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palmitic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166590/interleukin-33-activated-islet-resident-innate-lymphoid-cells-promote-insulin-secretion-through-myeloid-cell-retinoic-acid-production
#1
Elise Dalmas, Frank M Lehmann, Erez Dror, Stephan Wueest, Constanze Thienel, Marcela Borsigova, Marc Stawiski, Emmanuel Traunecker, Fabrizio C Lucchini, Dianne H Dapito, Sandra M Kallert, Bruno Guigas, Francois Pattou, Julie Kerr-Conte, Pierre Maechler, Jean-Philippe Girard, Daniel Konrad, Christian Wolfrum, Marianne Böni-Schnetzler, Daniela Finke, Marc Y Donath
Pancreatic-islet inflammation contributes to the failure of β cell insulin secretion during obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the nature and function of resident immune cells in this context or in homeostasis. Here we show that interleukin (IL)-33 was produced by islet mesenchymal cells and enhanced by a diabetes milieu (glucose, IL-1β, and palmitate). IL-33 promoted β cell function through islet-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that elicited retinoic acid (RA)-producing capacities in macrophages and dendritic cells via the secretion of IL-13 and colony-stimulating factor 2...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165457/the-chemical-composition-nutritional-value-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-abelmoschus-esculentus-seeds
#2
Spyridon Petropoulos, Ângela Fernandes, Lillian Barros, Ana Ciric, Marina Sokovic, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Okra is a vegetable crop usually used for its immature pods. The harvest stage (fruit size) depends on consumers' preferences and the fruit that does not meet market requirements is being disposed of. Considering the short time interval from the setting of the fruit to the harvest stage, the present study evaluates the nutritional value, chemical composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of okra seeds from genotypes cultivated under Mediterranean conditions, as an alternative end-use product...
November 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164820/dual-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-agonist-saroglitazar-improves-liver-histopathology-and-biochemistry-in-experimental-nash-models
#3
Mukul R Jain, Suresh R Giri, Bibhuti Bhoi, Chitrang Trivedi, Akshyaya Rath, Rohan Rathod, Ramchandra Ranvir, Shekhar Kadam, Hiren Patel, Prabodha Swain, Sib Sankar Roy, Nabanita Das, Eshani Karmakar, Walter Wahli, Pankaj R Patel
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are common clinico-pathological conditions that affect millions of patients worldwide. In this study, the efficacy of saroglitazar, a novel PPARα/γ agonist, was assessed in models of NAFLD/NASH. METHODS & RESULTS: HepG2 cells treated with palmitic acid (PA;0.75 mM) showed decreased expression of various antioxidant biomarkers (SOD1, SOD2, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) and increased expression of inflammatory markers (TNFα,IL1β and IL6)...
November 21, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164790/comparative-study-of-fatty-acids-profile-in-eleven-wild-mushrooms-of-boletacea-and-russulaceae-families
#4
Marija V Dimitrijevic, Violeta D Mitic, Olga P Jovanovic, Vesna P Stankov Jovanovic, Jelena S Nikolic, Goran M Petrovic, Gordana S Stojanovic
Eleven species of wild mushrooms which belong to Boletaceae and Russulaceae families were examined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for the presence of fatty acids. As far as we know, the fatty acid profiles of B. purpureus and B. rhodoxanthus were described for the first time. Twenty-six fatty acids were determined. Linoleic (19.5 - 72%), oleic (0.11 - 64%), palmitic (5.9 - 22%) and stearic acids (0.81 - 57%) were present in the highest contents. In all samples, unsaturated fatty acids dominate...
November 21, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163413/lipoprotein-glycosylation-by-protein-o-mannosyltransferase-mab_1122c-contributes-to-low-cell-envelope-permeability-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-mycobacterium-abscessus
#5
Katja Becker, Klara Haldimann, Petra Selchow, Lukas M Reinau, Michael Dal Molin, Peter Sander
Lipoproteins are important components of the mycobacterial cell envelope due to their function in cell wall homeostasis and bacterial virulence. They are post-translationally modified with lipid- and glycosyl-residues in various species and interference with acylation or glycosylation leads to reduced growth and attenuated virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lipoproteins are also expressed in the emerging and highly drug resistant pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus which frequently affects the lungs of patients with chronic pulmonary disease or cystic fibrosis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162450/visualization-of-local-phosphatidylcholine-synthesis-within-hippocampal-neurons-using-a-compartmentalized-culture-system-and-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#6
Eiji Sugiyama, Ikuko Yao, Mitsutoshi Setou
Neurons extend neurites with an increased synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) that is not only a membrane component but also a functional regulator with specific fatty acid composition. To analyze the local synthesis of the PC molecular species within neurons, we combined a compartmentalized culture system with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). We observed that a newly synthesized PC, which contains exogenously administered palmitic acid-d3, is accumulated at the cell bodies and the tips of the distal neurites...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161887/new-chemical-constituents-from-the-fruits-of-zanthoxylum-armatum-and-its-in-vitro-anti-inflammatory-profile
#7
Zulfa Nooreen, Anant Kumar, Dnyaneshwar Umrao Bawankule, Sudeep Tandon, Mohd Ali, Tran Dang Xuan, Ateeque Ahmad
Chemical investigations on the fruits of Zanthoxylum armatum Roxb. (Rutaceae) led to the isolation of two new constituents characterised as 2α-methyl-2β-ethylene-3β-isopropyl-cyclohexan-1β, 3α-diol (1) and phenol-O-β-D-arabinopyranosyl-4'-(3″, 7″, 11″, 15″-tetramethyl)-hexadecan-1″-oate (2) along with known compounds m-methoxy palmityloxy benzene (3), acetyl phenyl acetate (4), linoleiyl-O-α-D-xylopyranoside (5), m-hydroxyphenoxy benzene (6) and palmitic acid (7). The chemical structures were established with the help of physical, chemical and spectroscopic methods...
November 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161719/palmitic-acid-curcumin-ester-facilitates-protection-of-neuroblastoma-against-oligomeric-a%C3%AE-40-insult
#8
Zhangyang Qi, Meihao Wu, Yun Fu, Tengfei Huang, Tingting Wang, Yanjie Sun, Zhibo Feng, Changzheng Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by amyloid-β (Aβ) is considered to be one of mechanisms underlying the development of Alzheimer's disease. Curcumin can attenuate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through ROS scavenging, but the protective effect of intracellular curcumin on neurocyte membranes against extracellular Aβ may be compromised. To address this issue, we synthesized a palmitic acid curcumin ester (P-curcumin) which can be cultivated on the cell membrane and investigated the neuroprotective effect of P-curcumin and its interaction with Aβ...
November 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159216/data-on-the-decreased-expression-of-foxo1-by-mir-1271-in-hepg2-hepatocytes
#9
Won-Mo Yang, Kyung-Ho Min, Se-Whan Park, Wan Lee
Obesity and metabolic diseases are closely associated with insulin resistance. Obesity-induced miRNAs are also considered to be potential contributors to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Previously, the expression of miR-1271 was reported to be upregulated in the liver of diet-induced obese mice (Yang et al., 2016) [1]. In this data article, multiple in silico analysis predicted FOXO1 gene to be a direct target of miR-1271. Dual luciferase reporter gene analysis showed that miR-1271 suppressed FOXO1 expression by direct binding to 3'UTR...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158819/pro-inflammatory-cxcr3-impairs-mitochondrial-function-in-experimental-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
Jinghua Du, Xiang Zhang, Juqiang Han, Kwan Man, Yanquan Zhang, Eagle Sh Chu, Yuemin Nan, Jun Yu
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a crucial role in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the regulator of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NASH is still largely unclear. CXCR3 is an essential pro-inflammatory factor in chronic liver diseases. We explored the significance of CXCR3 in regulating mitochondrial function during NASH development in animal models and cultured hepatocytes. METHODS: The effects of CXCR3 on mitochondrial function were evaluated by genetic knockout or pharmacological inhibition in mouse models and in vitro...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158770/does-the-enterolactone-enl-affect-fatty-acid-transporters-and-lipid-metabolism-in-liver
#11
Krzysztof Drygalski, Klaudia Berk, Tomasz Charytoniuk, Nicoletta Iłowska, Bartłomiej Łukaszuk, Adrian Chabowski, Karolina Konstantynowicz-Nowicka
Background: NAFLD as a result of inappropriate diet and obesity, may progress to sever conditions such as: type 2 diabetes mellitus or steatohepatitis, and has recently become a prevalent topic of numerous investigations. Due to its dangerous aftermaths, finding new substances, such as polyphenols and their derivatives, which might reduce liver steatosis is the main target of research into NAFLD treatment. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect(s) of enterolactone (ENL), a metabolite of secoisolariciresinol (SECO), on lipid metabolism together with changes in the expression of fatty acid transporters in fatty liver...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158183/serine-prevented-high-fat-diet-induced-oxidative-stress-by-activating-ampk-and-epigenetically-modulating-the-expression-of-glutathione-synthesis-related-genes
#12
Xihong Zhou, Liuqin He, Shengnan Zuo, Yumei Zhang, Dan Wan, Ciming Long, Pan Huang, Canrong Wu, Xin Wu, Gang Liu, Yulong Yin
Serine deficiency has been observed in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether serine supplementation has any beneficial effects on the prevention of NAFLD remains unknown. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of serine supplementation on hepatic oxidative stress and steatosis and its related mechanisms. Forty male C57BL/6J mice (9week-old) were randomly assigned into four groups (n=10) and fed: i) a low-fat diet; ii) a low-fat diet supplemented with 1% (wt:vol) serine; iii) a high-fat (HF) diet; and iv) a HF diet supplemented with 1% serine, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156823/differential-activation-of-fyn-kinase-distinguishes-saturated-and-unsaturated-fats-in-mouse-macrophages
#13
Elena Tarabra, Ting-Wen An Lee, Victor A Zammit, Manu Vatish, Eijiro Yamada, Jeffrey E Pessin, Claire C Bastie
Diet-induced obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue activated macrophages. Yet, how macrophages integrate fatty acid (FA) signals remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that Fyn deficiency (fynKO) protects against high fat diet-induced adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. Herein, we show that inflammatory markers and reactive oxygen species are not induced in fynKO bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to the saturated FA palmitate, suggesting that Fyn regulates macrophage function in response to FA signals...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156720/novel-strategies-of-raman-imaging-for-brain-tumor-research
#14
Imiela Anna, Polis Bartosz, Polis Lech, Abramczyk Halina
Raman diagnostics and imaging have been shown to be an effective tool for the analysis and discrimination of human brain tumors from normal structures. Raman spectroscopic methods have potential to be applied in clinical practice as they allow for identification of tumor margins during surgery. In this study, we investigate medulloblastoma (grade IV WHO) (n= 5), low-grade astrocytoma (grades I-II WHO) (n =4), ependymoma (n=3) and metastatic brain tumors (n= 1) and the tissue from the negative margins used as normal controls...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156316/neutral-dipole-dipole-dimers-a-new-field-in-science
#15
Edward M Kosower, Galina Borz
Dimer formation with dipole neutralization produces species such as low polarity water (LPW) compatible with hydrophobic surfaces (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015, 17, 24895-24900) Dimerization and dipole neutralization occurs for N-methylacetamide on polyethylene, a behavior drastically different from its contortions in acetonitrile on AgBr:AgCl planar crystals (AgX) (ChemPhysChem 2014, 15, 3598-3607). The weak infrared absorption of the amide dimer on polyethylene is shown experimentally. Dimerization of palmitic acid is shown along with some of the many ramifications for intracellular systems...
November 11, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154964/lipotoxicity-and-the-gut-liver-axis-in-nash-pathogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Fabio Marra, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni
The pathogenesis of nanoalcoholic fatty liver disease is still incompletely understood, in particolar the mechanisms whereby a minority of patients develop a more severe phenotype characterized by hepatocellular damage, inflammation, and fibrosis. In this review we discuss two pivotal aspects of the pathogenesis of NASH. We first analyze the initial mechanisms responsible of hepatocellular damage and inflammation, which derive from the toxic effects of excess lipids. Accumulating data indicate that the total amount of triglycerides stored in hepatocytes is not the major determinant of lipotoxicity, and that specific lipid classes act as damaging agents on liver cells...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154942/levels-of-palmitic-acid-ester-of-hydroxystearic-acid-pahsa-are-reduced-in-the-breast-milk-of-obese-mothers
#17
Marie Brezinova, Ondrej Kuda, Jana Hansikova, Martina Rombaldova, Laurence Balas, Kristina Bardova, Thierry Durand, Martin Rossmeisl, Marcela Cerna, Zbynek Stranak, Jan Kopecky
To achieve optimal development of a newborn, breastfeeding is extensively recommended, but little is known about the role of non-nutritive bioactive milk components. We aimed to characterize the fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), namely palmitic acid hydroxystearic acids (PAHSAs)-endogenous lipids with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties, in human breast milk. Breast milk samples from 30 lean (BMI=19-23) and 23 obese (BMI>30) women were collected 72h postpartum. Adipose tissue and milk samples were harvested from C57BL/6J mice...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154287/did-you-know-that-your-animals-have-consciousness
#18
P A Accorsi, E Mondo, M Cocchi
Consciousness is the greatest enigma in human history. For centuries scientists and researchers have tried to describe it without coming to conclusions. In the last years with the neurosciences development, consciousness has become the common goal of numerous studies. But consciousness has always been studied only in humans, but after "Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness" in 2012, even non-human animalsthey feel possessed of the consciousness. According to "theory Orch-OR" of Hameroff and Penrose we have conducted a study on Alaskan malamute and German shepherd to analysed a triplet of platelet fatty acids (linoleic acid; palmitic acid; arachidonic acid)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153512/dose-and-type-dependent-effects-of-long-chain-fatty-acids-on-adipogenesis-and-lipogenesis-of-bovine-adipocytes
#19
Chen Yanting, Q Y Yang, G L Ma, M Du, J H Harrison, E Block
Differentiation and lipid metabolism of adipocytes have a great influence on milk performance, health, and feed efficiency of dairy cows. The effects of dietary long-chain fatty acids (FA) on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of dairy cows are often confounded by other nutritional and physiological factors in vivo. Therefore, this study used an in vitro approach to study the effect of dose and type of long-chain FA on adipogenesis and lipogenesis of bovine adipocytes. Stromal vascular cells were isolated from adipose tissue of dairy cows and induced into mature adipocytes in the presence of various long-chain FA including myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149803/chemical-composition-antioxidant-antibacterial-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-essential-oil-of-leontopodium-leontopodioides-willd-beauverd
#20
Yang Gao, Huijuanzi Rao, Ling-Jing Mao, Qing-Lin Ma
The essential oil (EO) from the aerial parts of Leontopodium leontopodioides (Willd.) Beauverd was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Sixty-five compounds were identified which represent 96.2% of the total composition of the EO. The major components of the EO were palmitic acid (11.6%), n-pentadecanal (5.7%), linalool (3.8%), β-ionone (3.3%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (3.2%), bisabolone (3.2%) and β-caryophyllene (3.2%). The EO exhibited an excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis according to the MIC values tested by micro-dilution method...
November 17, 2017: Natural Product Research
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