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G A Mejicanos, J W Kim, C M Nyachoti
Tail-end dehulling of canola meal (CM) has been shown to reduce dietary fiber and increase crude protein content in the dehulled meal. The application of this procedure also increased the total and non-phytate P content in the dehulled meal. However, it is unclear if dehulling affects P digestibility in the different fractions (i.e., the dehulled meal and the coarse fraction) and if it differs when fed to growing pigs at 2 different BW. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to determine the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of P in dehulled CM fed to growing pigs...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Lia R Valeeva, Chuluuntsetseg Nyamsuren, Margarita R Sharipova, Eugene V Shakirov
Phytases are specialized phosphatases capable of releasing inorganic phosphate from myo -inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate), which is highly abundant in many soils. As inorganic phosphorus reserves decrease over time in many agricultural soils, genetic manipulation of plants to enable secretion of potent phytases into the rhizosphere has been proposed as a promising approach to improve plant phosphorus nutrition. Several families of biotechnologically important phytases have been discovered and characterized, but little data are available on which phytase families can offer the most benefits toward improving plant phosphorus intake...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qingchun Ge, Cher Hon Lau, Minghua Liu
The potential of forward osmosis for water treatment can only be maximized with suitable draw solutes. Here a three-dimensional, multi-charge draw solute of decasodium phytate (Na10-phytate) is designed and synthesized for removing organic arsenicals from water using a hybrid forward osmosis (FO) - membrane distillation (MD) process. Efficient water recovery is achieved using Na10-phytate as a draw solute with a water flux of 20.0 LMH and negligible reverse solute diffusion when 1000 ppm organic arsenicals as the feed and operated under ambient conditions with FO mode...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Elaine Kaspchak, Luciana Igarashi Mafra, Marcos Rogério Mafra
Bioavailability of food nutrients can be reduced in the presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. This work aimed to study bovine serum albumin binding to phytic acid and tannic acid, and its influence on in vitro protein digestibility. The effect of autoclaving and boiling on protein digestibility and the microstructure of complexes was also evaluated. Results showed that high ionic strength promotes greater affinity between tannic acid and bovine serum albumin, and decreases in vitro protein digestibility...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Barbara J Cade-Menun, Kyle R Elkin, Corey W Liu, Ray B Bryant, Peter J A Kleinman, Philip A Moore
Phosphorus (P) can limit crop production in many soils, and soil testing is used to guide fertilizer recommendations. The Mehlich III (M3) soil test is widely used in North America, followed by colorimetric analysis for P, or by inductively coupled plasma-based spectrometry (ICP) for P and cations. However, differences have been observed in M3 P concentrations measured by these methods. Using31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (P-NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), we characterized P forms in M3 extracts. In addition to the orthophosphate that would be detected during colorimetric analysis, several organic P forms were present in M3 extracts that would be unreactive colorimetrically but measured by ICP (molybdate unreactive P, MUP)...
February 21, 2018: Geochemical Transactions
Nyekachi Adele, Bryne Ngwenya, Kate Victoria Heal, J Frederick Willem Mosselmans
The effects of zinc (Zn) speciation on plant growth in Zn-contaminated soil in the presence of bacteria are unknown but are critical to our understanding of metal biodynamics in the rhizosphere where bacteria are abundant. A 6-week pot experiment investigated the effects of two plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), Rhizobium leguminosarum and Pseudomonas brassicacearum, on Zn accumulation and speciation in Brassica juncea grown in soil amended with 600 mg kg-1 elemental Zn as three Zn species - soluble ZnSO4 and nanoparticles of ZnO and ZnS...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Nathálya Farias, Isabela Almeida, Carlos Meneses
Alkaline phytases from uncultured microorganisms, which hydrolyze phytate to less phosphorylated myo-inositols and inorganic phosphate, have great potential as additives in agricultural industry. The development of metagenomics has stemmed from the ineluctable evidence that as-yet-uncultured microorganisms represent the vast majority of organisms in most environments on earth. In this study, a gene encoding a phytase was cloned from red rice crop residues and castor bean cake using a metagenomics strategy. The amino acid identity between this gene and its closest published counterparts is lower than 60%...
February 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
C-J Ingelmann, M Witzig, J Möhring, M Schollenberger, I Kühn, M Rodehutscord
This study aimed to investigate the effect of phytase and a combination of phytase and xylanase on the prececal phosphorus digestibility (pcdP) of wheat-based diets in turkeys. A low-P basal diet (BD) based on cornstarch and soybean meal, and 2 diets containing 43% of different wheat genotypes (genotype diets GD6 or GD7) were fed to turkeys from 20 to 27 d of age. Diets were fed either without enzyme supplementation or supplemented with phytase (500 FTU/kg) or a combination of phytase and xylanase (16,000 BXU/kg)...
February 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Hiroya Fujimoto, Nozomi Fujita, Ryozo Takada
This experiment was conducted to clarify the nutritional functions of rice and phytase addition for broiler chicks. Thirty-six 7-day-old male chicks (ROSS 308 strain) were assigned to one of the four treatment groups: corn- or rice-based diet groups and each diet with added phytase (2000 phytase units/kg diet) groups (corn + P or rice + P groups). The non-phytate phosphorus (npP) content in the diets with added phytase was approximately half of the requirement. Body weight gain and feed intake in the rice group was significantly higher than those in the corn group...
February 19, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
J C Han, J G Wang, G H Chen, J L Zhang, N Zhang, H X Qu, Y Guo, Y F Yan, X J Yang
1α-Hydroxycholecalciferol (1α-OH-D3) is a vitamin D derivative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 1α-OH-D3 on the growth and the mRNA expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the small intestine and kidney of chickens. A total of 240 males of one-day-old Ross 308 broilers was randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 12 birds per replicate. Three levels of 1α-OH-D3 (1.25, 2.5, and 5 μg/kg) were added to a basal diet containing 0.50% calcium (Ca), 0.25% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP), and without supplemental cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
C L Walk, M R Bedford, O A Olukosi
An experiment was conducted to evaluate phytase supplementation on growth, phytate degradation, and the gene expression of myo-inositol transporters in 21-day old broilers. Ross 308, male broilers (n = 240) were assigned to one of four diets, with 10 pens/diet and six birds/pen from day one to 21. The diets consisted of a negative control (NC) formulated to meet or exceed Ross 308 nutrient requirements, with the exception of calcium (Ca) and available P (avP), which were reduced by 0.16 and 0.15%, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Poultry Science
Tonna A Anyasi, Afam I O Jideani, Godwin R A Mchau
Banana fruit (Musa spp) though rich in essential minerals, has also been implicated for the presence of phytochemicals which nonetheless beneficial, can also act as mineral inhibitors when in forms such as phenolic compounds, phytates and tannins. This study assayed the essential macro and trace minerals as well as phenolic compounds present in unripe banana flour (UBF) obtained from the pulp of four different cultivars. Unripe banana flour was processed by oven drying in a forced air oven dryer at 70°C upon pretreatment with ascorbic, citric and lactic acid...
February 2018: Food Research International
Jonathan E Creeth, Charles R Parkinson, Gary R Burnett, Susmita Sanyal, Frank Lippert, Domenick T Zero, Anderson T Hara
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to evaluate effects of a dentifrice containing sodium fluoride (1150 ppm F) and the organic polyphosphate phytate (0.85% w/w of the hexa-sodium salt) on in situ remineralisation of early enamel erosive lesions and resistance to subsequent demineralisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects (n = 62) wore palatal appliances holding eight bovine enamel specimens with pre-formed erosive lesions. They brushed their natural teeth with the phytate test dentifrice (TD); a positive control dentifrice (PC, 1150 ppm fluoride as NaF); a reference dentifrice (RD, disodium pyrophosphate + 1100 ppm fluoride as NaF) or a negative control dentifrice (NC, fluoride-free) in a randomised, double-blind, crossover design...
February 8, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Thu Anh Ngoc Nguyen, Yasmine Ali Abdelhamid, Luke M Weinel, Seva Hatzinikolas, Palash Kar, Matthew J Summers, Liza K Phillips, Michael Horowitz, Karen L Jones, Adam M Deane
PURPOSE: In older people postprandial hypotension occurs frequently; and is an independent risk factor for falls, cardiovascular events, stroke and death. The primary aim of this pilot study was to estimate the frequency of postprandial hypotension and evaluate the mechanisms underlying this condition in older survivors of an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five older (>65 years) survivors were studied 3 months after discharge. After an overnight fast, participants consumed a 300 mL drink containing 75 g glucose, labelled with 20 MBq99m Tc-calcium phytate...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Kimberly R Milleman, Jonathan E Creeth, Gary R Burnett, Jeffery L Milleman
OBJECTIVES: Phytate is an organic, cyclic polyphosphate analogous to linear condensed polyphosphates used as stain removal agents. This study investigated stain removal efficacy of an experimental sodium phytate-containing dentifrice compared to a reference dentifrice. METHODS: An experimental, moderate abrasivity (relative dentine abrasivity [RDA] ∼130) antisensitivity fluoride dentifrice containing sodium phytate (0.85% w/w as the hexasodium salt) (n = 111) was compared to a reference, marketed, low-abrasivity (RDA ∼ 43), anti-sensitivity fluoride dentifrice (n = 113), both containing 1150 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
Stijn Van Hecke, Tim Van Den Wyngaert, Bart Op De Beeck, Sigrid Stroobants
Somatostatin receptor (SSTR) imaging with gallium 68 (Ga-68) 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-peptide positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has been introduced in clinical routine for the diagnosis and staging of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with high SSTR expression. Although it has high sensitivity for NETs, there are some known diagnostic pitfalls one should be aware of. We present a case of suspected NET where Ga-68 DOTA-NaI3-octreotide (NOC) PET/CT showed several abdominal lesions with high SSTR expression suggesting malignancy...
January 2018: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Gangcheng Wu, John Ashton, Azra Simic, Zhongxiang Fang, Stuart K Johnson
Mineral availability from sorghum grain in some varieties may be low because of the presence of phytates and tannins. However, heat processing of sorghum may lower tannin and phytate levels and thus improve mineral availability. Sorghum has potential in the manufacture of gluten free breakfast cereals, therefore flaked breakfast cereals were manufactured from whole grains of three contrasting sorghum varieties and compared to that manufactured from whole grain wheat. The content of tannin, phytate, minerals (Ca, Fe and Zn), in vitro mineral availability and phytate: mineral molar ratios were determined in the raw whole grain flours and the cooked flaked breakfast cereal...
January 2018: Food Research International
Pravin Ojha, Roshan Adhikari, Roman Karki, Achyut Mishra, Ujjwol Subedi, Tika Bahadur Karki
The research was aimed to observe the effect of malting and fermentation on antinutritional component and functional characteristics of sorghum flour. For whole sorghum flour, cleaned sorghum grain was milled to pass through 40 mesh sieve. For malting, cleaned sorghum grain was steeped in 0.2% calcium hydroxide solution for 24 hr and then germinated for 48 hr at 90% RH and 27 ± 2°C. Sprout was removed, dried in hot air oven at 50 ± 2°C for 24 hr and milled to pass through 40 mesh sieve. For fermented sorghum flour, 13...
January 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
B O Otegbayo, D J Oguniyan, B A Olunlade, O O Oroniran, O E Atobatele
The aim of this study was to characterize 43 genotypes from five yam species [Dioscorea rotundata (Poir), Dioscorea alata (Linn), Dioscorea bulbifera (Linn), Dioscorea cayenensis (Lam) and Dioscorea dumetorum (Kunith) Pax] which are major land races in Nigeria in terms of their chemical composition, nutritional, anti-nutritional and mineral bioavailability. Findings showed that there was genotypic variation in terms of chemical composition, mineral profile and bioavailability of the minerals among the germplasm...
January 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Qiuming Yao, Zhou Li, Yang Song, S Joseph Wright, Xuan Guo, Susannah G Tringe, Malak M Tfaily, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Terry C Hazen, Benjamin L Turner, Melanie A Mayes, Chongle Pan
Phosphorus is a scarce nutrient in many tropical ecosystems, yet how soil microbial communities cope with growth-limiting phosphorus deficiency at the gene and protein levels remains unknown. Here, we report a metagenomic and metaproteomic comparison of microbial communities in phosphorus-deficient and phosphorus-rich soils in a 17-year fertilization experiment in a tropical forest. The large-scale proteogenomics analyses provided extensive coverage of many microbial functions and taxa in the complex soil communities...
January 22, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
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