonates-born-to-optimally-controlled-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Pauline Léveillé, Jean-Luc Ardilouze, Jean-Charles Pasquier, Charles Deacon, Kevin Whittingstall, Mélanie Plourde
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the fatty acid profile of cord blood phospholipids (PL), cholesteryl esters (CE), triglycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: The offspring of 30 pregnant women (15 non-diabetic controls, 15 with diet- or insulin-controlled GDM) were recruited before delivery. Cord blood was collected. After lipid extraction, PL, CE, TG and NEFA were separated by thin layer chromatography and analysed by gas chromatography...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914320/biochemical-precursor-effects-on-the-fatty-acid-production-in-cell-suspension-cultures-of-theobroma-cacao-l
#6
O Parra, A M Gallego, A Urrea, L F Rojas, C Correa, L Atehortúa
Cocoa butter (CB) is composed of 96% palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids that are responsible for the hardness, texture and fusion properties of chocolate. Through in vitro plant cell culture it is possible to modify CB lipid profiles and to study the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway on a subcellular level, evaluating fundamental aspects to enhance in vitro fatty acid production in a specific and controlled way. In this research, culture media was supplemented with acetate, biotin, pyruvate, bicarbonate and glycerol at three different concentrations and the effects on the biomass production (g/L), cell viability, and fatty acids profile and production was evaluated in in vitro cell suspensions culture...
November 25, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912872/anti-allergic-potential-of-typhonium-blumei-inhibition-of-degranulation-via-suppression-of-pi3k-plc%C3%AE-2-phosphorylation-and-calcium-influx
#7
Michal Korinek, Kuan-Ming Chen, Yu-Han Jiang, Mohamed El-Shazly, Joel Stocker, Chon-Kit Chou, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yang-Chang Wu, Bing-Hung Chen, Fang-Rong Chang
BACKGROUND: Typhonium blumei Nicolson & Sivadasan (Araceae) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb possessing detumescent, detoxifying, and anti-inflammatory activities. It is used in Taiwan as a folk medicine to treat cancer and inflammatory diseases. Typhonium blumei is usually not distinguished from Typhonium roxburghii Schott and they are commonly used interchangeably. PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of T...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910756/fatty-acid-composition-of-different-collections-of-coprinoid-mushrooms-agaricomycetes-and-their-nutritional-and-medicinal-values
#8
Susanna M Badalyan
Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the free fatty acid (FA) composition of ethanol extracts obtained from mycelia of 30 genetically identified strains of 18 species of coprinoid mushrooms (CMs) or coprini belonging to clades Coprinellus (C. bisporus, C. curtus, C. disseminatus, C. domesticus, C. ellisii, C.flocculosus, C. micaceus, C. aff radians I, C. aff radians II, C. aff radians III, C. xanthothrix, Coprinellus sp. 4), Coprinopsis (C. cinerea, C. cothurnata, C. gonophylla, C. lagopides, C. maysoidispora, C...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907035/exendin-4-inhibits-hepatic-lipogenesis-by-increasing-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#9
Mi Hae Seo, Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Eun-Jung Rhee, Se Eun Park, Cheol Young Park, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Won-Young Lee
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the beneficial effect of exendin-4 on hepatic steatosis is mediated by β-catenin signaling. After the HepG2 human hepatoma cells were treated with PA for 24 hours, total triglycerides levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the expression levels of perilipin family members were upregulated in cells treated with 400 μM PA. For our in vitro model of hepatic steatosis, HepG2 cells were treated with 400 μM palmitic acid (PA) in the presence or absence of 100 nM exendin-4 for 24 hours...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900351/data-for-differentially-expressed-micrornas-in-saturated-fatty-acid-palmitate-treated-hepg2-cells
#10
Won-Mo Yang, Kyung-Ho Min, Wan Lee
Certain microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting the molecules in the insulin signaling cascades are dysregulated by saturated fatty acids (SFA), which can lead to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This article reports the accompanying data collected using miRNAs microarrays to identify the changes in miRNA expression in HepG2 cells treated with SFA palmitate. Differentially expressed miRNA analyses in HepG2 cells showed that a range of upregulated (>1.5-fold) or downregulated (<0.5-fold) miRNAs. Further extensive insights into the implications of miRNAs, particularly miR-1271, in HepG2 cells can be found in "MiR-1271 upregulated by saturated fatty acid palmitate provokes impaired insulin signaling by repressing INSR and IRS-1 expression in HepG2 cells" (W...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899097/antinociception-of-petroleum-ether-fraction-derived-from-crude-methanol-extract-of-melastoma-malabathricum-leaves-and-its-possible-mechanisms-of-action-in-animal-models
#11
Z A Zakaria, E S Jaios, M H Omar, S Abd Rahman, S S A Hamid, S M Ching, L K Teh, M Z Salleh, S Deny, M Taher
BACKGROUND: Melastoma malabathricum L. (family Melastomaceae) has been traditionally used as remedies against various ailments including those related to pain. The methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves has been proven to show antinociceptive activity. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the most effective fraction among the petroleum ether- (PEMM), ethyl acetate- (EAMM) and aqueous- (AQMM) fractions obtained through successive fractionation of crude, dried methanol extract of M...
November 29, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895203/a-palmitic-acid-elongase-affects-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-plastidal-monogalactosyldiacylglcerol-levels-in-nannochloropsis
#12
Lina Juana Dolch, Camille Rak, Giorgio Perin, Guillaume Tourcier, Richard Broughton, Marina Leterrier, Tomas Morosinotto, Frédérique Tellier, Jean-Denis Faure, Denis Falconet, Juliette Jouhet, Olga Sayanova, Frederic Beaudoin, Eric Marechal
Nannochloropsis species are oleaginous eukaryotes containing a plastid limited by four membranes, deriving from a secondary endosymbiosis. In Nannochloropsis, thylakoid lipids including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) are enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The need for EPA in MGDG is not understood. Fatty acids are de novo synthesized in the stroma, then converted into very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids at the ER. The production of MGDG relies therefore on an EPA supply from the ER to the plastid, following an unknown process...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893782/beneficial-effects-of-metformin-and-or-salicylate-on-palmitate-or-tnf%C3%AE-induced-neuroinflammatory-marker-and-neuropeptide-gene-regulation-in-immortalized-npy-agrp-neurons
#13
Wenqing Ye, Ernesto H Ramos, Brian C Wong, Denise D Belsham
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)/Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus induce feeding and decrease energy expenditure. With consumption of a diet high in fat, there is an increase in circulating saturated free fatty acids, including palmitate, leading to the development of neuroinflammation and secretion of cytokines, such as TNFα, and in turn activation of the canonical IKKβ/NFκB cascade. We describe a model of palmitate- and TNFα-induced neuroinflammation in a functionally characterized, immortalized NPY/AgRP-expressing cell model, mHypoE-46, to study whether the anti-diabetic metformin alone or in combination with the anti-inflammatory agent salicylate can ameliorate these detrimental effects...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889747/alisol-a-24-acetate-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-and-metabolic-disorders-in-hepg2-cells
#14
Lu Zeng, WaiJiao Tang, JinJin Yin, LiJuan Feng, Yabing Li, Xiaorui Yao, BenJie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with metabolic disorders including hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. Alisol A 24-acetate, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizome, has multiple biologic activities such as hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic. Thus we hypothesized that Alisol A 24 -acetate would have effect on NAFLD. The present study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of Alisol A 24-acetate against hepatic steatosis in a free fatty acids (FFAs) induced NAFLD cell model...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886192/phytanic-acid-attenuates-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-activity-via-nitric-oxide-mediated-%C3%AE-secretase-activation-in-rat-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells-possible-implications-for-pathogenesis-of-infantile-refsum-disease
#15
Gursev S Dhaunsi, Mayra Alsaeid, Saghir Akhtar
BACKGROUND: Infantile Refsum disease (IRD), a peroxisomal disease with defective phytanic acid oxidation, causes neurological impairment and development delay. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) regulates child development and to understand molecular mechanism(s) of IRD, we examined the effect of PA on IGF-1 activity. METHODS: BrdU incorporation was measured in rat aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) cultures following treatment with fetal bovine serum (FBS), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or IGF-1 in the absence or presence of PA...
November 25, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884102/gene-expression-profile-of-intramuscular-muscle-in-nellore-cattle-with-extreme-values-of-fatty-acid
#16
Mariana P Berton, Larissa F S Fonseca, Daniela F J Gimenez, Bruno L Utembergue, Aline S M Cesar, Luiz L Coutinho, Marcos Vinicius A de Lemos, Carolyn Aboujaoude, Angélica S C Pereira, Rafael M de O Silva, Nedenia B Stafuzza, Fabieli L B Feitosa, Hermenegildo L J Chiaia, Bianca F Olivieri, Elisa Peripolli, Rafael L Tonussi, Daniel M Gordo, Rafael Espigolan, Adrielle M Ferrinho, Lenise F Mueller, Lucia G de Albuquerque, Henrique N de Oliveira, Susan Duckett, Fernando Baldi
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid type in beef can be detrimental to human health and has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes in longissimus thoracis muscle of 48 Nellore young bulls with extreme phenotypes for fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat by RNA-seq technique. RESULTS: Differential expression analyses between animals with extreme phenotype for fatty acid composition showed a total of 13 differentially expressed genes for myristic (C14:0), 35 for palmitic (C16:0), 187 for stearic (C18:0), 371 for oleic (C18:1, cis-9), 24 for conjugated linoleic (C18:2 cis-9, trans11, CLA), 89 for linoleic (C18:2 cis-9,12 n6), and 110 genes for α-linolenic (C18:3 n3) fatty acids...
November 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884080/decomposition-products-of-glycidyl-esters-of-fatty-acids-by-heating
#17
Wataru Kimura, Yasushi Endo
In this study, decomposition products of glycidyl palmitate (GP) of fatty acids heated at high temperature such as deep frying were investigated. When GP and tripalmitin (TP) were heated at 180 and 200 °C, they were decreased with heating time. The weight of GP was less than that of TP, although both GP and TP were converted to polar compounds after heating. The decomposition rate of GP was higher than TP. Both GP and TP produced considerable amounts of hydrocarbons and aldehydes during heating. Aldehydes produced from GP and TP included saturated aldehydes with carbon chain length of 3-10, while hydrocarbons consisted of carbon chain length of 8-15...
November 25, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882346/epigenetic-regulation-of-macrophage-polarization-and-inflammation-by-dna-methylation-in-obesity
#18
Xianfeng Wang, Qiang Cao, Liqing Yu, Huidong Shi, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi
Obesity is associated with increased classically activated M1 adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and decreased alternatively activated M2 ATMs, both of which contribute to obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We find that inhibiting DNA methylation pharmacologically using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or genetically by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) deletion promotes alternative activation and suppresses inflammation in macrophages. Consistently, mice with myeloid DNMT1 deficiency exhibit enhanced macrophage alternative activation, suppressed macrophage inflammation, and are protected from obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance...
November 17, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881420/elongation-of-long-chain-fatty-acid-family-member-6-elovl6-driven-fatty-acid-metabolism-regulates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotype-through-amp-activated-protein-kinase-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-4-ampk-klf4-signaling
#19
Hiroaki Sunaga, Hiroki Matsui, Saki Anjo, Mas Risky A A Syamsunarno, Norimichi Koitabashi, Tatsuya Iso, Takashi Matsuzaka, Hitoshi Shimano, Tomoyuki Yokoyama, Masahiko Kurabayashi
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids constitute the critical components of cell structure and function, and dysregulation of fatty acid composition may exert diverging vascular effects including proliferation, migration, and differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, direct evidence for this hypothesis has been lacking. We investigated the role of elongation of long-chain fatty acid member 6 (Elovl6), a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid, in the regulation of phenotypic switching of VSMC...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881409/intake-of-individual-saturated-fatty-acids-and-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-in-us-men-and-women-two-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-studies
#20
Geng Zong, Yanping Li, Anne J Wanders, Marjan Alssema, Peter L Zock, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu, Qi Sun
OBJECTIVES:  To investigate the association between long term intake of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and the risk of coronary heart disease, in two large cohort studies. DESIGN:  Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. SETTING:  Health professionals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS:  73 147 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012) and 42 635 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010), who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline...
November 23, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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