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Muscle differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777737/type-i-collagen-induces-mesenchymal-cell-differentiation-into-myofibroblasts-through-yap-induced-tgf-%C3%AE-1-activation
#1
Xiaoling Liu, Xinyu Long, Weiwei Liu, Yeli Zhao, Toshihiko Hayashi, Masayuki Yamato, Kazunori Mizuno, Hitomi Fujisaki, Shunji Hattori, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Takaaki Ogura, Yuji Atsuzawa, Takashi Ikejima
In organ fibrosis, mechanical stress and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) promote differentiation into myofibroblast from mesenchymal cells, leading to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling or active synthesis, deposition or degradation of ECM components. A major component of ECM, type I collagen (col I) triple helical molecules assemble into fibrils or are denatured to gelatin without triple-helicity in remodeling. However, whether changes of ECM components in remodeling have influence on mesenchymal cell differentiation remains elusive...
May 16, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777260/flexor-carpi-radialis-brevis-case-report-of-a-symptomatic-tear
#2
Anthony M Kordahi, Kara L Sarrel, Sameer B Shah, Eric Y Chang
Anatomical variants of muscle are commonly encountered by surgeons and radiologists. The flexor carpi radialis brevis (FCRB) is an anomalous muscle in the distal forearm with an estimated prevalence of 2-8%. In the literature, there are a few case reports of symptomatic FCRB tenosynovitis without a concomitant tear, and treatment methods described include both conservative and surgical management. We present a case of one patient with radial sided wrist pain and a partial FCRB tear, which to our knowledge is the first case report of a symptomatic FCRB tear...
May 18, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777169/difructose-dianhydride-improves-intestinal-calcium-absorption-wound-healing-and-barrier-function
#3
Sang In Lee, In Ho Kim
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is critical for nutrient absorption and is an important barrier against harmful pathogens and antigens. Difructose anhydrides (DFA)-IVs are nondigestible disaccharides that enhance calcium and iron absorption by affecting the intestinal epithelial tissue. However, their effects on intestinal functions are not fully understood. In this study, we performed a feeding trial and found that dietary DFA-IVs improved growth performance, relative breast muscle and liver weight, and digestibility and blood calcium and iron concentrations in broilers...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776555/sudden-coronary-death-in-the-young-evidence-of-contractile-phenotype-of-smooth-muscle-cells-in-the-culprit-atherosclerotic-plaque
#4
Stefania Rizzo, Matteo Coen, Antonija Sakic, Monica De Gaspari, Gaetano Thiene, Giulio Gabbiani, Cristina Basso, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat
BACKGROUND: Culprit coronary atherosclerotic plaques (APs) from young sudden cardiac death (SCD) victims are mostly non-atheromatous, i.e., consisting of proliferative smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Coronary vasospasm has been advocated to explain plaque instability in the absence of thrombosis. Our aim was to characterize the SMC phenotype in the intima and media of coronary arteries from young SCD victims. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 38 coronary artery segments were studied: (a) 18 APs from young (≤40 years old) SCD patients, (b) 9 APs from old (>40 years old) SCD patients, (c) 11 non-atherosclerotic coronary arteries from young patients (≤40 years old)...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776378/differential-induction-of-mutant-sod1-misfolding-and-aggregation-by-tau-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology
#5
Michael C Pace, Guilian Xu, Susan Fromholt, John Howard, Benoit I Giasson, Jada Lewis, David R Borchelt
BACKGROUND: Prior studies in C. elegans demonstrated that the expression of aggregation-prone polyglutamine proteins in muscle wall cells compromised the folding of co-expressed temperature-sensitive proteins, prompting interest in whether the accumulation of a misfolded protein in pathologic features of human neurodegenerative disease burdens cellular proteostatic machinery in a manner that impairs the folding of other cellular proteins. METHODS: Mice expressing high levels of mutant forms of tau and α-synuclein (αSyn), which develop inclusion pathologies of the mutant protein in brain and spinal cord, were crossed to mice expressing low levels of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (G85R-SOD1:YFP) for aging and neuropathological evaluation...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775892/microrna-135a-inhibits-cardiac-fibrosis-induced-by-isoproterenol-via-trpm7-channel
#6
Yan Wu, Yonghui Liu, Yitong Pan, Chunxiao Lu, Haonan Xu, Xiaozhi Wang, Tingting Liu, Kai Feng, Yiqun Tang
BACKGROUND: Cardiac fibrosis is a crucial factor of heart failure. It has been reported that several microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) were involved in cardiac fibrosis, however, the role and possible regulatory mechanism of microRNA-135a (miR-135a) in cardiac fibrosis have not been investigated. Here, we explored the regulation mechanism of miR-135a on cardiac fibrosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro, cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) from neonatal rats were treated by isoproterenol (ISO) at the final concentration of 10 μM for 24 h and miR-135a expression was decreased obviously...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775761/the-bone-anabolic-effects-of-irisin-are-through-preferential-stimulation-of-aerobic-glycolysis
#7
Dingdong Zhang, ChuHyun Bae, Junghak Lee, Jiho Lee, Zeyu Jin, Myeongmo Kang, Young Suk Cho, Jeong-Han Kim, Weontae Lee, Sung-Kil Lim
Irisin, a recently identified hormone secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, exhibits anabolic effects on the skeleton primarily through the stimulation of bone formation. However, the mechanism underlying the irisin-stimulated anabolic response remains largely unknown. To uncover the underlying mechanism, we biosynthesized recombinant irisin (r-irisin) using an Escherichia coli expression system and used it to treat several osteoblast cell types. Our synthesized r-irisin could promote proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts as evidenced by enhanced expression of osteoblast-specific transcriptional factors, including Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), Oster (Osx), as well as early osteoblastic differentiation markers such as alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1a1)...
May 15, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775754/effects-of-micrornas-on-skeletal-muscle-development
#8
REVIEW
J Wang, L Z Yang, J S Zhang, J X Gong, Y H Wang, C L Zhang, H Chen, X T Fang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (about 22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs, which were highly conserved among mammals. They have ushered in a new era in molecular biology over twenty years. They can negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through the principle of complementary base pairing with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of their target mRNAs and induce their degradation. They involve in tissue morphogenesis, cellular processes like apoptosis, and major signaling pathways. Previous studies have promoted our understanding that miRNAs play an important role in myogenesis and have a big impact on muscle mass, muscle fiber type and muscle diseases...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775750/the-effects-of-capn1-gene-inactivation-on-the-differential-expression-of-genes-in-skeletal-muscle
#9
William T Olive, Brittney N Keel, Amanda K Lindholm-Perry, Justyna Horodyska, Andrew P Foote
Protein turnover is required for muscle growth and regeneration and several proteolytic enzymes, including the calpains, degrade myofibrillar proteins during this process. In a previous experiment, phenotypic differences were observed between μ-calpain knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice, including nutrient accretion and fiber type differences. These changes were particularly evident as the animals aged. Thus, we utilized 18 mice (9 KO and 9 WT) to compare transcript abundance to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 52 wk of age...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775666/the-effect-of-syndecan-4-and-glypican-1-knockdown-on-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-turkey-satellite-cells-differing-in-age-and-growth-rates
#10
Sandra G Velleman, Daniel L Clark, Jeffrey R Tonniges
Posthatch skeletal muscle growth requires myogenic satellite cells and the dynamic expression of cell membrane-associated proteins. The membrane associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans, syndecan-4 and glypican-1, link the satellite cell niche to the intracellular environment. Sydnecan-4 and glypican-1 are differentially expressed with age in turkey satellite cells and their over-expression impacts both satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, but their effect on satellite cells from lines with different growth potentials is not known...
May 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775430/gene-expression-profile-analysis-of-aortic-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-reveals-upregulation-of-cadherin-genes-in-myocardial-infarction-patients
#11
Anselm A Derda, Chin Cheng Woo, Thidathip Wongsurawat, Mark Richards, Chuen Neng Lee, Theo Kofidis, Vladimir A Kuznetsov, Vitaly A Sorokin
Myocardial infarction (MI) induced by acute coronary arterial occlusion is usually secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Dysregulated response of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in atherosclerotic plaques may promote plaque rupture. Cadherins (CDHs) form adherens junctions and are known stabilizers of atherosclerotic plaques. To date, the expression patterns of cadherin have not been well investigated in MI aortic VSMCs. We aimed to investigate the expression of cadherin genes in the aortic wall of patients with and without MI...
May 18, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775428/the-involvement-of-human-monogenic-cardiomyopathy-genes-in-experimental-polygenic-cardiac-hypertrophy
#12
Priscilla R Prestes, Francine Z Marques, Guillermo Lopez-Campos, Paul Lewandowski, Lea M D Delbridge, Fadi J Charchar, Stephen B Harrap
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy thickens heart muscles reducing functionality and increasing risk of cardiac disease and morbidity. Genetic factors are involved, but their contribution is poorly understood. We used the hypertrophic heart rat (HHR), a unique normotensive polygenic model of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure to investigate the role of genes associated with monogenic human cardiomyopathy. We selected 42 genes involved in monogenic human cardiomyopathies to study: 1) DNA variants, by sequencing the whole-genome of 13-week old HHR and age-matched normal heart rat (NHR), its genetic control strain; 2) mRNA expression, by targeted RNA-sequencing in left ventricles of HHR and NHR at five ages (2-days old, 4-, 13-, 33- and 50-weeks old) compared to human idiopathic dilated data; and 3) microRNA expression, with rat microRNA microarrays in left ventricles of 2-days old HHR and age-matched NHR...
May 18, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774305/multi-slice-mri-reveals-heterogeneity-in-disease-distribution-along-the-length-of-muscle-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#13
Stephen M Chrzanowski, Celine Baligand, Rebecca J Willcocks, Jasjit Deol, Ilona Schmalfuss, Donovan J Lott, Michael J Daniels, Claudia Senesac, Glenn A Walter, Krista Vandenborne
Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) causes progressive pathologic changes to muscle secondary to a cascade of inflammation, lipid deposition, and fibrosis. Clinically, this manifests as progressive weakness, functional loss, and premature mortality. Though insult to whole muscle groups is well established, less is known about the relationship between intramuscular pathology and function. Objective: Differences of intramuscular heterogeneity across muscle length were assessed using an ordinal MRI grading scale in lower leg muscles of boys with DMD and correlated to patient's functional status...
September 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774118/proteomic-profiling-of-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-in-cancer-cachexia-alterations-in-sarcomeric-and-mitochondrial-protein-expression
#14
Angie M Y Shum, Anne Poljak, Nicholas L Bentley, Nigel Turner, Timothy C Tan, Patsie Polly
Background: Cancer cachexia is observed in more than 50% of advanced cancer patients, and impairs quality of life and prognosis. A variety of pathways are likely to be dysregulated. Hence, a broad-spectrum understanding of the disease process is best achieved by a discovery based approach such as proteomics. Results: More than 300 proteins were identified with > 95% confidence in correct sequence identification, of which 5-10% were significantly differentially expressed in cachectic tissues ( p -value of 0...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773650/the-exercise-inducible-bile-acid-receptor-tgr5-improves-skeletal-muscle-function-in-mice
#15
Takashi Sasaki, Ayane Kuboyama, Moeko Mita, Shotaro Murata, Makoto Shimizu, Jun Inoue, Kazutoshi Mori, Ryuichiro Sato
TGR5 (also known as G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1, GPBAR1) is a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor that is expressed in many diverse tissues. TGR5 is involved in various metabolic processes, including glucose metabolism and energy expenditure; however, TGR5's function in skeletal muscle is not fully understood. Using both gain- and loss-of-function mouse models, we demonstrate here that Tgr5 activation promotes muscle cell differentiation and muscle hypertrophy. Both young and old transgenic mice with muscle-specific Tgr5 expression exhibited increased muscle strength...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773427/microphthalmia-associated-transcription-factor-mitf-promiscuous-staining-patterns-in-fibrohistiocytic-lesions-is-a-potential-pitfall
#16
Sambit K Mohanty, Shivani Sharma, Dinesh Pradhan, Shivani R Kandukuri, Navid Farahani, Catherine Barry, Julie M Wu, David Frishberg, Bonnie Balzer
Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF) is used as a marker of melanocytic differentiation. However, MiTF immunoexpression has also been observed in histiocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, which raise the concern of fibrohistiocytic (FH) lesions being misdiagnosed as melanoma based on MiTF immunoreactivity. MiTF has been known to be positive in FH tumors, but this is the first study evaluating ninety-three fibrohistiocytic neoplasms to understand and delineate the staining pattern of MiTF in these tumors...
May 11, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773223/corrigendum-to-non-muscle-myosin-iia-and-iib-differentially-regulate-cell-shape-changes-during-zebrafish-brain-morphogenesis-dev-biol-397-2015-103-115
#17
Jennifer H Gutzman, Srishti U Sahu, Constance Kwas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773203/validation-of-semiautomatic-scoring-of-rem-sleep-without-atonia-in-patients-with-rbd
#18
D Guttowski, G Mayer, W H Oertel, K Kesper, T Rosenberg
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To evaluate REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) in REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) several automatic algorithms have been developed. We aimed to validate our algorithm (Mayer et al., 2008) in order to assess the following: (1). capability of the algorithm to differentiate between RBD, night terror (NT), somnambulism (SW), Restless legs syndrome (RLS), and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), (2). the cut-off values for short (SMI) and long muscle activity (LMI), (3). which muscles qualify best for differential diagnosis, and (4)...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772993/shoulder-lesion-in-a-69-year-old-woman
#19
Andrew J Hayden, Srinivas Kolla, Adele L Boskey, Steven Burekhovich, Chuanyong Lu, Michael Stracher, Aditya V Maheshwari
Milwaukee Shoulder Syndrome (MSS) is a painful progressive arthropathy in which hydroxyapatite crystal deposition in synovial tissue induces lysosomal release of collagenase and neutral proteases. These enzymes are destructive to periarticular tissue, including the synovium, articular cartilage, rotator cuff muscles, and the intrasynovial cortical bone. MSS predominantly occurring in women (90%) over the age of 70 years of age with a clinical history marked by recurrent joint effusions and pain, which classically worsens at night...
2018: Journal of Long-term Effects of Medical Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772347/location-dependent-correlation-between-tissue-structure-and-the-mechanical-behaviour-of-the-urinary-bladder
#20
Enrique Morales-Orcajo, Tobias Siebert, Markus Böl
The mechanical properties of the urinary bladder wall are important to understand its filling-voiding cycle in health and disease. However, much remains unknown about its mechanical properties, especially regarding regional heterogeneities and wall microstructure. The present study aimed to assess the regional differences in the mechanical properties and microstructure of the urinary bladder wall. Ninety (n=90) samples of porcine urinary bladder wall (ten samples from nine different locations) were mechanically and histologically analysed...
May 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
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