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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678922/enzymatic-synthesis-of-6-sialyllactose-a-dominant-sialylated-human-milk-oligosaccharide-by-a-novel-exo-%C3%AE-sialidase-from-bacteroides-fragilis-nctc9343
#1
Longcheng Guo, Xiaodi Chen, Li Xu, Min Xiao, Lili Lu
Gut bacteria provide a rich source of glycosidases that can recognize and/or hydrolyze glycans for nutritions. Interestingly, some glycosidases are also found to catalyze transglycosylation reactions in vitro and thus can be used for oligosaccharide synthesis. In this work, six putative and one known exo -α-sialidase genes, including three from Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343, three from Clostridium perfringens ATCC13124, and one known from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254, were subjected to gene cloning and heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli The recombinant enzymes were purified, characterized for substrate specificity, and screened for transglycosylation activity...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595968/c-glycosidation-of-unprotected-di-and-trisaccharide-aldopyranoses-with-ketones-using-pyrrolidine-boric-acid-catalysis
#2
Sherida Johnson, Avik Kumar Bagdi, Fujie Tanaka
C-Glycoside derivatives are found in pharmaceuticals, glycoconjugates, probes, and other functional molecules. Thus, C-glycosidation of unprotected carbohydrates is of interest. Here the development of C-glycosidation reactions of unprotected di- and trisaccharide aldopyranoses with various ketones is reported. The reactions were performed using catalyst systems composed of pyrrolidine and boric acid under mild conditions. Carbohydrates used for the C-glycosidation included lactose, maltose, cellobiose, 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, and maltotriose...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590598/detailed-analyses-of-stall-force-generation-in-mycoplasma-mobile-gliding
#3
Masaki Mizutani, Isil Tulum, Yoshiaki Kinosita, Takayuki Nishizaka, Makoto Miyata
Mycoplasma mobile is a bacterium that uses a unique mechanism to glide on solid surfaces at a velocity of up to 4.5 μm/s. Its gliding machinery comprises hundreds of units that generate the force for gliding based on the energy derived from ATP; the units catch and pull sialylated oligosaccharides fixed to solid surfaces. In this study, we measured the stall force of wild-type and mutant strains of M. mobile carrying a bead manipulated using optical tweezers. The strains that had been enhanced for binding exhibited weaker stall forces than the wild-type strain, indicating that stall force is related to force generation rather than to binding...
March 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573799/metabotypes-with-elevated-protein-and-lipid-catabolism-and-inflammation-precede-clinical-mastitis-in-prepartal-transition-dairy-cows
#4
F Zandkarimi, J Vanegas, X Fern, C S Maier, G Bobe
Clinical mastitis (CM), the most prevalent and costly disease in dairy cows, is diagnosed most commonly shortly after calving. Current indicators do not satisfactorily predict CM. This study aimed to develop a robust and comprehensive mass spectrometry-based metabolomic and lipidomic workflow using untargeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry for predictive biomarker detection. Using a nested case-control design, we measured weekly during the prepartal transition period differences in serum metabolites, lipids, inflammation markers, and minerals between clinically healthy Holstein dairy cows diagnosed with mastitis postcalving (CMP; n = 8; CM diagnosis d 1 = 3 cows, d 2 = 2 cows, d 4 = 1 cow; d 25 = 1 cow, and d 43 = 1 cow that had subclinical mastitis since d 3) or not (control; n = 9)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570610/dietary-sialyllactose-does-not-influence-measures-of-recognition-memory-or-diurnal-activity-in-the-young-pig
#5
Stephen A Fleming, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Sharon M Donovan, Ryan N Dilger
Sialic acid (SA) is an integral component of gangliosides and signaling molecules in the brain and its dietary intake may support cognitive development. We previously reported that feeding sialyllactose, a milk oligosaccharide that contains SA, alters SA content and diffusivity in the pig brain. The present research sought to expand upon such results and describe the effects of feeding sialyllactose on recognition memory and sleep/wake activity using a translational pig model. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to a customized milk replacer containing 0 g/L or 380 g/L of sialyllactose from postnatal day (PND) 2-22...
March 23, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566328/sialyllactose-modified-3-way-junction-dna-as-binding-inhibitor-of-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin
#6
Miyuki Yamabe, Kunihiro Kaihatsu, Yasuhito Ebara
Sialic acid present on the cell surface is recognized by hemagglutinin (HA) on the influenza virus in the first step of infection. Therefore, a compound that can efficiently interfere with the interaction between sialic acid and HA might inhibit infection and allow detection of the influenza virus. We focused on the spatial arrangement of sialic acid binding sites on HA and developed 2,3-sialyllactose (2,3-SL)-modified 3-way junction (3WJ) DNA molecules with a topology similar to that of sialic acid binding sites...
March 22, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562795/breast-milk-oligosaccharides-effects-of-2-fucosyllactose-and-6-sialyllactose-on-the-adhesion-of-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-fyris-to-caco-2-cells
#7
Bruna Facinelli, Emanuela Marini, Gloria Magi, Lucia Zampini, Lucia Santoro, Carlo Catassi, Chiara Monachesi, Orazio Gabrielli, Giovanni V Coppa
BACKGROUND: It is well known that human milk oligosaccharides play an important role as prebiotics, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infective agents. In the last few years, several studies have been performed using specific oligosaccharides, such as 2'-fucosyllactose and 6'-sialylactose, to evaluate their biological functions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-adhesive effect of the above oligosaccharides on Escherichia coli and Salmonella fyris...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555556/toxicological-evaluation-of-6-sialyllactose-sodium-salt-6-sl-sodium-salt
#8
Rit Bahadur Gurung, Dae Hee Kim, Lila Kim, Albert W Lee, Yonglin Gao, Zhenhua Wang
We performed a series of toxicity studies on the safety of 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) sodium salt as a food ingredient. 6'-SL sodium salt, up to a maximum dose of 5000 μg/plate, did not increase the number of revertant colonies in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation. A chromosomal aberration assay (using Chinese hamster lung cells) found no clastogenic effects at any concentration of 6'-SL sodium salt in the presence or absence of S9 metabolic activation...
March 16, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458022/generation-of-anti-oligosaccharide-antibodies-that-recognize-mammalian-glycoproteins-by-immunization-with-a-novel-artificial-glycosphingolipid
#9
Tetsuya Okuda, Asami Fukui
Here we report a new method for the efficient generation of antibodies that recognize the fine structures of oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. We found a newly designed artificial glycosphingolipid carrying a very long chain fatty acid to be a strong immunogen in mice, with the serum of immunized mice containing antibodies recognizing the oligosaccharide structure of the immunogen. First, we found that conjugation of a simple ceramide analogue to target oligosaccharides could enhance the immunogenicity of these oligosaccharides in these immunized mice...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416087/broad-spectrum-neutralization-of-avian-influenza-viruses-by-sialylated-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-vivo-assessment-of-3-sialyllactose-against-h9n2-in-chickens
#10
Ramesh Prasad Pandey, Dae Hee Kim, Jinsuk Woo, Jaeyoung Song, Sang Ho Jang, Joon Bae Kim, Kwang Myun Cheong, Jin Sik Oh, Jae Kyung Sohng
Two sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (SHMOs) 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) and 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) were accessed for their possible antiviral activity against six different subtypes of thirteen avian influenza (AI) viruses in vitro. 3'-SL exhibited promising antiviral activity against almost all subtypes of tested AI viruses in hemagglutination inhibition assay, whereas 6'-SL showed activity against few selected H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtype strains. 3'-SL has minimum inhibitory concentration values of 15...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407203/toxicological-evaluation-of-3-sialyllactose-sodium-salt
#11
Daehee Kim, Rit Bahadur Gurung, Wonmin Seo, Albert W Lee, Jinsuk Woo
The safety of 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) sodium salt was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, in vivo and in vitro clastogenic activity, and animal toxicity in beagle dogs and rats. The results of all mutagenicity and genotoxicity tests were negative, indicating that 3'-SL does not have any mutagenic or clastogenic potential. The mean lethal dose (LD50) of 3'-SL sodium salt was well above 20 g/kg body weight (bw) in rats. A dose escalation acute toxicity study in Beagle dogs also indicated no treatment-related abnormalities...
January 26, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377120/human-milk-oligosaccharides-attenuate-antigen-antibody-complex-induced-chemokine-release-from-human-intestinal-epithelial-cell-lines
#12
Sehrish Zehra, Ibrahim Khambati, Megan Vierhout, M Firoz Mian, Rachael Buck, Paul Forsythe
There has been increased interest in the use of dietary ingredients, including prebiotics such as human-milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), as therapeutic strategies for food allergy. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of HMOs is important to realizing their therapeutic potential. Here we demonstrate that the HMO, 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL) inhibited chemokine (IL-8 and CCL20) release from T-84 and HT-29 cells stimulated with antigen-antibody complex, TNFα or PGE2 ; an effect that was PPARγ dependent and associated with decreased activity of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFκB...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372119/cominigut-a-small-volume-in-vitro-colon-model-for-the-screening-of-gut-microbial-fermentation-processes
#13
Maria Wiese, Bekzod Khakimov, Sebastian Nielsen, Helena Sørensen, Frans van den Berg, Dennis Sandris Nielsen
Driven by the growing recognition of the influence of the gut microbiota (GM) on human health and disease, there is a rapidly increasing interest in understanding how dietary components, pharmaceuticals and pre- and probiotics influence GM. In vitro colon models represent an attractive tool for this purpose. With the dual objective of facilitating the investigation of rare and expensive compounds, as well as an increased throughput, we have developed a prototype in vitro parallel gut microbial fermentation screening tool with a working volume of only 5 ml consisting of five parallel reactor units that can be expanded with multiples of five to increase throughput...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281012/induction-of-human-tolerogenic-dendritic-cells-by-3-sialyllactose-via-tlr4-is-explained-by-lps-contamination
#14
Olaf Perdijk, R J Joost van Neerven, Ben Meijer, Huub F J Savelkoul, Sylvia Brugman
The human milk oligosaccharide 3'-sialyllactose (3'SL) has previously been shown to activate murine dendritic cells (DC) in a Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-mediated manner ex vivo. In this study we aimed to investigate whether 3'SL has similar immunomodulatory properties on human DC. 3'SL was shown to induce NF-κB activation via human TLR4. However, LPS was detected in the commercially obtained 3'SL from different suppliers. After the removal of LPS from 3'SL, we studied its ability to modify DC differentiation in vitro...
March 1, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259165/unravelling-the-specificity-and-mechanism-of-sialic-acid-recognition-by-the-gut-symbiont-ruminococcus-gnavus
#15
C David Owen, Louise E Tailford, Serena Monaco, Tanja Šuligoj, Laura Vaux, Romane Lallement, Zahra Khedri, Hai Yu, Karine Lecointe, John Walshaw, Sandra Tribolo, Marc Horrex, Andrew Bell, Xi Chen, Gary L Taylor, Ajit Varki, Jesus Angulo, Nathalie Juge
Ruminococcus gnavus is a human gut symbiont wherein the ability to degrade mucins is mediated by an intramolecular trans-sialidase (RgNanH). RgNanH comprises a GH33 catalytic domain and a sialic acid-binding carbohydrate-binding module (CBM40). Here we used glycan arrays, STD NMR, X-ray crystallography, mutagenesis and binding assays to determine the structure and function of RgNanH_CBM40 (RgCBM40). RgCBM40 displays the canonical CBM40 β-sandwich fold and broad specificity towards sialoglycans with millimolar binding affinity towards α2,3- or α2,6-sialyllactose...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237123/construction-of-multivalent-homo-and-heterofunctional-abo-blood-group-glycoconjugates-using-a-trifunctional-linker-strategy
#16
Gour Chand Daskhan, Hanh-Thuc Ton Tran, Peter J Meloncelli, Todd L Lowary, Lori J West, Christopher W Cairo
The design and synthesis of multivalent ligands displaying complex oligosaccharides is necessary for the development of therapeutics, diagnostics, and research tools. Here, we report an efficient conjugation strategy to prepare complex glycoconjugates with 4 copies of 1 or 2 separate glycan epitopes, providing 4-8 carbohydrate residues on a tetravalent poly(ethylene glycol) scaffold. This strategy provides complex glycoconjugates that approach the size of glycoproteins (15-18 kDa) while remaining well-defined...
February 21, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187192/comprehensive-metabolic-profiling-of-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-among-generally-healthy-individuals
#17
Maik Pietzner, Anne Kaul, Ann-Kristin Henning, Gabi Kastenmüller, Anna Artati, Markus M Lerch, Jerzy Adamski, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Inflammation occurs as an immediate protective response of the immune system to a harmful stimulus, whether locally confined or systemic. In contrast, a persisting, i.e., chronic, inflammatory state, even at a low-grade, is a well-known risk factor in the development of common diseases like diabetes or atherosclerosis. In clinical practice, laboratory markers like high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), white blood cell count (WBC), and fibrinogen, are used to reveal inflammatory processes...
November 30, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182578/dietary-sialyllactose-influences-sialic-acid-concentrations-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-measures-in-corpus-callosum-of-young-pigs
#18
Austin T Mudd, Stephen A Fleming, Beau Labhart, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Sharon M Donovan, Ryan N Dilger
Sialic acid (SA) is a key component of gangliosides and neural cell adhesion molecules important during neurodevelopment. Human milk contains SA in the form of sialyllactose (SL) an abundant oligosaccharide. To better understand the potential role of dietary SL on neurodevelopment, the effects of varying doses of dietary SL on brain SA content and neuroimaging markers of development were assessed in a newborn piglet model. Thirty-eight male pigs were provided one of four experimental diets from 2 to 32 days of age...
November 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111681/design-of-glycopolymers-carrying-sialyl-oligosaccharides-for-controlling-the-interaction-with-the-influenza-virus
#19
Masanori Nagao, Yurina Fujiwara, Teruhiko Matsubara, Yu Hoshino, Toshinori Sato, Yoshiko Miura
We designed glycopolymers carrying sialyl oligosaccharides by "post-click" chemistry and evaluated the interaction with the influenza virus. The glycopolymer structures were synthesized in a well-controlled manner by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and the Huisgen reaction. Acrylamide-type monomers were copolymerized to give hydrophilicity to the polymer backbones, and the hydrophilicity enabled the successful introduction of the oligosaccharides into the polymer backbones...
December 11, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973640/human-norovirus-gii-4-mi001-p-dimer-binds-fucosylated-and-sialylated-carbohydrates
#20
Henrik Wegener, Álvaro Mallagaray, Tobias Schöne, Thomas Peters, Julia Lockhauserbäumer, Hao Yan, Charlotte Uetrecht, Grant Hansman, Stefan Taube
Human noroviruses (HuNoV), members of the family Caliciviridae are the major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Successful infection is linked to the ability of the protruding (P) domain of the viral capsid to bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGA). Binding to gangliosides plays a major role for many non-human calici- and noroviruses. Increasing evidence points to a broader role of sialylated carbohydrates such as gangliosides in norovirus infection. Here, we compare HBGA and ganglioside binding of a GII...
September 4, 2017: Glycobiology
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