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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982422/update-review-of-the-acute-porphyrias
#1
REVIEW
Penelope E Stein, Michael N Badminton, David C Rees
Acute porphyrias are rare inherited disorders due to deficiencies of haem synthesis enzymes. To date, all UK cases have been one of the three autosomal dominant forms, although penetrance is low and most gene carriers remain asymptomatic. Clinical presentation is typically with acute neurovisceral attacks characterised by severe abdominal pain, vomiting, tachycardia and hypertension. Severe attacks may be complicated by hyponatraemia, peripheral neuropathy sometimes causing paralysis, seizures and psychiatric features...
December 16, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969545/ps01-78-evaluation-of-hyponatraemia-in-lung-cancer-patients-a-uk-teaching-hospital%C3%A2-experience-topic-medical-oncology
#2
Joyce Thompson, Ankit Jain, Mariam Jafri, Sophie Mascall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965312/hyponatraemia-induced-rhabdomyolysis-complicated-by-anuric-acute-kidney-injury-a-renal-replacement-conundrum
#3
Paul Secombe, Chris Milne
Hyponatraemia-induced rhabdomyolysis is a rare, but reported phenomenon, particularly in patients with chronic schizophrenia on depot antipsychotics prone to psychogenic polydipsia. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of hyponatraemia-induced rhabdomyolysis complicated by oligo-anuric acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The initiation of CRRT is complicated in severe hyponatraemia, predominantly due to the need to avoid rapid changes in tonicity associated with rapid changes in sodium...
December 13, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959472/polymer-based-oral-rehydration-solution-for-treating-acute-watery-diarrhoea
#4
REVIEW
Germana V Gregorio, Maria Liza M Gonzales, Leonila F Dans, Elizabeth G Martinez
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhoea is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among children in low-income countries. Glucose-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) helps replace fluid and prevent further dehydration from acute diarrhoea. Since 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the osmolarity of less than 270 mOsm/L (ORS ≤ 270) versus greater than 310 mOsm/L formulation (ORS ≥ 310). Polymer-based ORS (for example, prepared using rice or wheat) slowly releases glucose and may be superior to glucose-based ORS...
December 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935814/society-for-endocrinology-endocrine-emergency-guidance-emergency-management-of-severe-symptomatic-hyponatraemia-in-adult-patients
#5
Stephen Ball, Julian Barth, Miles Levy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935121/urea-is-successful-in-treating-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-in-an-infant
#6
Stephanie Dufek, Christine Booth, Adrian Carroll, William Van't Hoff, Robert Kleta, Detlef Bockenhauer
The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) consists of a number of key features, namely hyponatraemia, inappropriate urinary concentration and clinical euvolaemia or hypervolaemia. It is caused by inappropriate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which activates the vasopressin type 2 receptor (AVPR2) in the principal cells of the collecting duct of the kidney and leads to increased reabsorption of water through aquaporin 2 channels. Common causes of SIADH in children include trauma, asphyxia, pain, stress, certain drugs and recent neurosurgery (1)...
December 9, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935017/early-esli-study-long-term-experience-with-eslicarbazepine-acetate-after-first-monotherapy-failure
#7
V Villanueva, P Bermejo, J Montoya, M Toledo, A Gómez-Ibáñez, M Garcés, L Vilella, F J López-González, X Rodriguez-Osorio, D Campos, P Martínez, P Giner, J Zurita, J Rodríguez-Uranga, J Ojeda, J A Mauri, J L Camacho, J Ruiz-Giménez, J J Poza, A Massot-Tarrús, M L Galiano, M Bonet
PURPOSE: Evaluate real-life experience with eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) after first monotherapy failure in a large series of patients with focal epilepsy. METHOD: Multicentre, retrospective, 1-year, observational study in patients older than 18 years, with focal epilepsy, who had failed first antiepileptic drug monotherapy and who received ESL. Data from clinical records were analysed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to assess effectiveness and tolerability. RESULTS: Eslicarbazepine acetate was initiated in 253 patients...
December 9, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922286/central-pontine-myelinolysis-during-pregnancy-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management
#8
María Luisa Sánchez-Ferrer, María Teresa Prieto-Sánchez, Rodrigo Orozco-Fernández, Francisco Machado-Linde, Anibal Nieto-Diaz
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a rare condition usually caused by rapid sodium correction in hyponatraemia after a severe neurological syndrome. Only few cases have been reported during pregnancy, most of which were reported in patients with hyperemesis. We describe the successful management of the first case of twin pregnancy in a patient who presented with CPM after treatment for premature labour and then review the literature on CPM in pregnancy (aetiology, diagnosis and management). Our patient required emergency delivery to achieve electrolyte and fluid balance...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862898/low-dose-desmopressin-combined-with-serum-sodium-monitoring-can-prevent-clinically-significant-hyponatraemia-in-patients-treated-for-nocturia
#9
Kristian Vinter Juul, Anders Malmberg, Egbert van der Meulen, Johan Vande Walle, Jens Peter Nørgaard
OBJECTIVE: To explore risk factors for desmopressin-induced hyponatraemia and evaluate the impact of a serum sodium monitoring plan. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of data from three clinical trials of desmopressin in nocturia. Patients received placebo or desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet (ODT; 10-100 μg). The incidence of serum sodium <130 mmol/L was recorded by age, sex and dose. Potential predictors of clinically significant hyponatraemia were identified using multivariate analysis in a Cox proportional hazards model...
November 15, 2016: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862139/differential-diagnosis-of-hyponatraemia-moving-forward
#10
Ewout J Hoorn
Hyponatraemia is a resident's nightmare. A water balance disorder disguised as decreased serum sodium concentration. A plethora of diagnostic algorithms that seem to have been developed with the sole purpose of getting you lost as quickly as possible. Nothing but untrustworthy parameters to guide you through this dark wood. And when you finally see light at the end of the tunnel, there is always some staff member, alias electrolyte aficionado, who enjoys public interrogation and makes you feel you're back to square one...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857840/tolvaptan-use-during-hyperhydration-in-paediatric-intracranial-lymphoma-with-siadh
#11
Ruben H Willemsen, Violeta Delgado-Carballar, Daniela Elleri, Ajay Thankamony, G A Amos Burke, James C Nicholson, David B Dunger
: An 11-year-old boy developed severe syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) after diagnosis of an intracranial B-cell lymphoma. His sodium levels dropped to 118-120 mmol/L despite 70% fluid restriction. For chemotherapy, he required hyperhydration, which posed a challenge because of severe hyponatraemia. Tolvaptan is an oral, highly selective arginine vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, which has been licensed in adults for the management of SIADH and has been used in treating paediatric heart failure...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857838/hyponatraemia-secondary-to-nivolumab-induced-primary-adrenal-failure
#12
Harris Trainer, Paul Hulse, Claire E Higham, Peter Trainer, Paul Lorigan
: Checkpoint inhibitors, such as ipilimumab and pembrolizumab, have transformed the prognosis for patients with advanced malignant melanoma and squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, and their use will only expand as experience is gained in a variety of other malignancies, for instance, renal and lymphoma. As the use of checkpoint inhibitors increases, so too will the incidence of their unique side effects, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which can affect dermatological, gastrointestinal, hepatic, endocrine and other systems...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837439/improving-care-and-outcomes-of-inpatients-with-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuresis-siad-a-prospective-intervention-study-of-intensive-endocrine-input-vs-routine-care
#13
Ploutarchos Tzoulis, Helen Carr, Emmanouil Bagkeris, Pierre Marc Bouloux
PURPOSE: The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis is often undertreated with most patients discharged with persistent hyponatraemia. This study tested the hypothesis that an endocrine input is superior to routine care in correcting hyponatraemia and can improve patient outcomes. METHODS: This single-centre prospective-controlled intervention study included inpatients admitted at a UK teaching hospital, with serum sodium ≤ 127 mmol/l, due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis over a 6-month period...
November 12, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834126/in-hospital-falls-in-older-patients-the-risk-factors-and-the-role-of-hyponatraemia
#14
Harry Harianto, Mahesan Anpalahan
BACKGROUND: Hyponatraemia has been associated with increased falls risk. However, this has not been adequately investigated in the context of in-hospital falls (IHFs). OBJECTIVES: To determine the potential risk factors for IHFs, particularly the role of hyponatraemia. METHODS: Patients aged >65 years with an incident IHF during admissions under a General Internal Medicine (GIM) Unit over six months were studied. For each case, two age and sex matched controls were randomly selected from patients who were admitted under the GIM unit during the same time as the cases...
November 8, 2016: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819111/cardiac-dysfunction-congestion-and-loop-diuretics-their-relationship-to-prognosis-in-heart-failure
#15
Pierpaolo Pellicori, John G F Cleland, Jufen Zhang, Anna Kallvikbacka-Bennett, Alessia Urbinati, Parin Shah, Syed Kazmi, Andrew L Clark
BACKGROUND: Diuretics are the mainstay of treatment for congestion but concerns exist that they adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether the relationship between loop diuretic use and outcome is explained by the underlying severity of congestion amongst patients referred with suspected heart failure. METHOD AND RESULTS: Of 1190 patients, 712 had a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤50 %, 267 had LVEF >50 % with raised plasma NTproBNP (>400 ng/L) and 211 had LVEF >50 % with NTproBNP ≤400 ng/L; respectively, 72 %, 68 % and 37 % of these groups were treated with loop diuretics including 28 %, 29 % and 10 % in doses ≥80 mg furosemide equivalent/day...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812063/hyponatraemia-epidemiology-and-aetiology-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-pakistan
#16
Nauman Tarif, Omer Sabir, Azra Niaz, Rizwan Akhtar, Kashif Rafique, Nabiha Rizvi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, aetiology and epidemiology of hospitalized patients with hyponatraemia. METHODS: Subjects were identified through hospital information system for two consecutive low sodium values (< 130 mEq/L) and charts were reviewed retrospectively. Possible etiologic factors were identified and co-morbidities documented. Management plans were also noted. RESULTS: Among the hospitalized patients the incidence of hyponatraemia was 6...
November 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811940/the-endocrine-manifestations-of-anorexia-nervosa-mechanisms-and-management
#17
REVIEW
Melanie Schorr, Karen K Miller
Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterized by altered body image, persistent food restriction and low body weight, and is associated with global endocrine dysregulation in both adolescent girls and women. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis includes hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with relative oestrogen and androgen deficiency, growth hormone resistance, hypercortisolaemia, non-thyroidal illness syndrome, hyponatraemia and hypooxytocinaemia. Serum levels of leptin, an anorexigenic adipokine, are suppressed and levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic gut peptide, are elevated in women with anorexia nervosa; however, levels of peptide YY, an anorexigenic gut peptide, are paradoxically elevated...
November 4, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803013/when-plenty-is-too-much-water-intoxication-in-a-patient-with-a-simple-urinary-tract-infection
#18
Laura Christine Lee, Maryann Noronha
Healthcare professionals frequently advise patients with simple infective illness to drink more fluids. Here, a 59-year-old woman with a urinary tract infection followed such advice resulting in hospital admission with symptomatic acute hyponatraemia. Water intoxication is well recognised as a cause of symptomatic hyponatraemia in endurance sports, MDMA use and psychogenic polydipsia. It has rarely been described outside of these circumstances. With normal renal function, it is difficult to overwhelm the excretory capacity for water...
November 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798497/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#19
Nguyen T H Mai, Guy E Thwaites
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculous meningitis is a devastating infection that is hard to diagnose and treat. We have reviewed tuberculous meningitis original research published within the past 18 months, selecting studies which we consider have most advanced knowledge. RECENT FINDINGS: We review advances in diagnostic methods, anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, and the common complications of tuberculous meningitis. New commercial molecular diagnostic tests, such as GeneXpert MTB/RIF, have an important role in tuberculous meningitis diagnosis, but as with all other available tests, they lack sensitivity and cannot rule out the disease...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772862/a-case-of-extreme-hyponatraemia-secondary-to-a-low-solute-diet-and-primary-polydipsia
#20
J D Smith, L Roberts, H G Schneider
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
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