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Muscle differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731988/roles-of-mitogen-activating-protein-kinase-kinase-kinase-kinase-3-map4k3-in-preterm-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cell-myogenesis-and-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-mtorc1-activation-regulation
#1
Chu-Yi Guo, Mu-Xue Yu, Jie-Min Dai, Si-Nian Pan, Zhen-Tong Lu, Xiao-Shan Qiu, Si-Qi Zhuang
BACKGROUND Preterm skeletal muscle genesis is a paradigm for myogenesis. The role of mitogen-activating protein kinase kinase kinase kinase-3 (MAP4K3) in preterm skeletal muscle satellite cells myogenesis or its relationship to mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity have not been previously elaborated. MATERIAL AND METHODS Small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference technology was used to inhibit MAP4K3 expression. Leucine stimulation experiments were performed following MAP4K3-siRNA interference...
July 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730707/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-novel-murine-model-of-pancreatic-cancer-cachexia
#2
Katherine A Michaelis, Xinxia Zhu, Kevin G Burfeind, Stephanie M Krasnow, Peter R Levasseur, Terry K Morgan, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a complex metabolic and behavioural syndrome lacking effective therapies. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most important conditions associated with cachexia, with >80% of PDAC patients suffering from the condition. To establish the cardinal features of a murine model of PDAC-associated cachexia, we characterized the effects of implanting a pancreatic tumour cell line from a syngeneic C57BL/6 KRAS(G12D) P53(R172H) Pdx-Cre(+/+) (KPC) mouse...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730530/spastic-paretic-hemifacial-contracture-related-to-multiple-sclerosis-a-rare-and-under-recognized-entity
#3
Sophie Fastré, Philippe Hanson, Frédéric London
We describe an additional case of spastic paretic hemifacial contracture, an uncommon condition characterized by sustained unilateral contraction of the facial muscles associated with mild ipsilateral facial paresis. This entity has only rarely been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and can be mistaken for hemifacial spasm. Early consideration of MS in the differential diagnosis of young patients admitted with these symptoms is essential.
July 20, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730161/isolation-culturing-and-differentiation-of-primary-myoblasts-from-skeletal-muscle-of-adult-mice
#4
Lubna Hindi, Joseph D McMillan, Dil Afroze, Sajedah M Hindi, Ashok Kumar
Myogenesis is a multi-step process that leads to the formation of skeletal muscle during embryonic development and repair of injured myofibers. In this process, myoblasts are the main effector cell type which fuse with each other or to injured myofibers leading to the formation of new myofibers or regeneration of skeletal muscle in adults. Many steps of myogenesis can be recapitulated through in vitro differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. Most laboratories use immortalized myogenic cells lines that also differentiate into myotubes...
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729349/fgf9-prevents-pleural-fibrosis-induced-by-intra-pleural-adenovirus-injection-in-mice
#5
Aurélien Justet, Audrey Joannes, Valérie Besnard, Joëlle Marchal-Sommé, Madeleine Jaillet, Phillippe Bonniaud, Jean-Michel Sallenave, Brigitte Solhonne, Yves Castier, Pierre Mordant, Hervé Mal, Aurélie Cazes, Raphael Borie, Arnaud A Mailleux, Bruno Crestani
Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 (FGF9) is necessary for fetal lung development and is expressed by epithelium and mesothelium. We evaluated the role of FGF9 overexpression on adenoviral-induced pleural injury in vivo and determined the biological effects of FGF9 on mesothelial cells in vitro. We assessed the expression of FGF9 and FGF receptors by mesothelial cells in both Human and mouse lungs. Intrapleural injection of an adenovirus expressing human FGF9 (AdFGF9) or a control adenovirus (Adcont) was performed...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729346/distinct-pka-regulatory-subunits-mediate-pge2-inhibition-of-tgf%C3%AE-1-stimulated-collagen-i-translation-and-myofibroblast-differentiation
#6
Scott H Wettlaufer, L Raghu Penke, Katsuhide Okunishi, Marc Peters-Golden
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), via cAMP signaling, inhibits a variety of fibroblast functions relevant to fibrogenesis. Among these are their translation of collagen I protein and their differentiation to myofibroblasts. PKA is central to these actions, with cAMP binding to regulatory (R) subunits leading to the release of catalytic subunits. Here we examined the role of specific PKAR subunit isoforms in these inhibitory actions in transforming growth factorβ-1 (TGFβ-1)-stimulated human lung fibroblasts (HLFs)...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729039/congenital-myopathy-due-to-myosin-heavy-chain-2-mutation-presenting-as-chronic-aspiration-pneumonia-in-infancy
#7
R Tsabari, H Daum, E Kerem, Y Fellig, T Dor
A 7-week-old infant presented with persistent noisy breathing and aspirations during swallowing. Neurological examination and brain MRI were normal. His 12-year-old brother underwent pneumonectomy at the age of 10 years due to recurrent aspirations leading to severe lung damage. The older brother developed subsequently ophthalmoplegia and nystagmus along with mild weakness of the neck flexors and proximal muscles. Exome analysis revealed homozygosity for a novel truncating mutation p.G800fs27* in the Myosin Heavy Chain 2 (MYH2) gene in both brothers, while parents and an unaffected sibling were heterozygous...
June 27, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728367/comparative-analysis-on-genome-wide-dna-methylation-in-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-between-small-tailed-han-and-dorper-%C3%A3-small-tailed-han-crossbred-sheep
#8
Yang Cao, Hai-Guo Jin, Hui-Hai Ma, Zhihui Zhao
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the DNA methylation profile in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) between Small Tailed Han and Dorper × Small Tailed Han crossbred sheep which were known to exhibit significant difference in meat-production. Methods: Six samples were subjected to MeDIP-seq and subsequent bioinformatics analyses to detect differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between the two groups. Results: 23.08 Gb clean data from six samples were generated and 808 DMRs were identified in gene body or their neighboring up/downstream regions...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727044/muscle-lipid-metabolism-in-two-rabbit-lines-divergently-selected-for-intramuscular-fat
#9
M Martínez-Álvaro, S Agha, A Blasco, P Hernández
A divergent selection experiment for intramuscular fat (IMF) of LM at 9 wk of age was performed in rabbits. The objective of this work was to compare the lipid metabolism in muscles and fat tissues of the high-IMF and low-IMF lines. Lipogenic, catabolic, and lipolytic activities were studied in 2 muscles with different oxidative patterns (LM and semimembranosus proprius) and in the perirenal fat depot at 2 ages, 9 and 13 wk. In addition, adipocytes were characterized in perirenal fat. In the fifth generation, direct response to selection was 0...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727041/proteomic-features-linked-to-tenderness-of-aged-pork-loins
#10
K B Carlson, K J Prusa, C A Fedler, E M Steadham, E Huff-Lonergan, S M Lonergan
There is considerable evidence that the protein component of fresh pork makes a major contribution to tenderness. In particular, the proteomic profile can be linked to postmortem events including pH decline, tissue oxidation, and protein degradation. The objectives for this study were to determine differences in sarcoplasmic proteomes that contribute to tenderness variation in aged pork longissimus dorsi muscles (LM). A defined set of pork loins selected to be similar in pH, color, and lipid yet different in tenderness were used...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727019/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-potential-and-perspectives-for-their-use-in-clinical-and-animal-science-purpose
#11
M S Duarte, R Bueno, W Silva, C F Campos, M P Gionbelli, S E F Guimarães, F F Silva, P S Lopes, G J Hausman, M V Dodson
An increasing body of evidences has demonstrated the ability of the mature adipocyte to dedifferentiate into a population of proliferative-competent cells known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. As early as the 1970s, in vitro studies showed that DFAT cells may be obtained by ceiling culture, which takes advantage of the buoyancy property of lipid-filled cells. It was documented that DFAT cells may acquire a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stem cells and yet may differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as skeletal and smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726981/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-factors-influencing-bovine-intramuscular-adipose-tissue-development-and-cellularity
#12
E Albrecht, L Schering, Y Liu, K Komolka, C Kühn, K Wimmers, T Gotoh, S Maak
Appearance, distribution, and amount of intramuscular fat (IMF), often referred to as marbling, are highly variable and depend on environmental and genetic factors. On the molecular level, the concerted action of several drivers, including hormones, receptors, transcription factors, etc., determines where clusters of adipocytes arise. Therefore, the aim of future studies remains to identify such factors as biological markers of IMF to increase the ability to identify animals that deposit IMF early in age to increase efficiency of high-quality meat production...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726959/association-of-cultured-myotubes-and-fasting-plasma-metabolite-profiles-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes-subjects
#13
Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi
Accumulating evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle as the root cause for the greatest hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the identification of specific metabolite-based markers linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in T2D has not been adequately addressed. Therefore, we sought to identify the markers-based metabolomics for mitochondrial dysfunction associated with T2D. First, a cellular disease model was established using human myotubes treated with antimycin A, an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor...
July 20, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726347/md2-blockage-protects-obesity-induced-vascular-remodeling-via-activating-ampk-nrf2
#14
Lintao Wang, Jibo Han, Peiren Shan, Shengban You, Xuemei Chen, Yiyi Jin, Jingying Wang, Weijian Huang, Yi Wang, Guang Liang
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and increased free fatty acid (FFA) levels are tightly linked with vascular oxidative stress and remodeling. Myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2), an important protein in innate immunity, is requisite for endotoxin lipopolysaccharide responsiveness. This study shows that palmitic acid (PA) also bonds to MD2, initiating cardiac inflammatory injury. However, it is not clear whether MD2 plays a role in noninflammatory systems such as obesity- and FFA-related oxidative stress involved in vascular remodeling and injury...
July 20, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726188/a-lncrna-promotes-myoblast-proliferation-by-up-regulating-gh1
#15
Yingwei Yue, Congfei Jin, Mingming Chen, Linlin Zhang, Xinfeng Liu, Wenzhi Ma, Hong Guo
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key regulatory factors for gene expression in a variety of biological processes; however, the role of lncRNAs in muscle formation and development is poorly understood, particularly in cattle. Here, we identified a highly expressed lncRNA in muscle, lncYYW, by high-throughput sequencing in bovine longissimus, scapular, intercostal, and gluteus muscles. The expression of lncYYW increased gradually during myoblast differentiation. Overexpression of lncYYW increased the number of cells in the DNA synthesis (S) stage of the cell cycle and upregulated the expression of two well-established myogenic markers, myogenin and myosin heavy chain...
July 19, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726134/non-functioning-parathyroid-carcinoma-a-case-report
#16
Nobuyasu Suganuma, Hiroyuki Iwasaki, Satoru Shimizu, Tatsuya Yoshida, Takashi Yamanaka, Izumi Kojima, Haruhiko Yamazaki, Soji Toda, Hirotaka Nakayama, Katsuhiko Masudo, Yasushi Rino, Kae Kawachi, Yohei Miyagi, Akio Miyake, Kenichi Ohashi, Munetaka Masuda
BACKGROUND: Non-functioning parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease that is difficult to distinguish from other diseases based on the lack of hyperparathyroidism. This is a report of non-functioning parathyroid carcinoma diagnosed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting parathyroid hormone (PTH) messenger RNA. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 67-year-old male who visited our hospital for the chief complaint of hoarseness. A 5-cm mass was observed in the right lobe of the thyroid gland, and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma was suspected according to the fine-needle biopsy results...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725668/data-on-myod-reduction-by-autophagy-in-c2c12-cells
#17
Yeong-Min Yoo, Yung Chul Park
Autophagy is a highly regulated physiologic mechanism in which cells maintain homeostasis by degrading excessive or unnecessary proteins and damaged or aged organelles through the lysosomal machinery (Yorimitsu and Klionsky, 2005) [1]. MyoD is basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that regulate myoblast proliferation and myogenic differentiation. MyoD is expressed in adult skeletal muscle (Megeney et al., 1996) [2] and adult fibers (Brack et al., 2005) [3]. MyoD is mainly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (Floyd et al...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724609/thy-1-fibroblast-subsets-in-the-human-peritoneum
#18
Edyta Kawka, Janusz Witowski, Maria Bartosova, Rusan Catar, Andras Rudolf, Aurelie Philippe, Rafal Rutkowski, Betti Schaefer, Claus Peter Schmitt, Duska Dragun, Achim Joerres
Fibrotic thickening of the peritoneum develops in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) for renal failure. For unknown reasons, however, in some patients it progresses to extensive fibrosis that compromises dialysis capacity of the peritoneum. It is increasingly clear that fibroblasts display large heterogeneity not only between but also within tissues. Differential surface expression of glycoprotein Thy-1 (CD90) has been shown to identify functionally distinct fibroblast subsets in several organs. Here, we isolated Thy-1+/- subsets of human peritoneal fibroblasts (HPFB) and analyzed them in terms of pro-fibrotic myofibroblast features...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723948/integrative-functional-analyses-using-rainbow-trout-selected-for-tolerance-to-plant-diets-reveal-nutrigenomic-signatures-for-soy-utilization-without-the-concurrence-of-enteritis
#19
Jason Abernathy, Andreas Brezas, Kevin R Snekvik, Ronald W Hardy, Ken Overturf
Finding suitable alternative protein sources for diets of carnivorous fish species remains a major concern for sustainable aquaculture. Through genetic selection, we created a strain of rainbow trout that outperforms parental lines in utilizing an all-plant protein diet and does not develop enteritis in the distal intestine, as is typical with salmonids on long-term plant protein-based feeds. By incorporating this strain into functional analyses, we set out to determine which genes are critical to plant protein utilization in the absence of gut inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723591/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-the-myostatin-gene-and-its-association-with-growth-traits-in-noble-scallop-chlamys-nobilis
#20
Sigang Fan, Youhou Xu, Baosuo Liu, Wenyao He, Bo Zhang, Jiaqi Su, Dahui Yu
Myostatin (MSTN), also called growth and differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and an inhibitor of muscle differentiation and growth. In this report, we identified and characterized a MSTN gene (CnMSTN) from the scallop Chlamys nobilis. The open reading frame of CnMSTN was 1374bp in length, encoding 457 amino acids. The structure of CnMSTN included a putative signal peptide, a TGF-β propeptide domain, and a conserved TGF-β domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CnMSTN gene was clustered in the same subgroup with the MSTN gene found in Mollusca...
July 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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