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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507005/perspective-what-makes-it-so-difficult-to-mitigate-worldwide-anemia-prevalence
#1
Klaus Schümann, Noel W Solomons
Anemia can be related to decreased production or increased loss of erythrocytes, or both, leading to many underlying and often overlapping causes. A largely cereal-based diet with plenty of phytates, polyphenols, and other ligands that inhibit intestinal iron absorption predominated in preindustrial Europe and predominates in present-day developing countries alike. In both situations, we find poor hygienic conditions, which frequently lead to anemia of inflammation. The large number of possible causes and their interaction shows why it is so difficult to mitigate anemia prevalence...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504139/the-protective-role-of-phytate-in-the-oxidative-degradation-of-cereal-beta-glucans
#2
Yu-Jie Wang, Ruzhen Zhan, Tuula Sontag-Strohm, Ndegwa Henry Maina
This study investigated the role of phytate in the Fenton reaction induced oxidative degradation of cereal β-glucan. Viscosity analysis showed that the degradation rate was high in the beginning of oxidation, which fitted to the second order kinetic model. Oat β-glucan contained significant amount of residual phytate and after the residual phytate was removed, faster degradation was shown compared to the original oat β-glucan. Adding the same amount of phytic acid (PA) to the phytate removed β-glucan sample also retarded the degradation but not as efficiently as the residual phytate...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503185/phosphate-uptake-from-phytate-due-to-hyphae-mediated-phytase-activity-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-maize
#3
Xin-Xin Wang, Ellis Hoffland, Gu Feng, Thomas W Kuyper
Phytate is the most abundant form of soil organic phosphorus (P). Increased P nutrition of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants derived from phytate has been repeatedly reported. Earlier studies assessed acid phosphatase rather than phytase as an indication of mycorrhizal fungi-mediated phytate use. We investigated the effect of mycorrhizal hyphae-mediated phytase activity on P uptake by maize. Two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars, non-inoculated or inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis mosseae or Claroideoglomus etunicatum, were grown for 45 days in two-compartment rhizoboxes, containing a root compartment and a hyphal compartment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482677/subsequent-bone-and-metabolic-responses-of-broilers-to-high-non-phytate-phosphorus-diets-in-the-starter-period
#4
N Baradaran, M H Shahir, Z Asadi Kermani
1. An experiment was performed to elucidate the subsequent effects of high non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets on growth performance, blood metabolites, bone characteristics and P retention of broilers fed on low-NPP grower diets. The 42-d study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 + 1 factorial, which included 2 starter NPP concentrations (4.5 and 5.5 g/kg; d 0 to 21), 2 grower NPP concentrations (1.5 and 2.3 g/kg; d 22 to 42), with or without phytase (1000 FTU/kg), with a reference diet containing an adequate NPP concentration over the course of the trial...
May 9, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482506/determination-of-copper-ions-using-a-phytic-acid-polypyrrole-nanowires-modified-glassy-carbon-electrode
#5
Nan Wang, Hongxiu Dai, Donglei Wang, Houyi Ma, Meng Lin
This study reports a sensitive electro-analytical method for the determination of trace amounts of Cu(2+) using a phytate functionalized polypyrrole nanowires (PPy NWs) modified glass carbon electrode. The phytic acid/polypyrrole (PA/PPy) NWs were prepared by an electrostatic adsorption and ultrasonic mixing. The results showed that both PPy NWs and PA/PPy NWs modified glassy carbon electrodes have electrochemical responses toward Cu(2+). However, owing to the synergistic contribution between the PPy NWs and PA, the PA/PPy NWs modified electrode exhibited higher sensitivity than that of PPy NWs modified electrode...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469549/repeat-24-hour-recalls-and-locally-developed-food-composition-databases-a-feasible-method-to-estimate-dietary-adequacy-in-a-multi-site-preconception-maternal-nutrition-rct
#6
Rebecca L Lander, K Michael Hambidge, Nancy F Krebs, Jamie E Westcott, Ana Garces, Lester Figueroa, Gabriela Tejeda, Adrien Lokangaka, Tshilenge S Diba, Manjunath S Somannavar, Ranjitha Honnayya, Sumera A Ali, Umber S Khan, Elizabeth M McClure, Vanessa R Thorsten, Kristen B Stolka
Background: Our aim was to utilize a feasible quantitative methodology to estimate the dietary adequacy of >900 first-trimester pregnant women in poor rural areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, India and Pakistan. This paper outlines the dietary methods used. Methods: Local nutritionists were trained at the sites by the lead study nutritionist and received ongoing mentoring throughout the study. Training topics focused on the standardized conduct of repeat multiple-pass 24-hr dietary recalls, including interview techniques, estimation of portion sizes, and construction of a unique site-specific food composition database (FCDB)...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460975/zinc-bioavailability-from-whey-enthalpy-entropy-compensation-in-protein-binding
#7
Ning Tang, Leif H Skibsted
Zinc amino acid or peptide complexes improve zinc absorption, however, the thermodynamics behind the interaction between zinc ion and these potential ligands is not well characterized. Therefore, binding of zinc to amino acids, peptides and whey proteins were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry to provide useful information for improving zinc bioavailability which is lowered by many food components like phytate. Zinc binding to lactoferrin and to bovine serum albumin was found exothermic with ∆H=-100kJ/mol and -30kJ/mol, respectively, in aqueous 0...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460943/ancestral-andean-grain-quinoa-as-source-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-capable-to-degrade-phytate-and-produce-b-group-vitamins
#8
Silvana L Carrizo, Cecilia E Montes de Oca, Jonathan E Laiño, Nadia E Suarez, Graciela Vignolo, Jean Guy LeBlanc, Graciela Rollán
The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota of quinoa grains (QG) and spontaneous sourdough (QSS) was evaluated. Different strains of Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum (7), L. rhamnosus (5), L. sakei (1), Pediococcus (Ped.) pentosaceus (9), Leuconostoc (Leuc.) mesenteroides (1), Enterococcus (E.) casseliflavus (2), E. mundtii (3), E. hirae (1), E. gallinarum (12), Enterococcus sp. (1), and E. hermanniensis (2) were isolated, identified and characterized. Only four strains isolated from QSS and eight strains isolated from QG showed amylolytic activity...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447381/land-use-influences-phosphatase-gene-microdiversity-in-soils
#9
Andrew L Neal, Maike Rossmann, Charles Brearley, Elsy Akkari, Cervin Guyomar, Ian M Clark, Elisa Allen, Penny R Hirsch
Phosphorus cycling exerts significant influence upon soil fertility and productivity - processes largely controlled by microbial activity. We adopted phenotypic and metagenomic approaches to investigate phosphatase genes within soils. Microbial communities in bare fallowed soil showed a marked capacity to utilise phytate for growth compared to arable or grassland soil communities. Bare fallowed soil contained lowest concentrations of orthophosphate. Analysis of metagenomes indicated phoA, phoD and phoX, and histidine acid and cysteine phytase genes were most abundant in grassland soil which contained the greatest amount of NaOH-EDTA extractable orthophosphate...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432964/phytate-induced-arsenic-uptake-and-plant-growth-in-arsenic-hyperaccumulator-pteris-vittata
#10
Xue Liu, Jing-Wei Fu, Ni Tang, E B da Silva, Yue Cao, Benjamin L Turner, Yanshan Chen, Lena Q Ma
Phytate is abundant in soils, which is stable and unavailable for plant uptake. However, it occurs in root exudates of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). To elucidate its effect on As uptake and growth, P. vittata were grown on agar media (63 μM P) containing 50 μM As and/or 50 or 500 μM phytate with non As-hyperaccumulator Pteris ensiformis (PE) as a congeneric control for 60 d. Phytate induced efficient As and P uptake, and enhanced growth in PV, but had little effects on PE. The As concentrations in PV fronds and roots were 157 and 31 mg kg(-1) in As50+phytate50, 2...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431178/influence-of-dietary-calcium-concentrations-and-the-calcium-to-non-phytate-phosphorus-ratio-on-growth-performance-bone-characteristics-and-digestibility-in-broilers
#11
A E Gautier, C L Walk, R N Dilger
Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of dietary Ca concentrations (Experiment 1) and a combination of dietary Ca and non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) to create distinct Ca-to-NPP ratios (Experiment 2) in corn-soybean meal diets fed to broiler chickens from 2 to 23 d of age. In Experiment 1, dietary treatments consisted of 7 concentrations of Ca (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, or 1.6% of the diet; 7 treatments total), and NPP concentrations were maintained at 0.3%. Increasing the dietary Ca concentration while maintaining 0...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430285/electrochemical-synthesis-of-phosphorus-doped-graphene-quantum-dots-for-free-radical-scavenging
#12
Yan Li, Sen Li, Yingmin Wang, Jun Wang, Hui Liu, Xinqian Liu, Lifeng Wang, Xiaoguang Liu, Wendong Xue, Ning Ma
In this work, phosphorus-doped graphene quantum dots (P-GQDs) with a high phosphorus doping content (>7 at%) are synthesized via an electrochemical approach. Sodium phytate (C6H6Na12O24P6), a green food antioxidant additive, is used as the electrolyte for providing both a phosphorus source and an electrolysis environment. The obtained P-GQDs exhibit excellent scavenging activity of free radicals, such as hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Combined with Raman, FT-IR, and XPS spectral analyses, the reason for high phosphorus content and the mechanism of free radical scavenging of P-GQDs are investigated in our work...
April 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427257/effect-of-dietary-calcium-concentrations-in-low-non-phytate-phosphorus-diets-containing-phytase-on-growth-performance-bone-mineralization-litter-quality-and-footpad-dermatitis-incidence-in-growing-broiler-chickens
#13
Jong Hyuk Kim, Hyunjung Jung, Franco Martinez Pitargue, Gi Ppeum Han, Hyeon Seok Choi, Dong Yong Kil
Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) incidence in growing broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4...
April 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424261/zinc-absorption-from-milk-is-affected-by-dilution-but-not-by-thermal-processing-and-milk-enhances-absorption-of-zinc-from-high-phytate-rice-in-young-dutch-women
#14
Elise F Talsma, Diego Moretti, Sou Chheng Ly, Renske Dekkers, Ellen Ghm van den Heuvel, Aditia Fitri, Esther Boelsma, Tjeerd Jan Stomph, Christophe Zeder, Alida Melse-Boonstra
Background: Milk has been suggested to increase zinc absorption. The effect of processing and the ability of milk to enhance zinc absorption from other foods has not been measured directly in humans.Objective: We aimed to assess zinc absorption from 1) milk undergoing various processing and preparatory steps and 2) from intrinsically labeled high-phytate rice consumed with milk or water.Methods: Two randomized crossover studies were conducted in healthy young women [age:18-25 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 20-25]: 1) a milk study (n = 19) comparing the consumption of 800 mL full-fat ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk [heat-treated milk (HTM)], full-fat UHT milk diluted 1:1 with water [heat-treated milk and water (MW)], water, or unprocessed (raw) milk (UM), each extrinsically labeled with (67)Zn, and 2) a rice study (n = 18) comparing the consumption of 90 g intrinsically (67)Zn-labeled rice with 600 mL of water [rice and water (RW)] or full-fat UHT milk [rice and milk (RM)]...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424260/upregulation-of-zinc-absorption-matches-increases-in-physiologic-requirements-for-zinc-in-women-consuming-high-or-moderate-phytate-diets-during-late-pregnancy-and-early-lactation
#15
K Michael Hambidge, Leland V Miller, Manolo Mazariegos, Jamie Westcott, Noel W Solomons, Victor Raboy, Jennifer F Kemp, Abhik Das, Norman Goco, Ty Hartwell, Linda Wright, Nancy F Krebs
Background: Estimated physiologic requirements (PRs) for zinc increase in late pregnancy and early lactation, but the effect on dietary zinc requirements is uncertain.Objective: The aim of this study was to determine changes in daily fractional absorbed zinc and total absorbed zinc (TAZ) from ad libitum diets of differing phytate contents in relation to physiologic zinc requirements during pregnancy and lactation.Methods: This was a prospective observational study of zinc absorption at 8 (phase 1) and 34 (phase 2) wk of gestation and 2 (phase 3) and 6 (phase 4) mo of lactation...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416038/the-effects-of-fermentation-and-enzymatic-treatment-of-pea-on-nutrient-digestibility-and-growth-performance-of-broilers
#16
F Goodarzi Boroojeni, M Senz, K Kozłowski, D Boros, M Wisniewska, D Rose, K Männer, J Zentek
The present study examined the impacts of native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas (Pisum sativum L.) inclusion in broiler diets, on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. For the fermentation process, Madonna pea was mixed with water (1/1) containing 2.57×108 Bacillus subtilis (GalliPro®) spores/kg pea and then, incubated for 48 h at 30 °C. For the enzymatic treatment process, the used water for dough production contained three enzymes, AlphaGalTM (α-galactosidase), RONOZYME® ProAct and VP (protease and pectinases respectively - DSM, Switzerland) and the pea dough incubated for 24 h at 30°C...
April 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415513/evaluation-of-radiolabeled-curcumin-loaded-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-usage-as-an-imaging-agent-in-liver-spleen-scintigraphy
#17
Arif Kursad Ayan, Ayse Yenilmez, Hayrettin Eroglu
Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (C-SLNs) were prepared using micro emulsion and ultrasonication methods in the first stage of this study to determine the role of C-SLN on liver-spleen scintigraphy. It was concluded that the curcumin that was encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles had a β' polymorph structure according to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. İt was concluded that these particles were at nano scale according to the laser diffraction (LD) analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis suggested an interaction between the curcumin and the solid lipid matrix, and the curcumin was loaded on the solid lipid nanoparticles...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384593/thermo-acid-stable-phytase-mediated-enhancement-of-bioethanol-production-using-colocasia-esculenta
#18
Melvin Makolomakwa, Adarsh Kumar Puri, Kugen Permaul, Suren Singh
Phytase production by the thermophilic mould Thermomyces lanuginosus SSBP was enhanced 8.56-fold in submerged fermentation, which was further improved in fed-batch cultivations. The protein was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulphate precipitation, Resource Q anion exchange and Superdex gel-filtration chromatography, with an overall purification of 24.7-fold and a yield of 5.16%. The purified 49kDa protein was optimally active at 55°C and pH 5.0, and was stable between 50 and 90°C from pH 3.0-6.0, with a half-life of 138...
March 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368326/mineral-and-anti-nutritional-contents-of-niger-seed-guizotia-abyssinica-l-f-cass-linseed-linumusitatissimum-l-and-sesame-sesamumindicum-l-varieties-grown-in-ethiopia
#19
Tesfaye Deme, Gulelat D Haki, Nigussie Retta, Ashagrie Woldegiorgis, Mulatu Geleta
Oilseeds are rich sources of micronutrients and contribute to combating malnutrition caused by micronutrient deficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the mineral and anti-nutritional contents of different varieties of niger seed, linseed and sesame. Five niger seed, eight linseed and ten sesame varieties were used. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used for mineral analysis and the standard method was adopted to estimate tannin and phytate. Twelve mineral elements; Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, S, Se and Zn were analyzed for each oilseed variety...
April 1, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353638/a-specific-peptide-with-calcium-binding-capacity-from-defatted-schizochytrium-sp-protein-hydrolysates-and-the-molecular-properties
#20
Xixi Cai, Qian Yang, Jiaping Lin, Nanyan Fu, Shaoyun Wang
Marine microorganisms have been proposed as a new kind of protein source. Efforts are needed in order to transform the protein-rich biological wastes left after lipid extraction into value-added bio-products. Thus, the utilization of protein recovered from defatted Schizochytrium sp. by-products presents an opportunity. A specific peptide Tyr-Leu (YL) with calcium-binding capacity was purified from defatted Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The calcium-binding activity of YL reached 126...
March 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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