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Elif Ertem Bekdemir, Beatrice Gutt, Flavia Zuber, Sergio Allegri, Benjamin Le Ouay, Selma Mefti, Kitty Formentin, Francesco Stellacci, Qun Ren
To achieve effective long-term disinfection of the root canals, we synthesized core-shell silver nanoparticles (AgNPs@SiO2) and used them to develop two irrigation solutions containing sodium phytate (SP) and ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), respectively. Ex vivo studies with instrumented root canals revealed that the developed irrigation solutions can effectively remove the smear layer from the dentinal surfaces. Further in vitro experiments with single and multi-species biofilms demonstrated for the first time that AgNPs@SiO2 based irrigation solutions possess excellent antimicrobial activities for at least 7 days, whereas the bare AgNPs lose the activity almost immediately and do not show any antibacterial activity after 2 days...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yajuan Feng, Yang Zhou, Daikun Li, Shuai He, Fengxiu Zhang, Guangxian Zhang
A plant-based non-formaldehyde flame retardant containing high phosphorus ammonium phytate (APA) was synthesized for cotton fabric. The char length of treated cotton sample decreased to 31mm from the original 300mm. The LOI value of finished cotton fabric was as high as 43.2%, and after 30 laundering cycles, it still remained 30.5%, suggesting that APA could be used as an effective semi-durable flame retardant. The TG analysis in air demonstrated that the thermal oxidation stability of treated fabric was significantly improved...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
E Haese, M Lengowski, E Gräter, A Föll, J Möhring, H Steingass, M Schollenberger, M Rodehutscord
The ruminal disappearance of phytate phosphorus (InsP6 -P) from maize grain and rapeseed meal (RSM) was determined in two in vitro studies. In experiment 1, two diets differing in phosphorus (P) and InsP6 -P concentration were fed to the donor animals of rumen fluid (diet HP: 0.49% P in dry matter, diet LP: 0.29% P). Maize grain and RSM were incubated in a rumen fluid/saliva mixture for 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. In experiment 2, a diet similar to diet HP was fed, and the rumen fluid was mixed with artificial saliva containing 120 mg inorganic P/l (Pi) or no inorganic P (P0)...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Ning Tang, Leif H Skibsted
Aqueous solubility of zinc phytate (Ksp = (2.6 ± 0.2)⨯10-47 mol7/L7), essential for zinc bioavailability from plant foods, was found to decrease with increasing temperature corresponding to ∆Hdis of -301 ± 22 kJ/mol and ∆Sdis of -1901 ± 72 J/mol K. Binding of zinc to phytate was found to be exothermic for the stronger binding site and endothermic for the weaker binding site. The solubility of the slightly soluble zinc citrate and insoluble zinc phytate was found to be considerably enhanced by the food components with oxygen donor, nitrogen donor and sulfur donor ligands...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Chen Chen, Fuguo Yang, Cuiping Liu, Lianhua Cui, Min Fu, Yang Song
Phytate, myto-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexaphosphate (IP6), is recognized as an anti-nutrition phytochemical for decades. Recently, numerous studies have indicated that IP6 and its hydrolysates could suppress colon oncogenesis. However, very little is known concerning the mechanism of IP6 hydrolysates in regulating colon oncogenesis. The aim of the present study was to identify the underlying relationship between IP6 hydrolysates and colon cancer. Three types of human colorectal cancer cells were utilized in the present study...
September 7, 2017: Oncology Reports
Jyoti Bhadouria, Ajit Pal Singh, Poonam Mehra, Lokesh Verma, Rishi Srivastawa, Swarup K Parida, Jitender Giri
Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play important roles in phosphate (Pi) acquisition and utilization. These PAPs hydrolyze organic Phosphorus (P) containing compounds in rhizosphere as well as inside the plant cell. However, roles of PAPs in one of the most widely cultivated legumes, chickpea (Cicer arietnum L.), have not been unraveled so far. In the present study, we identified 25 putative PAPs in chickpea (CaPAPs) which possess functional PAP motifs and domains. Differential regulation of CaPAPs under different nutrient deficiencies revealed their roles under multiple nutrient stresses including Pi deficiency...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Fusheng Sun, Jiannan Liu, Xiyan Liu, Yuesheng Wang, Kexiu Li, Junli Chang, Guangxiao Yang, Guangyuan He
To investigate the characteristics of chemically modified wheat starch, such as oxidized (OWS), cross-linked (CLWS) and dual-modified wheat starches, cross-linked oxidized (COWS) and oxidized cross-linked (OCWS) wheat starches were obtained by 12% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 2% sodium phytate treatments, respectively. After modifications of wheat starch by cross-linking and oxidization, it was determined that native wheat starch was effectively modified with respect to the structure and physicochemical characteristics, as detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
October 2017: Food Research International
Kunchit Judprasong, Nidthida Archeepsudcharit, Kedsiri Chantapiriyapoon, Pharrunrat Tanaviyutpakdee, Piya Temviriyanukul
This study determined nutrients, chemical contaminants, (insecticide residues and heavy metals), and natural toxic substances (nitrate, nitrite, cyanide, oxalate, phytate, and trypsin inhibitor) in tubers of Jerusalem artichokes-Kaentawan in the Thai language-grown in four major provinces in Thailand. They were purchased, prepared, homogenized, and freeze-dried for further analysis using standard methods. All Kaentawan samples contained considerable amounts of fructans and dietary fiber (15.4±0.2gand3.2±0...
January 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Milko A Jorquera, Stefanie Gabler, Nitza G Inostroza, Jacquelinne J Acuña, Marco A Campos, Daniel Menezes-Blackburn, Ralf Greiner
Phytases are enzymes involved in organic phosphorus cycling in nature and widely used as feed additives in animal diets. Thermal tolerance is a desired property of phytases. The objectives of this study were to screen and characterize bacterial phytases from Chilean hydrothermal environments. In this study, 60% (30 of 63) of screened thermophilic (60 °C) isolates showed phytase activity in crude protein extracts. The characterization of phytase from two selected isolates (9B and 15C) revealed that both isolates produce phytases with a pH optimum at 5...
August 31, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Talknice Z Jombo, Amanda Minnaar, John Rn Taylor
BACKGROUND: Cowpeas stored under high temperature and humidity develop the hard-to-cook defect (HTC). This defect greatly increases cooking times and energy costs. To better understand the mechanisms involved in the HTC defect development, the effects of γ-irradiation on cotyledon cellular structure and pectin solubility in two cowpea cultivars with different susceptibility to HTC defect were investigated. RESULTS: Gamma-irradiation decreased cotyledon cell wall thickness, increased cell size intercellular spaces in both cowpea cultivars and reduced cooking time of the less HTC susceptible cultivar...
August 31, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Lucie Kupcikova, Martina Lichovnikova, Vojtech Anderle, Tomas Vlcko, Ludmila Ohnoutkova, Martin Švidrnoch, Vítězslav Maier, David Hampel
The objective of this study was to determine the coefficient of pre-caecal digestion of P in maize (3.9 g/kg of total P, 0.83 g/kg of phytate P, 138 FTU/kg) and wheat ((3.17 g/kg of total P, 1.94 g/kg of phytate P, 666 FTU/kg) in broilers according to the WPSA protocol. For the diets, monosodium phosphate was used as an additional P supplement. Two sets of diets containing 200, 460 and 740 g/kg of wheat or 200, 500 and 740 g/kg of maize were formulated. A total of 288 21-day old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to 24 cages (eight birds per cage) and the 6 test diets were assigned to cages...
August 25, 2017: British Poultry Science
Spenser Reed, Hadar Neuman, Raymond P Glahn, Omry Koren, Elad Tako
Biofortification is a plant breeding method that introduces increased concentrations of minerals in staple food crops (e.g., legumes, cereal grains), and has shown success in alleviating insufficient Fe intake in various human populations. Unlike other strategies utilized to alleviate Fe deficiency, studies of the gut microbiota in the context of Fe biofortification have not yet been reported, although the consumption of Fe biofortified staple food crops has increased significantly over time. Hence, in this study, we performed a 6-week feeding trial in Gallus gallus (n = 14), aimed to investigate the alterations in the gut microbiome following administration of an Fe biofortified bean-based diet (biofortified, BFe) versus a bean based diet with poorly-bioavailable Fe (standard, SFe)...
2017: PloS One
Ana María Magallanes-López, Nayeli Hernandez-Espinosa, Govindan Velu, Gabriel Posadas-Romano, Virginia María Guadalupe Ordoñez-Villegas, José Crossa, Karim Ammar, Carlos Guzmán
Diets very rich in cereals have been associated with micronutrient malnutrition, and the biofortification of them, has been proposed as one of the best approaches to alleviate the problem. Durum wheat is one of the main sources of calories and protein in many developing countries. In this study, 46 durum varieties grown under full and reduced irrigation, were analyzed for micronutrients and phytate content to determine the potential bioavailability of the micronutrients. The variation was 25.7-40.5mg/kg for iron and of 24...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
M D Ferrer, M M Pérez, M M Cànaves, J M Buades, C Salcedo, J Perelló
Cardiovascular calcification (CVC) is a progressive complication of chronic kidney disease and a predictor of CV events and mortality. The use of biomarkers to predict CV risk and activities of potential or current treatment drugs in these patients could have a crucial impact on therapeutic approaches. Our aim was to develop a novel assay for measurement of the rate of calcium phosphate crystallization in human plasma and provide a tool to evaluate the effects of crystallization inhibitors. The efficacy of inhibitors was determined by adding inhibitory compounds (polyphosphates, fetuin-A, sodium thiosulfate or citrate) to control samples...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jelena Miočinović, Nikola Tomić, Biljana Dojnov, Igor Tomašević, Sanja Stojanović, Ilija Djekic, Zoran Vujčić
BACKGROUND: The need to increase the daily intake of dietary fibers opens a new chapter in the research of functional foods enriched with fibers. Potential application of innovative product - insoluble dietary fibers from triticale in yoghurts, deployed by characterizing their food application and evaluating physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties was the aim of this research. RESULTS: Detailed characterizations of these fibers are presented for the first time and showed very good hydration properties, optimal pH (slightly acidic), optimal chemical composition, high antioxidant capacity which was proven by phenolics contents...
July 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Canfang Niu, Peilong Yang, Huiying Luo, Huoqing Huang, Yaru Wang, Bin Yao
Susceptibility to proteases usually limits the application of phytase. We sought to improve the pepsin and trypsin resistance of YeAPPA from Yersinia enterocolitica and YkAPPA from Y. kristensenii by optimizing amino acid polarity and charge. The predicted pepsin/trypsin cleavage sites F89/K226 in pepsin/trypsin-sensitive YeAPPA and the corresponding sites (F89/E226) in pepsin-sensitive but trypsin-resistant YkAPPA were substituted with S and H, respectively. Six variants were produced in Pichia pastoris for catalytic and biochemical characterization...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hacer Levent
In this study, chia seed flour (CSF) was used in gluten-free noodle formulation at different levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, w/w) with and without diacetyl tartaric esters of mono (and di) glycerides (DATEM). Chemical, nutritional, sensory properties and cooking quality of gluten-free noodle samples were investigated. Protein, fat, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of gluten-free noodles increased by 1.7, 5.5, 2.6 and 2.0 times at 30% usage level of CSF as compared to control sample. Phytic acid and phytate phosphorus content increased from 168...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Vikas Dwivedi, Swarup Kumar Parida, Debasis Chattopadhyay
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the third most important food legume crop. Seed size is the most economically important trait for chickpea. To understand the genetic regulation of seed size in chickpea, the present study established a three-way association of CT repeat length variation of a simple sequence repeat (SSR) in myo-inositol monophosphatase gene (CaIMP) with seed weight and phytic acid content by large scale validation and genotyping in a set of genetically diverse germplasm accessions and two reciprocal intra-specific mapping populations...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
James M Connorton, Eleanor R Jones, Ildefonso Rodríguez-Ramiro, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Cristobal Uauy, Janneke Balk
Increasing the intrinsic nutritional quality of crops, known as biofortification, is viewed as a sustainable approach to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies. In particular, iron deficiency anemia is a major global health issue, but the iron content of staple crops such as wheat (Triticum aestivum) is difficult to change because of genetic complexity and homeostasis mechanisms. To identify target genes for the biofortification of wheat, we functionally characterized homologs of the VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER (VIT)...
August 2017: Plant Physiology
Chinreddy Subramanyam Reddy, Seong-Cheol Kim, Tanushri Kaul
Globally, plant-derivatives especially cereals and legumes are the major staple food sources for animals. The seeds of these crops comprise of phytic acid, the major repository form of the phosphorus, which is not digestible by simple-stomached animals. However, it is the most important factor responsible for impeding the absorption of minerals by plants that eventually results in less use of fertilizers that ultimately cause eutrophication in water bodies. Although abundant phosphorus (P) exists in the soils, plants cannot absorb most of the P due to its conversion to unavailable forms...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
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