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Endale Amare, Claire Mouquet-Rivier, Isabelle Rochette, Abdulaziz Adish, Gulelat D Haki
This study evaluated the effect of popping and fermentation on the chemical composition of three types of Amaranthus caudatus grains cultivated in Ethiopia. Proximate composition, minerals and mineral absorption inhibitors were analyzed. Popping caused a decrease in protein content by 4 % and an increase in fat, ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents by 12, 10, 15 and 67 %, respectively. While fermentation increased protein, fat and ash content by 3, 22 and 14 %, respectively but did not significantly change ADF and NDF content...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Mandy Ho, Anne-Louise M Heath, Megan Gow, Louise A Baur, Chris T Cowell, Samir Samman, Sarah P Garnett
BACKGROUND: Zinc has a critical role in metabolism and growth. This study aims to determine the effects of low-energy diets differing in macronutrient composition on zinc intake, estimated zinc bioavailability (phytate:zinc molar ratio) and plasma zinc concentration and associations between zinc status and cardiometabolic markers in obese adolescents with clinical insulin resistance (IR). METHODS: Eighty-seven obese adolescents (10-17 years, body mass index z-score 2...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Xiaolin Jin, Runqiang Yang, Liping Guo, Xinkun Wang, Xiaokun Yan, Zhenxin Gu
The effects of sodium citrate (SC), sodium acetate (SA) and sodium tartrate (ST) spraying on mung bean germination were investigated. Exogenous SC, ST and SA treatments significantly reduced the phytic acid content and increased the antioxidant enzyme activities. In this study, an iTRAQ-based proteomic approach was employed to explore the proteomes of mung bean sprouts, and 81, 101 and 90 differentially expressed proteins were identified in 4-day-old SC-, SA- and ST-treated mung bean sprouts, with 38 proteins present in all samples...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
M Chinonye Udechukwu, Stephanie A Collins, Chibuike C Udenigwe
Zinc is an essential micronutrient that strongly influences human health and nutrition through its involvement in several biological processes. Zinc functions as structural and functional component of many transcription factors and enzymes that regulate cell growth, gene expression, and immune response, and its deficiency can lead to retarded growth and impaired immune functions. The physiological functions of zinc are dependent on its bioavailability in tissues, which in turn depends on intestinal absorption of dietary zinc...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
V G Schramm, J F Durau, L N E Barrilli, J O B Sorbara, A J Cowieson, A P Félix, A Maiorka
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the digestibility and metabolizability of corn and a corn/soy-based diet with the inclusion or not of xylanase and/or phytase in broilers. In the trial, 1,120 broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, consisting of 16 treatments, with 10 replicates of 7 birds each. Treatments were evaluated following a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 × 2), with 4 xylanase levels (zero, 50, 100, or 150 fungal β-xylanase units/kg; FXU), 2 phytase levels (zero or 1,000 phytase units/kg; FTU), and 2 diets (corn/soy or pure corn)...
October 2, 2016: Poultry Science
Juan Manuel Buades Fuster, Pilar Sanchís Cortés, Joan Perelló Bestard, Félix Grases Freixedas
Phytate, or myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate (InsP6), is a naturally occurring phosphorus compound that is present in many foods, mainly legumes, whole grains and nuts. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have cardiovascular disease mortality up to 30times higher than the general population. Vascular calcifications (VCs) directly contribute to overall morbidity and mortality, especially in CKD. In part, this high mortality is due to elevated levels of phosphorus in the blood. Therefore, control of dietary phosphorus is essential...
September 30, 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Nabeela Abid, Asia Khatoon, Asma Maqbool, Muhammad Irfan, Aftab Bashir, Irsa Asif, Muhammad Shahid, Asma Saeed, Henrik Brinch-Pedersen, Kauser A Malik
Phytate is a major constituent of wheat seeds and chelates metal ions, thus reducing their bioavailability and so the nutritional value of grains. Transgenic plants expressing heterologous phytase are expected to enhance degradation of phytic acid stored in seeds and are proposed to increase the in vitro bioavailability of mineral nutrients. Wheat transgenic plants expressing Aspergillus japonicus phytase gene (phyA) in wheat endosperm were developed till T3 generation. The transgenic lines exhibited 18-99 % increase in phytase activity and 12-76 % reduction of phytic acid content in seeds...
September 29, 2016: Transgenic Research
N P Balaban, A D Suleimanova, L R Valeeva, E V Shakirov, M R Sharipova
β-Propeller phytases of Bacillus are unique highly conservative and highly specific enzymes capable of cleaving insoluble phytate compounds. In this review, we analyzed data on the properties of these enzymes, their differences from other phytases, and their unique spatial structures and substrate specificities. We considered influences of different factors on the catalytic activity and thermostability of these enzymes. There are few data on the hydrolysis mechanism of these enzymes, which makes it difficult to analyze their mechanism of action and their final products...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Z Z Ren, D E Bütz, A N Wahhab, A J Piepenburg, M E Cook
Phytase hydrolyzes phytate rendering phosphorus available for intestinal absorption, while systemic neutralization of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), using anti-FGF-23 antibody, has been shown to increase phosphate retention. Hence, neutralization of FGF-23 should be additive with phytase in reducing dietary non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) needs in chickens fed plant-based diets rich in phytic acid. This study was designed to test the additive effects of maternally derived anti-FGF-23 antibody and dietary phytase on the performance of chicks fed a low nPP diet from one to 14 d...
September 24, 2016: Poultry Science
Lan Shen, Xiao-Qin Wu, Qing-Wei Zeng, Hong-Bin Liu
Phytate-mineralizing rhizobacteria (PMR) play an important role in providing phosphorus for the sustainable plant growth. It is important to investigate the ability of PMR to produce phytase under different phosphate levels for its application. The effects of different concentrations of soluble phosphate on the ability of phytate mineralization of Pseudomonas fluorescens JZ-DZ1, a phytate-mineralizing rhizobacterium, were investigated in both solid and liquid media. The results on solid media showed that halo zone width gradually reduced with concentrations of soluble phosphate increasing from 0...
December 2016: Current Microbiology
Zhouzheng Ren, Daniel E Bütz, Jordan M Sand, Mark E Cook
Novel means to reduce phosphate input into poultry feeds and increase its retention would preserve world phosphate reserves and reduce environmental impact of poultry production. Here we show that a maternally derived antibody to a fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) peptide (GMNPPPYS) alleviated phosphorus deficiency in chicks fed low non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) diets. White Leghorn laying hens were vaccinated with either an adjuvant control or the synthetic FGF-23 peptide, and chicks with control or anti-FGF-23 maternal antibodies were fed a diet containing either 0...
September 19, 2016: Poultry Science
Inger Baeksted Holme, Giuseppe Dionisio, Claus Krogh Madsen, Henrik Brinch-Pedersen
The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2-generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19 fold (29000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains...
September 16, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Alexandre Maller, Thays Cristina Oliveira de Quadros, Otto M Junqueira, Alfredo Lora Graña, Ana Paula de Lima Montaldi, Ricardo Fernandes Alarcon, João Atílio Jorge, Maria de Lourdes T M Polizeli
Phytases are enzymes that hydrolyze the ester linkage of phytic acid, releasing inositol and inorganic phosphate. The phytic acid (phytate) is a major form of phosphorus in plant foods. Knowing that diet for animal of production has the cereal base (corn and soybean), primarily, broilers need for an alternative to use of the phosphate present in these ingredients, since it does not naturally produce the enzyme phytase, which makes it available. The aims of this work was studding the safe supplementation of Aspergillus japonicus var...
2016: SpringerPlus
Karishma Moktan, Pravin Ojha
Horse gram was germinated at 90% RH at 25°C for 72 h after 24 h soaking and then grinded to pass through 150 μm mesh size screens. The germination of horse gram result in increased protein, fiber, total polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity of horse gram flour whereas fat, ash, carbohydrate, iron, calcium, tannin, phytate, and oxalate were reduced due to germination. Bread was prepared by the incorporation of (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) germinated horse gram flour (GHF) by a straight dough method. The loaf volume and specific volume decreased with an increased use of percentage of GHF...
September 2016: Food Science & Nutrition
William Hsieh, Masood Ali, Renee Praehofer, Chris Tsopelas
The objective of this study was to investigate the radiosynthesis of (68) Ga-Ca-phytate particles and then characterize the formulation for radiochemical purity, radioactive particle size distribution, and biodistribution in normal rats. This radiotracer was prepared using a commercial phytate cold kit after reconstitution with saline, (68) Ga-chloride generator eluent, calcium chloride, and air, then heating at 100°C for 30 minutes to achieve 99% radiochemical purity of (68) Ga-particles that were 21% 3-5 μm, 8% 5-15 μm, and 71% >15 μm in diameter...
October 2016: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Malihe Hassanzadeh, Elham Hosseini Farahabadi, Zohreh Yousefi, Sima Kadkhodayan, Leili Zarifmahmoudi, Ramin Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Experience on sentinel node mapping in ovarian tumors is very limited. We evaluated the sentinel node concept in ovarian tumors using intra-operativeTc-99m-Phytate injection and lymphoscintigraphy imaging. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with a pelvic mass due to an ovarian pathology were included in the study. The radiotracer was injected just after laparotomy and before removal of the tumor either beneath the normal cortex (10 patients) or in the utero-ovarian and suspensory ligaments of the ovary just beneath the peritoneum two injections of the radiotracer (25 patients)...
2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
K R Perryman, H V Masey O'Neill, M R Bedford, W A Dozier
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary adaptation period length (DAPL; 0, 24, and 48 h) and Ca feeding strategy (0.35% or 1.4:1 Ca:P ratio) on apparent phytate P (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexakis dihydrogen phosphate; IP6) hydrolysis (AIP6H) and apparent digestibility (AΣIPD) of the sum of all inositol phosphate esters (ΣIP) of corn-titration diets at 3 locations (proventriculus/gizzard [Pro/Giz], jejunum, and distal ileum) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Four hundred thirty-two Ross × Ross 708 male broilers were placed into 36 battery cages and fed a common starter diet until 18 d of age...
September 6, 2016: Poultry Science
Vikas Sharma, Ajit Kumar, G Archana, G Naresh Kumar
The Escherichia coli phytase gene appA encoding enzyme AppA was cloned in a broad host range plasmid pBBR1MCS2 (lac promoter), termed pVA1, and transformed into the Ensifer meliloti 1020. Transformation of pVA1 in Ensifer meliloti {E. m (pVA1)} increased its phosphatase and phytase activity by ∼9- and ∼50-fold, respectively, compared to the transformants containing empty plasmid as control {E. m (pBBR1MCS2)}. The western blot experiments using rabbit anti-AppA antibody showed that AppA is translocated into the periplasm of the host after its expression...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Xiaming Feng, Xin Wang, Wei Cai, Shuilai Qiu, Yuan Hu, Kim Meow Liew
Practical application of functionalized graphene in polymeric nanocomposites is hampered by the lack of cost-effective and eco-friendly methods for its production. Here, we reported a facile and green electrochemical approach for preparing ferric phytate functionalized graphene (f-GNS) by simultaneously utilizing biobased phytic acid as electrolyte and modifier for the first time. Due to the presence of phytic acid, electrochemical exfoliation leads to low oxidized graphene sheets (a C/O ratio of 14.8) that are tens of micrometers large...
September 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nanno Schreuder, Ilahä Mamedova, Frank G A Jansman
PURPOSE: The acute porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Carriers of the acute porphyria gene are prone to potentially fatal acute attacks, which can be precipitated by drug exposure. It is therefore important to know whether a drug is safe for carriers of the acute porphyria gene. In this study, radiopharmaceuticals were assessed on their porphyrogenicity (ie, the potential of a drug to induce an attack). METHODS: The assessment was conducted by classifying the drugs according to the Thunell model...
August 24, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
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