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Leonardo O Medici, Fabíola V Gonçalves, Marcos Paulo S DA Fonseca, Salete A Gaziola, Daiana Schmidt, Ricardo A Azevedo, Carlos Pimentel
In this study, we are presenting recommendations to the best agricultural use as well as for plant breeding of three millet cultivars namely ENA1 and ENA2, which have African origin, and BRS1501 originally from India. These cultivars were evaluated for growth, yield and grain quality traits. The morphological traits evaluated in this study indicated that the African genotypes ENA1 and ENA2 are better than the Indian genotype BRS1501 for no-till farming or to produce forage with 15% of crude protein at flowering and at harvest to produce stover (around 7% of crude protein content) for livestock feeding...
May 14, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Yue She, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
The role of phosphorus (P) in swine nutrition has been taken on new significance in recent years. Methods to determine the available phosphorus (AP) content of swine feeds include relative bioavailability (RBV), apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), standardized total tract digestibility (STTD), and true total tract digestibility (TTTD). The RBV of P is determined by measuring bone ash or bone P, whereas the ATTD of P is determined by calculating the difference between P intake and P excretion in feces...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
Daniel Brugger, Wilhelm M Windisch
Practical diets for monogastric livestock must be supplemented with zinc (Zn) due to their high contents of antagonistic substances like phytates. Current feeding recommendations include quite generous safety margins because of uncertainties regarding the gross Zn requirements under varying rearing conditions. Furthermore, the use of pharmacological Zn doses to stabilise animal performance and wellbeing is widespread. Taken together, modern diets for pigs and poultry contain considerably more Zn than necessary to meet animal requirements, which is associated with concerns related to the environment as well as animal and consumer safety...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
Si Yi Lim, Paik Yean Tham, Hilary Yi Ler Lim, Wooi Shin Heng, Ying Ping Chang
The valorization of guava waste requires compositional and functional studies. We tested three byproducts of guava purée processing, namely refiner, siever, and decanter. We analyzed the chemical composition and quantified the prebiotic activity score and selected carbohydrates; we also determined the water holding (WHC), oil holding (OHC), cation exchange capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose dialysis retardation (GDR) of the solid fraction and the antioxidative and α-amylase inhibitory capacities (AIC) of the ethanolic extract...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Viviane Cristina Toreti Theodoropoulos, Mariana Amarante Turatti, Ralf Greiner, Gabriela Alves Macedo, Juliana Azevedo Lima Pallone
The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in soy drink after phytase treatment and correlate it with the content of myo-inositol phosphates. Samples of commercial soy drink products and one sample produced in the laboratory by maceration were evaluated. Phytase was applied using 300 U per liter in 60 min considering the phosphate release. The content of myo-inositol tris-, tetrakis-, pentakis and hexakisphosphate was not observed after phytase treatment...
June 2018: Food Research International
Aiqing Zhao, Shu Yang, Bini Wang, Xiaohong Tian, Youlin Zhang
Human Zn deficiency is prevalent in developing countries, and staple grains are commonly bio-fortified to increase their Zn contents. We measured Zn content, distribution, and bioavailability in calcareous soil and in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) in Shaanxi Province, China, when either an organic Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Zn-EDTA) or an inorganic zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO4 ·7H2 O) Zn source was banded below the seedbed or broadcasted into soil. Compared with ZnSO4 ·7H2 O, Zn-EDTA fertilization produced higher Zn concentration and uptake in wheat plants...
April 21, 2018: Chemosphere
Bahareh Pakbaten, Reza Majidzadeh Heravi, Hassan Kermanshahi, Mohammad-Hadi Sekhavati, Ali Javadmanesh, Masoud Mohammadi Ziarat
Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms and have long been used in food production as well as health promotion products. Bioengineered probiotics are used to express and transfer native or recombinant molecules to the mucosal surface of the digestive tract to improve feed efficiency and promote health. Lactococcus lactis is a potential probiotic candidate to produce useful biological proteins. The aim of this investigation was to develop a recombinant Lactococcus lactis with the potential of producing phytase...
April 21, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Suisheng Yang, Weiyu Bao, Xiaorong Bai, Chen Gao, Binming Zhang, Zhuanji Jiang
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection rate and accuracy of 99m Tc-labeled sodium phytate and stannous chloride (99m Tc-PHY) injection versus 99m Tc-labeled sulfur colloid (99m Tc-SC) injection in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods: A total of 146 consecutive female patients with early stage breast cancer were recruited in this open-labeled, randomized, controlled study...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Suman Chakrabarti, Nitya George, Moutushi Majumder, Neha Raykar, Samuel Scott
OBJECTIVE: Anaemia is a major contributor to the global disease burden and half of pregnant women in India were anaemic in 2016. The aetiology of anaemia is complex, yet anaemia determinants are frequently examined in isolation. We sought to explore how shifts in sociodemographic (wealth, age at pregnancy, education, open defecation, cooking fuel type, household size), programmatic (iron-folic acid tablet consumption, antenatal care visits) and dietary factors (intake of Fe, folic acid, vitamin B12, phytate) predicted changes in anaemia prevalence...
April 12, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Grzegorz Kłosowski, Dawid Mikulski, Oliwia Jankowiak
One of the key steps in the production of phytases of microbial origin is selection of culture parameters, followed by isolation of the enzyme and evaluation of its catalytic activity. It was found that conditions for S. cerevisiae yeast culture, strain Finarome, giving the reduction in phytic acid concentration of more than 98% within 24 h of incubation were as follows: pH 5.5, 32 °C, continuous stirring at 80 rpm, the use of mannose as a carbon source and aspartic acid as a source of nitrogen. The highest catalytic activity of the isolated phytase was observed at 37 °C, pH 4...
April 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
S J Dai, K Y Zhang, X M Ding, S P Bai, Y H Luo, J P Wang, Q F Zeng
The study was conducted to distinguish the effect of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) levels on the community diversity and structure of the cecal microbiota in meat duck based on 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. In total, 525 1-d-old ducklings were fed diets (105 ducklings, 7 pens of 15 ducklings, on each diet) containing five levels of NPP (0.22, 0.34, 0.40, 0.46, and 0.58%) for 21 days. The results showed that dietary NPP levels linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) 21 d body weight, 1 to 21 d feed intake and NPP intake, and contrarily, linearly decreased (P < 0...
March 28, 2018: Poultry Science
Maciej M Misiura, João A N Filipe, Carrie L Walk, Ilias Kyriazakis
Ca digestibility and utilisation in growing pigs are not well understood, and are usually neglected in diet formulation. This has implications not only for the accurate determination of its requirements but also for its interactions with other nutrients. A systematic review and meta-analysis (meta-regression) of published trials was carried out to quantify factors affecting Ca absorption and utilisation, and to derive an estimate of Ca endogenous excretion. The analysis was carried out on the data from forty studies, corresponding to 201 treatments performed on 1204 pigs...
April 3, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Charles Parkinson, Gary R Burnett, Jon Creeth, Richard Lynch, Chandrashekhar Budhawant, Frank Lippert, Anderson T Hara, Domenick T Zero
OBJECTIVES: To compare and explore the dose-response of phytate-containing 1150 ppm fluoride toothpastes on model caries lesions and to determine the impact of zinc ions. METHODS: This was a single-centre, randomised, blinded (examiner/laboratory analyst), six-treatment, four-period crossover, in situ study in adults with a removable bilateral maxillary partial denture. Study treatments were toothpastes containing: 0.425% phytate/F; 0.85% phytate/F; 0.85% phytate/Zn/F; F-only; Zn/F and a 0% F placebo...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Youbin Kong, Xihuan Li, Bing Wang, Wenlong Li, Hui Du, Caiying Zhang
Induction and secretion of acid phosphatases (APases) is considered to be an important strategy for improving plant growth under conditions of low inorganic phosphate (Pi). Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), are an important class of plant APases that could be secreted into the rhizosphere to utilize organic phosphorus (Po) for plant growth and development. To date, only a few members of the PAP family have been identified in soybean. In this paper, we identified a secreted PAP in soybean, GmPAP14, and investigated its role in utilizing external phytate, the main form of organic phosphorus in the soil...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mattia Quattrini, Cristian Bernardi, Milda Stuknytė, Fabio Masotti, Alessandro Passera, Giovanni Ricci, Lisa Vallone, Ivano De Noni, Milena Brasca, Maria Grazia Fortina
In this work, we explored the potential of 25 Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from cereals and milk-based products, testing characteristics related to antifungal activity and to nutritional quality. The tested strains demonstrated interesting beneficial traits, such as the ability to utilize fructo-oligosaccharides, prebiotic substances that help probiotic microorganisms to grow in the human gut, and to reduce phytate, an antinutrient present in cereal sector. Regarding mould inhibition, we highlighted the ability of the strains to inhibit Penicillium roqueforti, Mucor circinelloides and mycotoxinogenic moulds associated with cereal grains as Aspergillus flavus, A...
April 2018: Food Research International
María Reguera, Carlos Manuel Conesa, Alejandro Gil-Gómez, Claudia Mónika Haros, Miguel Ángel Pérez-Casas, Vilbett Briones-Labarca, Luis Bolaños, Ildefonso Bonilla, Rodrigo Álvarez, Katherine Pinto, Ángel Mujica, Luisa Bascuñán-Godoy
Quinoa cultivation has been expanded around the world in the last decade and is considered an exceptional crop with the potential of contributing to food security worldwide. The exceptional nutritional value of quinoa seeds relies on their high protein content, their amino acid profile that includes a good balance of essential amino acids, the mineral composition and the presence of antioxidants and other important nutrients such as fiber or vitamins. Although several studies have pointed to the influence of different environmental stresses in certain nutritional components little attention has been paid to the effect of the agroecological context on the nutritional properties of the seeds what may strongly impact on the consumer food's quality...
2018: PeerJ
Adijat Funke Ogundola, Callistus Bvenura, Anthony Jide Afolayan
Solanum nigrum cultivated on different soil texture types, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, clay loam, loam, and control soils, were evaluated for proximate compositions, antinutrients, vitamins, and mineral composition with plant age using standard analytical methods. Accumulation of trace elements using translocation factor was studied to determine their toxic levels in plant tissues. Data were analysed by ANOVA and results expressed as means and standard deviation. Ash content, crude fibre, protein, alkaloid, phytate, and saponin ranged between 11...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
Nareeluk Nakaew, Rungroch Sungthong
We examined abundance, bioactivity, and endophytism of cultivable actinobacteria isolated from plant interiors of two Thai pigmented rice cultivars: Hom Nin (HN) rice and Luem Pua (LP) glutinous rice. Both rice cultivars housed the same amount of endophytic actinobacteria (33 isolates each). Microbispora (76%) and Streptomyces (73%) were the predominant endophytic actinobacteria of LP glutinous rice and HN rice, respectively. Sphaerisporangium (9%) was found only in LP glutinous rice. Twelve percent of endophytic actinobacteria was the possibility of discovering novel species from both rice cultivars...
March 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Uchechukwu I Okafor, Adebunkola M Omemu, Adewale O Obadina, Mobolaji O Bankole, Samuel A O Adeyeye
Maize was cofermented with pigeon pea for ogi production and evaluated for nutritional (proximate composition, minerals, vitamins, and amino acid profile analyses) and antinutritional (phytate, tannin, and trypsin inhibitor activity analyses) qualities. White maize and pigeon pea were mixed at ratios of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50, respectively, with 100:0 serving as the control. Mixtures were cofermented for 96 hr at 27°C ± 2°C and nutritional, mineral, and antinutritional qualities were analyzed using analysis of variance...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Omolara R Adegbanke, Toluwase A Dada, Stephen A Akinola, Temitope Akintuyi
Weaning food was produced from the blends of sprouted and unsprouted sorghum-Irish potato, and groundnut flour. In the developed weaning foods, moisture content ranged from 8.44% to 12.70%, crude protein (7.40%-14.53%) crude ash (1.53%-1.77%), crude fiber (6.65%-6.88%), crude fat (3.31%-3.73%) and carbohydrate content (65.10%-69.15%). Sprouting and protein supplementation with groundnut improved the protein content of the formulated meals with values comparable to commercial sample (cereals). Mineral content reduced with sprouting, whereas the addition of Irish potato and groundnut increased the mineral content...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
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