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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416087/broad-spectrum-neutralization-of-avian-influenza-viruses-by-sialylated-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-vivo-assessment-of-3-sialyllactose-against-h9n2-in-chickens
#1
Ramesh Prasad Pandey, Dae Hee Kim, Jinsuk Woo, Jaeyoung Song, Sang Ho Jang, Joon Bae Kim, Kwang Myun Cheong, Jin Sik Oh, Jae Kyung Sohng
Two sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (SHMOs) 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) and 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) were accessed for their possible antiviral activity against six different subtypes of thirteen avian influenza (AI) viruses in vitro. 3'-SL exhibited promising antiviral activity against almost all subtypes of tested AI viruses in hemagglutination inhibition assay, whereas 6'-SL showed activity against few selected H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtype strains. 3'-SL has minimum inhibitory concentration values of 15...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407203/toxicological-evaluation-of-3-sialyllactose-sodium-salt
#2
Daehee Kim, Rit Bahadur Gurung, Wonmin Seo, Albert W Lee, Jinsuk Woo
The safety of 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) sodium salt was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, in vivo and in vitro clastogenic activity, and animal toxicity in beagle dogs and rats. The results of all mutagenicity and genotoxicity tests were negative, indicating that 3'-SL does not have any mutagenic or clastogenic potential. The mean lethal dose (LD50) of 3'-SL sodium salt was well above 20 g/kg body weight (bw) in rats. A dose escalation acute toxicity study in Beagle dogs also indicated no treatment-related abnormalities...
January 26, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377120/human-milk-oligosaccharides-attenuate-antigen-antibody-complex-induced-chemokine-release-from-human-intestinal-epithelial-cell-lines
#3
Sehrish Zehra, Ibrahim Khambati, Megan Vierhout, M Firoz Mian, Rachael Buck, Paul Forsythe
There has been increased interest in the use of dietary ingredients, including prebiotics such as human-milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), as therapeutic strategies for food allergy. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of HMOs is important to realizing their therapeutic potential. Here we demonstrate that the HMO, 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL) inhibited chemokine (IL-8 and CCL20) release from T-84 and HT-29 cells stimulated with antigen-antibody complex, TNFα or PGE2 ; an effect that was PPARγ dependent and associated with decreased activity of the transcription factors AP-1 and NFκB...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372119/cominigut-a-small-volume-in-vitro-colon-model-for-the-screening-of-gut-microbial-fermentation-processes
#4
Maria Wiese, Bekzod Khakimov, Sebastian Nielsen, Helena Sørensen, Frans van den Berg, Dennis Sandris Nielsen
Driven by the growing recognition of the influence of the gut microbiota (GM) on human health and disease, there is a rapidly increasing interest in understanding how dietary components, pharmaceuticals and pre- and probiotics influence GM. In vitro colon models represent an attractive tool for this purpose. With the dual objective of facilitating the investigation of rare and expensive compounds, as well as an increased throughput, we have developed a prototype in vitro parallel gut microbial fermentation screening tool with a working volume of only 5 ml consisting of five parallel reactor units that can be expanded with multiples of five to increase throughput...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281012/induction-of-human-tolerogenic-dendritic-cells-by-3-sialyllactose-via-tlr4-is-explained-by-lps-contamination
#5
Olaf Perdijk, R J Joost van Neerven, Ben Meijer, Huub F J Savelkoul, Sylvia Brugman
The human milk oligosaccharide 3'sialyllactose (3'SL) has previously been shown to activate murine dendritic cells (DC) in a TLR4-mediated manner ex vivo. In this study we aimed to investigate whether 3'SL has similar immunomodulatory properties on human DC. 3'SL was shown to induce NF-κB activation via human TLR4. However, LPS was detected in the commercially obtained 3'SL from different suppliers. After the removal of LPS from 3'SL, we studied its ability to modify DC differentiation in vitro. In contrast to LPS and 3'SL, LPS-free 3'SL did not induce functional and phenotypical changes on immature DC (iDC)...
December 21, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259165/unravelling-the-specificity-and-mechanism-of-sialic-acid-recognition-by-the-gut-symbiont-ruminococcus-gnavus
#6
C David Owen, Louise E Tailford, Serena Monaco, Tanja Šuligoj, Laura Vaux, Romane Lallement, Zahra Khedri, Hai Yu, Karine Lecointe, John Walshaw, Sandra Tribolo, Marc Horrex, Andrew Bell, Xi Chen, Gary L Taylor, Ajit Varki, Jesus Angulo, Nathalie Juge
Ruminococcus gnavus is a human gut symbiont wherein the ability to degrade mucins is mediated by an intramolecular trans-sialidase (RgNanH). RgNanH comprises a GH33 catalytic domain and a sialic acid-binding carbohydrate-binding module (CBM40). Here we used glycan arrays, STD NMR, X-ray crystallography, mutagenesis and binding assays to determine the structure and function of RgNanH_CBM40 (RgCBM40). RgCBM40 displays the canonical CBM40 β-sandwich fold and broad specificity towards sialoglycans with millimolar binding affinity towards α2,3- or α2,6-sialyllactose...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237123/construction-of-multivalent-homo-and-hetero-functional-abo-blood-group-glycoconjugates-using-a-trifunctional-linker-strategy
#7
Gour Chand Daskhan, Hanh-Thuc Ton Tran, Peter Meloncelli, Todd L Lowary, Lori J West, Christopher W Cairo
The design and synthesis of multivalent ligands displaying complex oligosaccharides is necessary for the development of therapeutics, diagnostics, and research tools. Here, we report an efficient conjugation strategy to prepare complex glycoconjugates with four copies of one or two separate glycan epitopes, providing 4-8 carbohydrate residues on a tetravalent poly(ethylene glycol) scaffold. This strategy provides complex glycoconjugates that approach the size of glycoproteins (15-18 kDa) while remaining well-defined...
December 13, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187192/comprehensive-metabolic-profiling-of-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-among-generally-healthy-individuals
#8
Maik Pietzner, Anne Kaul, Ann-Kristin Henning, Gabi Kastenmüller, Anna Artati, Markus M Lerch, Jerzy Adamski, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Inflammation occurs as an immediate protective response of the immune system to a harmful stimulus, whether locally confined or systemic. In contrast, a persisting, i.e., chronic, inflammatory state, even at a low-grade, is a well-known risk factor in the development of common diseases like diabetes or atherosclerosis. In clinical practice, laboratory markers like high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), white blood cell count (WBC), and fibrinogen, are used to reveal inflammatory processes...
November 30, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182578/dietary-sialyllactose-influences-sialic-acid-concentrations-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-measures-in-corpus-callosum-of-young-pigs
#9
Austin T Mudd, Stephen A Fleming, Beau Labhart, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Sharon M Donovan, Ryan N Dilger
Sialic acid (SA) is a key component of gangliosides and neural cell adhesion molecules important during neurodevelopment. Human milk contains SA in the form of sialyllactose (SL) an abundant oligosaccharide. To better understand the potential role of dietary SL on neurodevelopment, the effects of varying doses of dietary SL on brain SA content and neuroimaging markers of development were assessed in a newborn piglet model. Thirty-eight male pigs were provided one of four experimental diets from 2 to 32 days of age...
November 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111681/design-of-glycopolymers-carrying-sialyl-oligosaccharides-for-controlling-the-interaction-with-the-influenza-virus
#10
Masanori Nagao, Yurina Fujiwara, Teruhiko Matsubara, Yu Hoshino, Toshinori Sato, Yoshiko Miura
We designed glycopolymers carrying sialyl oligosaccharides by "post-click" chemistry and evaluated the interaction with the influenza virus. The glycopolymer structures were synthesized in a well-controlled manner by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and the Huisgen reaction. Acrylamide-type monomers were copolymerized to give hydrophilicity to the polymer backbones, and the hydrophilicity enabled the successful introduction of the oligosaccharides into the polymer backbones. The glycopolymers with different sugar densities and polymer lengths were designed for the interaction with hemagglutinin on the virus surface...
November 14, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973640/human-norovirus-gii-4-mi001-p-dimer-binds-fucosylated-and-sialylated-carbohydrates
#11
Henrik Wegener, Álvaro Mallagaray, Tobias Schöne, Thomas Peters, Julia Lockhauserbäumer, Hao Yan, Charlotte Uetrecht, Grant Hansman, Stefan Taube
Human noroviruses (HuNoV), members of the family Caliciviridae are the major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Successful infection is linked to the ability of the protruding (P) domain of the viral capsid to bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGA). Binding to gangliosides plays a major role for many non-human calici- and noroviruses. Increasing evidence points to a broader role of sialylated carbohydrates such as gangliosides in norovirus infection. Here, we compare HBGA and ganglioside binding of a GII...
September 4, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943358/custom-glycosylation-of-cells-and-proteins-using-cyclic-carbamate-derivatized-oligosaccharides
#12
Marek W J Whitehead, Nikolay Khanzhin, Lubor Borsig, Thierry Hennet
The structural complexity of glycosylation restrains the functional characterization of glycans. We present a versatile carbohydrate ligation technique based on the reaction of cyclic carbamates with primary amines. Cyclic-carbamate-derivatized carbohydrates can be added to primary amine-containing molecules in aqueous solution to yield glycoconjugates. This method enabled the presentation of carbohydrate epitopes on live animal cells, as shown by the acquisition of E-selectin binding sites on mouse MC-38 cells decorated with 3-fucosyllactose or 3-fucosyl-3-sialyllactose...
November 16, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938544/sialyllactose-suppresses-angiogenesis-by-inhibiting-vegfr-2-activation-and-tumor-progression
#13
Tae-Wook Chung, Eun-Young Kim, Seok-Jo Kim, Hee-Jung Choi, Se Bok Jang, Keuk-Jun Kim, Sun-Hyung Ha, Fukushi Abekura, Choong-Hwan Kwak, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Ki-Tae Ha
The oligosaccharides in human milk have various biological functions. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the anti-angiogenic action of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are still unclear. Here, we show that siallylactose (SL) found in human milk can inhibit the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) by binding to its VEGF binding site (second and third IgG-like domains), thus blocking downstream signal activation. SL also inhibits growth of VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858610/synthesis-of-a-model-trisaccharide-for-studying-the-interplay-between-the-anti-%C3%AE-gal-antibody-and-the-trans-sialidase-reactions-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#14
M Eugenia Giorgi, Rosana Lopez, Rosalia Agusti, Carla Marino, Rosa M de Lederkremer
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is covered by a dense glycocalix mainly composed by glycoproteins called mucins which are also the acceptors of sialic acid in a reaction catalyzed by a trans-sialidase (TcTS). Sialylation of trypomastigote mucins protects the parasite from lysis by the anti α-Galp antibodies from serum. The TcTS is essential for the infection process since T. cruzi is unable to biosynthesize sialic acid. The enzyme specifically transfers it from a terminal β-d-Galp unit in the host glycoconjugate to terminal β-d-Galp units in the parasite mucins to construct the d-NeuNAc(α2→3)β-d-Galp motif...
August 18, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782172/3-sialyllactose-protects-against-osteoarthritic-development-by-facilitating-cartilage-homeostasis
#15
Jimin Jeon, Li-Jung Kang, Kwang Min Lee, Chanmi Cho, Eun Kyung Song, Wook Kim, Tae Joo Park, Siyoung Yang
3'-Sialyllactose has specific physiological functions in a variety of tissues; however, its effects on osteoarthritic development remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated the function of 3'-sialyllactose on osteoarthritic cartilage destruction. In vitro and ex vivo, biochemical and histological analysis demonstrated that 3'-sialyllactose was sufficient to restore the synthesis of Col2a1 and accumulation of sulphated proteoglycan, a critical factor for cartilage regeneration in osteoarthritic development, and blocked the expression of Mmp3, Mmp13 and Cox2 induced by IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α, which mediates cartilage degradation...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780103/human-milk-oligosaccharide-consumption-by-probiotic-and-human-associated-bifidobacteria-and-lactobacilli
#16
Taksawan Thongaram, Jennifer L Hoeflinger, JoMay Chow, Michael J Miller
Human milk contains high concentrations of nondigestible complex oligosaccharides (human milk oligosaccharides; HMO) that reach the colon and are subsequently fermented by the infant gut microbiota. Using a high-throughput, low-volume growth determination, we evaluated the ability of 12 lactobacilli and 12 bifidobacteria strains, including several commercial probiotics, to ferment HMO and their constituent monomers. Of the 24 strains tested, only Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis ATCC 15697 and Bifidobacterium infantis M-63 were able to ferment 3'-sialyllactose, 6'-sialyllactose, 2'-fucosyllactose, and 3'-fucosyllactose...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637685/milk-oligosaccharides-inhibit-human-rotavirus-infectivity-in-ma104-cells
#17
Daniel R Laucirica, Vassilis Triantis, Ruud Schoemaker, Mary K Estes, Sasirekha Ramani
Background: Oligosaccharides in milk act as soluble decoy receptors and prevent pathogen adhesion to the infant gut. Milk oligosaccharides reduce infectivity of a porcine rotavirus strain; however, the effects on human rotaviruses are less well understood.Objective: In this study, we determined the effect of specific and abundant milk oligosaccharides on the infectivity of 2 globally dominant human rotavirus strains.Methods: Four milk oligosaccharides-2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), 3'-sialyllactose (3'SL), 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL), and galacto-oligosaccharides-were tested for their effects on the infectivity of human rotaviruses G1P[8] and G2P[4] through fluorescent focus assays on African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (MA104 cells)...
September 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490677/dietary-human-milk-oligosaccharides-but-not-prebiotic-oligosaccharides-increase-circulating-natural-killer-cell-and-mesenteric-lymph-node-memory-t-cell-populations-in-noninfected-and-rotavirus-infected-neonatal-piglets
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sarah S Comstock, Min Li, Mei Wang, Marcia H Monaco, Theresa B Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon M Donovan
Background: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have antimicrobial and immunomodulatory actions. It has previously been reported that these oligosaccharides contribute to the reduced duration of rotavirus-induced diarrhea in pigs.Objective: We measured the effects of HMOs and prebiotic oligosaccharides on immune cell populations from noninfected and rotavirus-infected pigs. We hypothesized that dietary HMOs would modulate systemic and gastrointestinal immunity.Methods: Colostrum-deprived newborn pigs were fed formula, formula with 4 g HMOs/L (2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 6'-sialyllactose, 3'-sialyllactose, and free sialic acid), or formula with 3...
June 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442546/modeled-structural-basis-for-the-recognition-of-%C3%AE-2-3-sialyllactose-by-soluble-klotho
#19
Jon D Wright, Sung-Wan An, Jian Xie, Joonho Yoon, Nicole Nischan, Jennifer J Kohler, Noelynn Oliver, Carmay Lim, Chou-Long Huang
Soluble Klotho (sKlotho) is the shed ectodomain of antiaging membrane Klotho that contains 2 extracellular domains KL1 and KL2, each of which shares sequence homology to glycosyl hydrolases. sKlotho elicits pleiotropic cellular responses with a poorly understood mechanism of action. Notably, in injury settings, sKlotho confers cardiac and renal protection by down-regulating calcium-permeable transient receptor potential canonical type isoform 6 (TRPC6) channels in cardiomyocytes and glomerular podocytes. Inhibition of PI3K-dependent exocytosis of TRPC6 is thought to be the underlying mechanism, and recent studies showed that sKlotho interacts with α2-3-sialyllactose-containing gangliosides enriched in lipid rafts to inhibit raft-dependent PI3K signaling...
August 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423739/sialyllactose-suppresses-angiogenesis-by-inhibiting-vegfr-2-activation-and-tumor-progression
#20
Tae-Wook Chung, Eun-Young Kim, Seok-Jo Kim, Hee-Jung Choi, Se Bok Jang, Keuk-Jun Kim, Sun-Hyung Ha, Fukushi Abekura, Choong-Hwan Kwak, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Ki-Tae Ha
The oligosaccharides in human milk have various biological functions. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the anti-angiogenic action of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are still unclear. Here, we show that siallylactose (SL) found in human milk can inhibit the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) by binding to its VEGF binding site (second and third IgG-like domains), thus blocking downstream signal activation. SL also inhibits growth of VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
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