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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238764/cullin-e3-ligase-activity-is-required-for-myoblast-differentiation
#1
Jordan Blondelle, Paige Shapiro, Andrea A Domenighetti, Stephan Lange
The role of cullin E3-ubiquitin ligases for muscle homeostasis is best known during muscle atrophy, as the cullin-1 substrate adaptor atrogin-1 counts among the most well-characterized muscle atrogins. We investigated, whether cullin activity was also crucial during terminal myoblast differentiation and aggregation of acetylcholine receptors for the establishment of neuromuscular junctions in vitro. The activity of cullin E3-ligases is modulated through posttranslational modification with the small ubiquitin-like modifier nedd8...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236372/the-rotation-of-mouse-myoblast-nuclei-is-dependent-on-substrate-elasticity
#2
Ryan Hickey, Andrew E Pelling
The complex interplay of biochemical signaling and mechanical traction forces regulate the position of cellular nuclei. Although the phenomenon of nuclear rotation has been observed for many years, the influence of substrate elasticity was unknown. We discovered another layer of complexity to this phenomenon: nuclear rotation is dependent on substrate elasticity. Nuclear rotation is drastically reduced on physiologically relevant stiffnesses. Here, we studied nuclear rotation in mouse C2C12 myoblasts cultured on soft substrates designed to mimic resting tissue (∼26 kPa) and on hard glass substrates...
February 25, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235489/resveratrol-stimulates-mitochondrial-fusion-by-a-mechanism-requiring-mitofusin-2
#3
Ellen L Robb, Fereshteh Moradi, Lucas A Maddalena, Andrew J F Valente, Joao Fonseca, Jeffrey A Stuart
Resveratrol (RES) is a plant-derived stilbene associated with a wide range of health benefits. Mitochondria are a key downstream target of RES, and in some cell types RES promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, altered cellular redox status, and a shift toward oxidative metabolism. Mitochondria exist as a dynamic network that continually remodels via fusion and fission processes, and the extent of fusion is related to cellular redox status and metabolism. We investigated RES's effects on mitochondrial network morphology in several cell lines using a quantitative approach to measure the extent of network fusion...
February 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235480/the-effects-of-reduced-dietary-protein-level-on-amino-acid-transporters-and-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-pigs
#4
Dan Wang, Xuebin Wan, Jian Peng, Qi Xiong, Hongdan Niu, Huanan Li, Jin Chai, Siwen Jiang
Amino acid transporter plays an important role in regulating mTOR signaling pathway. This study investigated the effects of reduced dietary protein levels on amino acid transporters and mTOR signaling pathway. A total of 54 weaning pigs were randomly allocated into a 3 × 3 factorial design, followed by slaughtering the pigs separately after 10-, 25- and 45-day feeding, with 18 pigs from each feeding period divided into three subgroups for treatment with three different protein-level diets: 20% crude protein (CP) diet (normal recommended, high protein, HP), 17% CP diet (medium protein, MP) and 14% CP diet (low protein, LP)...
February 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228365/isoquinoline-alkaloids-from-coptis-japonica-stimulate-the-myoblast-differentiation-via-p38-map-kinase-and-akt-signaling-pathway
#5
Heyjin Lee, Le Thi Tuong, Ji Hye Jeong, Sang-Jin Lee, Gyu-Un Bae, Jae-Ha Ryu
To overcome the muscle atrophy, such as cachexia and sarcopenia, we tried to find myogenic agents from medicinal plants. From myogenic extract of Coptis japonica, we purified six isoquinoline alkaloids and evaluated their effects on transactivation of myoD and MHC expression in C2C12 cells during differentiation process. Among obtained compounds, magnoflorine most efficiently enhanced the myoblast differentiation by activating the p38 MAP kinase and Akt pathway, and also increased the number of multinucleated and cylinder-shaped myotubes...
February 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224898/non-covalently-crosslinked-chitosan-nanofibrous-mats-prepared-by-electrospinning-as-substrates-for-soft-tissue-regeneration
#6
Chiara Tonda-Turo, Francesca Ruini, Martina Ramella, Francesca Boccafoschi, Piergiorgio Gentile, Emilia Gioffredi, Giuseppe Falvo D'Urso Labate, Gianluca Ciardelli
Chitosan (CS) membranes obtained by electrospinning are potentially ideal substrates for soft tissue engineering as they combine the excellent biological properties of CS with the extracellular matrix (ECM)-like structure of nanofibrous mats. However, the high amount of acid solvents required to spun CS solutions interferes with the biocompatibility of CS fibres. To overcome this limitation, novel CS based solutions were investigated in this work. Low amount of acidic acid (0.5M) was used and dibasic sodium phosphate (DSP) was introduced as ionic crosslinker to improve nanofibres water stability and to neutralize the acidic pH of electrospun membranes after fibres soaking in biological fluids...
April 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211679/site-directed-immobilization-of-bmp-2-two-approaches-for-the-production-of-innovative-osteoinductive-scaffolds
#7
Barbara Tabisz, Werner Schmitz, Michael Schmitz, Tessa Luehmann, Eva Heusler, Jens-Christoph Rybak, Lorenz Meinel, Juliane E Fiebig, Thomas D Mueller, Joachim Nickel
The regenerative potential of bone is strongly impaired in pathological conditions, such as nonunion fractures. To support bone regeneration various scaffolds have been developed in the past, which have been functionalized with osteogenic growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). However, most of them required supra-physiological levels of these proteins leading to burst releases, thereby causing severe side effects. Site-specific, covalent coupling of BMP2 to implant materials might be an optimal strategy in order to overcome these problems...
February 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209983/generation-and-quantitative-proteomics-analysis-of-ck2%C3%AE-%C3%AE-cells
#8
Christian Borgo, Cinzia Franchin, Stefano Scalco, Valentina Bosello-Travain, Arianna Donella-Deana, Giorgio Arrigoni, Mauro Salvi, Lorenzo A Pinna
CK2 is a ubiquitous, constitutively active, highly pleiotropic, acidophilic Ser/Thr protein kinase whose holoenzyme is composed of two catalytic (α and/or α') subunits and a dimer of a non-catalytic β subunit. Abnormally high CK2 level/activity is often associated with malignancy and a variety of cancer cells have been shown to rely on it to escape apoptosis. To gain information about the actual "druggability" of CK2 and to dissect CK2 dependent cellular processes that are instrumental to the establishment and progression of neoplasia we have exploited the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology to generate viable clones of C2C12 myoblasts devoid of either both the CK2 catalytic subunits or its regulatory β-subunit...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205127/apoptosis-induced-by-a-snake-venom-metalloproteinase-from-bothrops-alternatus-venom-in-c2c12-muscle-cells
#9
Soledad Bustillo, Andrea C Van de Velde, Verónica Matzner Perfumo, Claudia C Gay, Laura C Leiva
In this study, the apoptosis inducing effects of baltergin as well as its influence on cell adhesion and migration on muscles cells in vitro were studied. Morphological analysis made by scanning electron and phase contrast microscopy demonstrated typical futures of programmed cell death, apoptosis. This mechanism was confirmed by fluorescence staining, molecular analysis of endonuclease activity and increased mRNA expression level of two representative genes (p53 and bax). On the other hand, baltergin exert an inhibition effect on myoblast cell adhesion and migration in vitro probably through a mechanism that involves the interaction of this enzyme with cell integrins...
April 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188262/mapk-signaling-pathways-and-hdac3-activity-are-disrupted-during-emerin-null-myogenic-progenitor-differentiation
#10
Carol M Collins, Joseph Ellis, James M Holaska
Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). Emerin is an integral inner nuclear membrane protein and a component of the nuclear lamina. EDMD is characterized by skeletal muscle wasting, cardiac conduction defects and tendon contractures. The failure to regenerate skeletal muscle is predicted to contribute to the skeletal muscle pathology of EDMD. We hypothesize muscle regeneration defects are caused by impaired muscle stem cell differentiation. Myogenic progenitors derived from emerin-null mice were used to confirm their impaired differentiation and analyze selected myogenic molecular pathways...
February 10, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183660/anticancer-activity-of-biologically-synthesized-silver-and-gold-nanoparticles-on-mouse-myoblast-cancer-cells-and-their-toxicity-against-embryonic-zebrafish
#11
Rajan Ramachandran, Chandran Krishnaraj, Allur Subramaniyan Sivakumar, Palaniappan Prasannakumar, V K Abhay Kumar, Kwan Seob Shim, Chul-Gyu Song, Soon-Il Yun
The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of bioinspired silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against mouse myoblast cancer cells (C2C12). Both AgNPs and AuNPs were biologically synthesized using Spinacia oleracea Linn., aqueous leaves extract. UV-Vis. spectrophotometer, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies supported the successful synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181922/burn-serum-stimulates-myoblast-cell-death-associated-with-il-6-induced-mitochondrial-fragmentation
#12
Alvand Sehat, Ryan M Huebinger, Deborah L Carlson, Qun S Zang, Steven E Wolf, Juquan Song
BACKGROUND: Burn patients suffer muscle mass loss associated with hyperinflammation and hypercatabolism. The mitochondria are affected by this metabolic alteration. Mitochondrial fission activates a caspase cascade which ultimately leads to cell death. We postulate that burn-induced muscle loss is associated with increased mitochondrial fission and subsequent functional impairment. Further, we investigated whether the cytokine IL-6 plays a major role in mitochondrial fission-associated cell death after burn...
February 8, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178271/tead-transcription-factors-are-required-for-normal-primary-myoblast-differentiation-in-vitro-and-muscle-regeneration-in-vivo
#13
Shilpy Joshi, Guillaume Davidson, Stéphanie Le Gras, Shuichi Watanabe, Thomas Braun, Gabrielle Mengus, Irwin Davidson
The TEAD family of transcription factors (TEAD1-4) bind the MCAT element in the regulatory elements of both growth promoting and myogenic differentiation genes. Defining TEAD transcription factor function in myogenesis has proved elusive due to overlapping expression of family members and their functional redundancy. We show that silencing of either Tead1, Tead2 or Tead4 did not effect primary myoblast (PM) differentiation, but that their simultaneous knockdown strongly impaired differentiation. In contrast, Tead1 or Tead4 silencing impaired C2C12 differentiation showing their different contributions in PMs and C2C12 cells...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177708/the-effect-of-caffeine-on-skeletal-muscle-anabolic-signaling-and-hypertrophy
#14
Timothy M Moore, Xavier M Mortensen, Conrad K Ashby, Alexander M Harris, Karson J Kump, David W Laird, Aaron J Adams, Jeremy K Bray, Ting Chen, David M Thomson
Caffeine is a widely-consumed stimulant with the potential to enhance physical performance through multiple mechanisms. However, recent in vitro findings have suggested that caffeine may block skeletal muscle anabolic signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. This could negatively affect protein synthesis and the capacity for muscle growth. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effect of caffeine on in vivo AMPK and mTOR pathway signaling, protein synthesis and muscle growth...
January 26, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176824/ampk-regulates-lipid-accumulation-in-skeletal-muscle-cells-through-fto-dependent-demethylation-of-n-6-methyladenosine
#15
Weiche Wu, Jie Feng, Denghu Jiang, Xihong Zhou, Qin Jiang, Min Cai, Xinxia Wang, Tizhong Shan, Yizhen Wang
Skeletal muscle plays important roles in whole-body energy homeostasis. Excessive skeletal muscle lipid accumulation is associated with some metabolic diseases such as obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. The energy sensor AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is a key regulator of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism, but the precise regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we provide a novel mechanism by which AMPK regulates skeletal muscle lipid accumulation through fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO)-dependent demethylation of N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A)...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176491/cells-responding-to-surface-structure-of-calcium-phosphate-ceramics-for-bone-regeneration
#16
Jingwei Zhang, Lanying Sun, Xiaoman Luo, Davide Barbieri, Joost D de Bruijn, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Lorenzo Moroni, Huipin Yuan
Surface structure largely affects the inductive bone-forming potential of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in ectopic sites and bone regeneration in critical-sized bone defects. Surface-dependent osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) partially explained the improved bone-forming ability of submicron surface structured CaP ceramics. In this study, we investigated the possible influence of surface structure on different bone-related cells, which may potentially participate in the process of improved bone formation in CaP ceramics...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174343/mitochondrial-efficiency-and-exercise-economy-following-heat-stress-a-potential-role-of-uncoupling-protein-3
#17
Roy M Salgado, Ailish C Sheard, Roger A Vaughan, Daryl L Parker, Suzanne M Schneider, Robert W Kenefick, James J McCormick, Nicholas P Gannon, Trisha A Van Dusseldorp, Len R Kravitz, Christine M Mermier
Heat stress has been reported to reduce uncoupling proteins (UCP) expression, which in turn should improve mitochondrial efficiency. Such an improvement in efficiency may translate to the systemic level as greater exercise economy. However, neither the heat-induced improvement in mitochondrial efficiency (due to decrease in UCP), nor its potential to improve economy has been studied. Determine: (i) if heat stress in vitro lowers UCP3 thereby improving mitochondrial efficiency in C2C12 myocytes; (ii) whether heat acclimation (HA) in vivo improves exercise economy in trained individuals; and (iii) the potential improved economy during exercise at altitude...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174179/s100b-impairs-glycolysis-via-enhanced-poly-adp-ribosyl-ation-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-in-rodent-muscle-cells
#18
Kaori Hosokawa, Yoji Hamada, Atsushi Fujiya, Masatoshi Murase, Ryuya Maekawa, Yasuhiro Niwa, Takako Izumoto, Yusuke Seino, Shin Tsunekawa, Hiroshi Arima
S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), a multifunctional macromolecule mainly expressed in nerve tissues and adipocytes, has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. To clarify the role of S100B in insulin action and glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues, we investigated the effect of S100B on glycolysis in myoblast and myotube cells. Rat myoblast L6 cells were treated with recombinant mouse S100B to examine glucose consumption, lactate production, glycogen accumulation, glycolytic metabolites and enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164151/graphene-foam-as-a-three-dimensional-platform-for-myotube-growth
#19
Eric Krueger, A Nicole Chang, Dale Brown, Josh Eixenberger, Raquel Brown, Sepideh Rastegar, Katie M Yocham, Kurtis D Cantley, David Estrada
This study demonstrates the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into functional myotubes on 3-dimensional graphene foam bioscaffolds. Specifically, we establish both bare and laminin coated graphene foam as a biocompatible platform for muscle cells and identify that electrical coupling stimulates cell activity. Cell differentiation and functionality is determined by the expression of myotube heavy chain protein and Ca(2+) fluorescence, respectively. Further, our data show that the application of a pulsed electrical stimulus to the graphene foam initiates myotube contraction and subsequent localized substrate movement of over 100 micrometers...
August 8, 2016: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163294/metabolic-suppression-by-3-iodothyronamine-induced-muscle-cell-atrophy-via-activation-of-foxo-proteasome-signaling-and-downregulation-of-akt1-s6k-signaling
#20
Hyunwoo Ju, Taewan Kim, Chan-Moon Chung, Junsoo Park, Takeshi Nikawa, Kyoungsook Park, Inho Choi
The homeostasis of muscle properties depends on both physical and metabolic stresses. Whereas physical stress entails metabolic response for muscle homeostasis, the latter does not necessarily involve the former and may thus solely affect the homeostasis. We here report that metabolic suppression by the hypometabolic agent 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) induced muscle cell atrophy without physical stress. We observed that the oxygen consumption rate of C2C12 myotubes decreased 40% upon treatment with 75 μM T1AM for 6 h versus 10% in the vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) control...
February 3, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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