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Hyponatraemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214374/a-systematic-review-of-known-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-non-hypovolaemic-hypotonic-hyponatraemia-and-a-meta-analysis-of-the-vaptans
#1
REVIEW
Sunil Bhandari, Alessandro Peri, Iain Cranston, Rachael McCool, Alison Shaw, Julie Glanville, Larisa Petrakova, Karl O'Reilly
International and national guidelines on the treatment of chronic non-hypovolaemic hypotonic hyponatraemia differ; therefore we have undertaken this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of interventions for the treatment of chronic non-hypovolaemic hypotonic hyponatraemia. Following registration of the review protocol with PROSPERO, systematic literature searches were conducted to identify randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials assessing any degree of fluid restriction or any drug treatment with the aim of increasing serum sodium concentration in patients with chronic non-hypovolaemic hypotonic hyponatraemia...
February 18, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194574/tolvaptan-treatment-for-severe-neonatal-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#2
Rodney D Gilbert, Hazel Evans, Kazeem Olalekan, Arvind Nagra, Mushfequr R Haq, Mark Griffiths
BACKGROUND: Severe neonatal autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is rare and easily confused with recessive PKD. Managing such infants is difficult and often unsuccessful. CASE DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: A female infant with massive renal enlargement, respiratory compromise and hyponatraemia was treated with the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 antagonist tolvaptan. This resolved hyponatraemia, and there was no further increase in renal size. CONCLUSION: Tolvaptan may be a useful treatment for severe neonatal PKD...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190877/hyponatraemia-unfolding-osmotic-demyelination
#3
Andrea Aguilar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153848/cjd-mimics-and-chameleons
#4
REVIEW
Simon Mead, Peter Rudge
Rapidly progressive dementia mimicking Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a relatively rare presentation but a rewarding one to become familiar with, as the potential diagnoses range from the universally fatal to the completely reversible. Patients require urgent decisions about assessment and investigation and have quickly evolving needs for treatments and support, through symptom management and end-of-life care in most cases. We have based this pragmatic review on the experiences of a specialist prion referral centre in the UK, which, unsurprisingly, is strongly biased towards seeing patients with CJD...
February 2, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102885/profound-hyponatraemia-in-the-emergency-department-seasonality-and-risk-factors
#5
Tibor Huwyler, Jerome Stirnemann, Nicolas Vuilleumier, Christophe Marti, Sarah Dugas, Pierre-Alexandre Poletti, Francois P Sarasin, Olivier T Rutschmann
AIMS OF THE STUDY: Profound hyponatremia (<125 mmol/l) is frequent in the emergency department. Its incidence appears to increase during hot weather. Our objectives were to investigate seasonal variations in the incidence of profound hyponatraemia and identify its risk factors. METHODS: The incidence of profound hyponatremia among patients admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital was compared between summer and winter periods over two successive years...
January 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102880/profound-hyponatraemia-in-the-emergency-department-a-hot-topic
#6
Mirjam Christ-Crain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982422/update-review-of-the-acute-porphyrias
#7
REVIEW
Penelope E Stein, Michael N Badminton, David C Rees
Acute porphyrias are rare inherited disorders due to deficiencies of haem synthesis enzymes. To date, all UK cases have been one of the three autosomal dominant forms, although penetrance is low and most gene carriers remain asymptomatic. Clinical presentation is typically with acute neurovisceral attacks characterised by severe abdominal pain, vomiting, tachycardia and hypertension. Severe attacks may be complicated by hyponatraemia, peripheral neuropathy sometimes causing paralysis, seizures and psychiatric features...
December 16, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969545/ps01-78-evaluation-of-hyponatraemia-in-lung-cancer-patients-a-uk-teaching-hospital%C3%A2-experience-topic-medical-oncology
#8
Joyce Thompson, Ankit Jain, Mariam Jafri, Sophie Mascall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965312/hyponatraemia-induced-rhabdomyolysis-complicated-by-anuric-acute-kidney-injury-a-renal-replacement-conundrum
#9
Paul Secombe, Chris Milne
Hyponatraemia-induced rhabdomyolysis is a rare, but reported phenomenon, particularly in patients with chronic schizophrenia on depot antipsychotics prone to psychogenic polydipsia. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of hyponatraemia-induced rhabdomyolysis complicated by oligo-anuric acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The initiation of CRRT is complicated in severe hyponatraemia, predominantly due to the need to avoid rapid changes in tonicity associated with rapid changes in sodium...
December 13, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959472/polymer-based-oral-rehydration-solution-for-treating-acute-watery-diarrhoea
#10
REVIEW
Germana V Gregorio, Maria Liza M Gonzales, Leonila F Dans, Elizabeth G Martinez
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhoea is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among children in low-income countries. Glucose-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) helps replace fluid and prevent further dehydration from acute diarrhoea. Since 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the osmolarity of less than 270 mOsm/L (ORS ≤ 270) versus greater than 310 mOsm/L formulation (ORS ≥ 310). Polymer-based ORS (for example, prepared using rice or wheat) slowly releases glucose and may be superior to glucose-based ORS...
13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935814/society-for-endocrinology-endocrine-emergency-guidance-emergency-management-of-severe-symptomatic-hyponatraemia-in-adult-patients
#11
Stephen Ball, Julian Barth, Miles Levy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935121/urea-is-successful-in-treating-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-in-an-infant
#12
Stephanie Dufek, Christine Booth, Adrian Carroll, William Van't Hoff, Robert Kleta, Detlef Bockenhauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935017/early-esli-study-long-term-experience-with-eslicarbazepine-acetate-after-first-monotherapy-failure
#13
V Villanueva, P Bermejo, J Montoya, M Toledo, A Gómez-Ibáñez, M Garcés, L Vilella, F J López-González, X Rodriguez-Osorio, D Campos, P Martínez, P Giner, J Zurita, J Rodríguez-Uranga, J Ojeda, J A Mauri, J L Camacho, J Ruiz-Giménez, J J Poza, A Massot-Tarrús, M L Galiano, M Bonet
PURPOSE: Evaluate real-life experience with eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) after first monotherapy failure in a large series of patients with focal epilepsy. METHOD: Multicentre, retrospective, 1-year, observational study in patients older than 18 years, with focal epilepsy, who had failed first antiepileptic drug monotherapy and who received ESL. Data from clinical records were analysed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months to assess effectiveness and tolerability. RESULTS: Eslicarbazepine acetate was initiated in 253 patients...
December 9, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922286/central-pontine-myelinolysis-during-pregnancy-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management
#14
María Luisa Sánchez-Ferrer, María Teresa Prieto-Sánchez, Rodrigo Orozco-Fernández, Francisco Machado-Linde, Anibal Nieto-Diaz
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a rare condition usually caused by rapid sodium correction in hyponatraemia after a severe neurological syndrome. Only few cases have been reported during pregnancy, most of which were reported in patients with hyperemesis. We describe the successful management of the first case of twin pregnancy in a patient who presented with CPM after treatment for premature labour and then review the literature on CPM in pregnancy (aetiology, diagnosis and management). Our patient required emergency delivery to achieve electrolyte and fluid balance...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862898/low-dose-desmopressin-combined-with-serum-sodium-monitoring-can-prevent-clinically-significant-hyponatraemia-in-patients-treated-for-nocturia
#15
Kristian Vinter Juul, Anders Malmberg, Egbert van der Meulen, Johan Vande Walle, Jens Peter Nørgaard
OBJECTIVE: To explore risk factors for desmopressin-induced hyponatraemia and evaluate the impact of a serum sodium monitoring plan. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of data from three clinical trials of desmopressin in nocturia. Patients received placebo or desmopressin orally disintegrating tablet (ODT; 10-100 μg). The incidence of serum sodium <130 mmol/L was recorded by age, sex and dose. Potential predictors of clinically significant hyponatraemia were identified using multivariate analysis in a Cox proportional hazards model...
November 15, 2016: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862139/differential-diagnosis-of-hyponatraemia-moving-forward
#16
Ewout J Hoorn
Hyponatraemia is a resident's nightmare. A water balance disorder disguised as decreased serum sodium concentration. A plethora of diagnostic algorithms that seem to have been developed with the sole purpose of getting you lost as quickly as possible. Nothing but untrustworthy parameters to guide you through this dark wood. And when you finally see light at the end of the tunnel, there is always some staff member, alias electrolyte aficionado, who enjoys public interrogation and makes you feel you're back to square one...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857840/tolvaptan-use-during-hyperhydration-in-paediatric-intracranial-lymphoma-with-siadh
#17
Ruben H Willemsen, Violeta Delgado-Carballar, Daniela Elleri, Ajay Thankamony, G A Amos Burke, James C Nicholson, David B Dunger
: An 11-year-old boy developed severe syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) after diagnosis of an intracranial B-cell lymphoma. His sodium levels dropped to 118-120 mmol/L despite 70% fluid restriction. For chemotherapy, he required hyperhydration, which posed a challenge because of severe hyponatraemia. Tolvaptan is an oral, highly selective arginine vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, which has been licensed in adults for the management of SIADH and has been used in treating paediatric heart failure...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857838/hyponatraemia-secondary-to-nivolumab-induced-primary-adrenal-failure
#18
Harris Trainer, Paul Hulse, Claire E Higham, Peter Trainer, Paul Lorigan
: Checkpoint inhibitors, such as ipilimumab and pembrolizumab, have transformed the prognosis for patients with advanced malignant melanoma and squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, and their use will only expand as experience is gained in a variety of other malignancies, for instance, renal and lymphoma. As the use of checkpoint inhibitors increases, so too will the incidence of their unique side effects, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which can affect dermatological, gastrointestinal, hepatic, endocrine and other systems...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837439/improving-care-and-outcomes-of-inpatients-with-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuresis-siad-a-prospective-intervention-study-of-intensive-endocrine-input-vs-routine-care
#19
Ploutarchos Tzoulis, Helen Carr, Emmanouil Bagkeris, Pierre Marc Bouloux
PURPOSE: The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis is often undertreated with most patients discharged with persistent hyponatraemia. This study tested the hypothesis that an endocrine input is superior to routine care in correcting hyponatraemia and can improve patient outcomes. METHODS: This single-centre prospective-controlled intervention study included inpatients admitted at a UK teaching hospital, with serum sodium ≤ 127 mmol/l, due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis over a 6-month period...
February 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834126/in-hospital-falls-in-older-patients-the-risk-factors-and-the-role-of-hyponatraemia
#20
Harry Harianto, Mahesan Anpalahan
BACKGROUND: Hyponatraemia has been associated with increased falls risk. However, this has not been adequately investigated in the context of in-hospital falls (IHFs). OBJECTIVES: To determine the potential risk factors for IHFs, particularly the role of hyponatraemia. METHODS: Patients aged >65 years with an incident IHF during admissions under a General Internal Medicine (GIM) Unit over six months were studied. For each case, two age and sex matched controls were randomly selected from patients who were admitted under the GIM unit during the same time as the cases...
November 8, 2016: Current Aging Science
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