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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775724/nanostructured-glycan-architecture-is-important-in-the-inhibition-of-influenza-a-virus-infection
#1
Seok-Joon Kwon, Dong Hee Na, Jong Hwan Kwak, Marc Douaisi, Fuming Zhang, Eun Ji Park, Jong-Hwan Park, Hana Youn, Chang-Seon Song, Ravi S Kane, Jonathan S Dordick, Kyung Bok Lee, Robert J Linhardt
Rapid change and zoonotic transmission to humans have enhanced the virulence of the influenza A virus (IAV). Neutralizing antibodies fail to provide lasting protection from seasonal epidemics. Furthermore, the effectiveness of anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitors has declined because of drug resistance. Drugs that can block viral attachment and cell entry independent of antigenic evolution or drug resistance might address these problems. We show that multivalent 6'-sialyllactose-polyamidoamine (6SL-PAMAM) conjugates, when designed to have well-defined ligand valencies and spacings, can effectively inhibit IAV infection...
October 24, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713728/cell-free-spent-media-obtained-from-bifidobacterium-bifidum-and-bifidobacterium-crudilactis-grown-in-media-supplemented-with-3-sialyllactose-modulate-virulence-gene-expression-in-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-salmonella-typhimurium
#2
Pauline Bondue, Sébastien Crèvecoeur, François Brose, Georges Daube, Marie-Christine Seghaye, Mansel W Griffiths, Gisèle LaPointe, Véronique Delcenserie
Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO) possess an antimicrobial activity and can promote the growth of bifidobacteria such as Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. In addition, fermentation of carbohydrates by bifidobacteria can result in the production of metabolites presenting an antivirulence effect on several pathogenic bacteria. Whey is rich in complex bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) structurally similar to HMO and B. crudilactis, a species of bovine origin, is able to metabolize some of those complex carbohydrates...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685666/structures-of-the-streptococcus-sanguinis-srpa-binding-region-with-human-sialoglycans-suggest-features-of-the-physiological-ligand
#3
Lioudmila V Loukachevitch, Barbara A Bensing, Hai Yu, Jie Zeng, Xi Chen, Paul M Sullam, T M Iverson
Streptococcus sanguinis is a leading cause of bacterial infective endocarditis, a life-threatening infection of heart valves. S. sanguinis binds to human platelets with high avidity, and this adherence is likely to enhance virulence. Previous studies suggest that a serine-rich repeat adhesin termed SrpA mediates the binding of S. sanguinis to human platelets via its interaction with sialoglycans on the receptor GPIbα. However, in vitro binding assays with SrpA and defined sialoglycans failed to identify specific high-affinity ligands...
October 11, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660754/porcine-milk-oligosaccharides-and-sialic-acid-concentrations-vary-throughout-lactation
#4
Austin T Mudd, Jaime Salcedo, Lindsey S Alexander, Stacey K Johnson, Caitlyn M Getty, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Daniela Barile, Ryan N Dilger
BACKGROUND: Milk oligosaccharides (OSs) are bioactive components known to influence neonatal development. These compounds have specific physiological functions acting as prebiotics, immune system modulators, and enhancing intestine and brain development. OBJECTIVES: The pig is a commonly used model for studying human nutrition, and there is interest in quantifying OS composition of porcine milk across lactation compared with human milk. In this study, we hypothesized that OS and sialic acid (SA) composition of porcine milk would be influenced by stage of lactation...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623031/influenza-viral-hemagglutinin-peptide-inhibits-influenza-viral-entry-by-shielding-the-host-receptor
#5
Qing Chen, Ying Guo
Influenza viral infection of the host begins by the attachment of viral hemagglutinin to a cell surface receptor. In the current study, a hemagglutinin fragment peptide library was screened using an H5N1 recombinant pseudotyped viral system. One peptide, designated HA-pep25, showed effective antiviral activity against both human and avian influenza viral strains (IC50 = 12.0-51.0 μM). A mechanistic study demonstrated direct binding between HA-pep25 and sialyllactose, which mimics the host receptor for the influenza virus...
March 11, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522435/characterization-of-porcine-milk-oligosaccharides-during-early-lactation-and-their-relation-to-the-fecal-microbiome
#6
J Salcedo, S A Frese, D A Mills, D Barile
The composition of porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMO) was analyzed during early lactation and their relation to piglet gut microbiome was investigated. Pigs are considered ideal intestinal models to simulate humans because of the striking similarity in intestinal physiopathology to humans. The evolution of PMO was investigated in the milk from 3 healthy sows at prefarrowing, farrowing, and d 7 and 14 postpartum by Nano-LC Chip Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA)...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367145/it-all-starts-with-a-sandwich-identification-of-sialidases-with-trans-glycosylation-activity
#7
Rune T Nordvang, Christian Nyffenegger, Jesper Holck, Carsten Jers, Birgitte Zeuner, Ulrik K Sundekilde, Anne S Meyer, Jørn D Mikkelsen
Sialidases (3.2.1.18) may exhibit trans-sialidase activity to catalyze sialylation of lactose if the active site topology is congruent with that of the Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase (EC 2.4.1.-). The present work was undertaken to test the hypothesis that a particular aromatic sandwich structure of two amino acids proximal to the active site of the T. cruzi trans-sialidase infers trans-sialidase activity. On this basis, four enzymes with putative trans-sialidase activity were identified through an iterative alignment from 2909 native sialidases available in GenBank, which were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338459/temporal-change-of-the-content-of-10-oligosaccharides-in-the-milk-of-chinese-urban-mothers
#8
Sean Austin, Carlos A De Castro, Thierry Bénet, Yangfeng Hou, Henan Sun, Sagar K Thakkar, Gerard Vinyes-Pares, Yumei Zhang, Peiyu Wang
Breastfed infants tend to be less prone to infections and may have improved cognitive benefits compared to formula-fed infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are the third most abundant component of human milk, but are absent from formulae. They may be partially responsible for the benefits of breastfeeding. In this cross-sectional observational study, the HMO composition of milk from Chinese mothers was studied to determine the impact of stage of lactation, mode of delivery and geographical location. The content of 10 HMO was measured by HPLC in 446 milk samples from mothers living in three different cities in China...
2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334597/crystal-structure-of-raptor-adenovirus-1-fibre-head-and-role-of-the-beta-hairpin-in-siadenovirus-fibre-head-domains
#9
Thanh H Nguyen, Mónika Z Ballmann, Huyen T Do, Hai N Truong, Mária Benkő, Balázs Harrach, Mark J van Raaij
BACKGROUND: Most adenoviruses recognize their host cells via an interaction of their fibre head domains with a primary receptor. The structural framework of adenovirus fibre heads is conserved between the different adenovirus genera for which crystal structures have been determined (Mastadenovirus, Aviadenovirus, Atadenovirus and Siadenovirus), but genus-specific differences have also been observed. The only known siadenovirus fibre head structure, that of turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), revealed a twisted beta-sandwich resembling the reovirus fibre head architecture more than that of other adenovirus fibre heads, plus a unique beta-hairpin embracing a neighbouring monomer...
2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306205/multivalent-sialylation-of-%C3%AE-thio-glycoclusters-by-trypanosoma-cruzi-trans-sialidase-and-analysis-by-high-performance-anion-exchange-chromatography
#10
Rosalía Agustí, María Emilia Cano, Alejandro J Cagnoni, José Kovensky, Rosa M de Lederkremer, María Laura Uhrig
The synthesis of multivalent sialylated glycoclusters is herein addressed by a chemoenzymatic approach using the trans-sialidase of Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTS). Multivalent β-thio-galactopyranosides and β-thio-lactosides were used as acceptor substrates and 3'-sialyllactose as the sialic acid donor. High performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) was shown to be an excellent technique for the analysis of the reaction products. Different eluting conditions were optimized to allow the simultaneous resolution of the sialylated species, as well as their neutral precursors...
October 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208171/characterization-of-a-high-affinity-sialic-acid-specific-cbm40-from-clostridium-perfringens-and-engineering-of-a-divalent-form
#11
João P Ribeiro, William Pau, Carlo Pifferi, Olivier Renaudet, Annabelle Varrot, Lara K Mahal, Anne Imberty
CBMs (carbohydrate-binding modules) are a class of polypeptides usually associated with carbohydrate-active enzymatic sites. We have characterized a new member of the CBM40 family, coded from a section of the gene NanI from Clostridium perfringens Glycan arrays revealed its preference towards α(2,3)-linked sialosides, which was confirmed and quantified by calorimetric studies. The CBM40 binds to α(2,3)-sialyl-lactose with a Kd of ∼30 μM, the highest affinity value for this class of proteins. Inspired by lectins' structure and their arrangement as multimeric proteins, we have engineered a dimeric form of the CBM, and using SPR (surface plasmon resonance) we have observed 6-11-fold binding increases due to the avidity affect...
July 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26865725/porcine-sapelovirus-uses-%C3%AE-2-3-linked-sialic-acid-on-gd1a-ganglioside-as-a-receptor
#12
Deok-Song Kim, Kyu-Yeol Son, Kyung-Min Koo, Ji-Yun Kim, Mia Madel Alfajaro, Jun-Gyu Park, Myra Hosmillo, Mahmoud Soliman, Yeong-Bin Baek, Eun-Hyo Cho, Ju-Hwan Lee, Mun-Il Kang, Ian Goodfellow, Kyoung-Oh Cho
UNLABELLED: The receptor(s) for porcine sapelovirus (PSV), which causes diarrhea, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis, and reproductive disorders in pigs, remains largely unknown. Given the precedent for other picornaviruses which use terminal sialic acids (SAs) as receptors, we examined the role of SAs in PSV binding and infection. Using a variety of approaches, including treating cells with a carbohydrate-destroying chemical (NaIO4), mono- or oligosaccharides (N-acetylneuraminic acid, galactose, and 6'-sialyllactose), linkage-specific sialidases (neuraminidase and sialidase S), lectins (Maakia amurensislectin andSambucus nigralectin), proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin), and glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors (dl-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol and phospholipase C), we demonstrated that PSV could recognize α2,3-linked SA on glycolipids as a receptor...
April 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26701794/dietary-isomers-of-sialyllactose-increase-ganglioside-sialic-acid-concentrations-in-the-corpus-callosum-and-cerebellum-and-modulate-the-colonic-microbiota-of-formula-fed-piglets
#13
Sheila K Jacobi, Tanya Yatsunenko, Dongpei Li, Somsankar Dasgupta, Robert K Yu, Brian M Berg, Maciej Chichlowski, Jack Odle
BACKGROUND: Sialyllactose is a key human milk oligosaccharide and consists of sialic acid (SA) bound to a lactose molecule. Breastfed infants have increased accumulation of ganglioside-bound SA compared with formula-fed infants. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether different isomers of sialyllactose enrich brain SA and modulate the microbiome of developing neonatal piglets. METHODS: Day-old pigs were randomly allocated to 6 diets (control, 2 or 4 g 3'-sialyllactose/L, 2 or 4 g 6'-sialyllactose/L, or 2 g polydextrose/L + 2 g galacto-oligosaccharides/L; n = 9) and fed 3 times/d for 21 d...
February 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26697920/different-sialoside-epitopes-on-collagen-film-surfaces-direct-mesenchymal-stem-cell-fate
#14
Antonella Sgambato, Laura Russo, Monica Montesi, Silvia Panseri, Maurilio Marcacci, Elena Caravà, Mario Raspanti, Laura Cipolla
3'-Sialyllactose and 6'-sialyllactose have been covalently linked to collagen films. Preliminary in vitro study on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in terms of cell viability, proliferation and induction of osteogenic and chondrogenic related genes has been performed. Results indicate that sialoside epitopes on collagen surface represent a suitable support for MSCs adhesion and cell proliferation, moreover, the neoglycosylation provide MSCs with different and specific stimuli, saccharide-type depending, in term of expression of osteogenic and chondrogenic related genes...
June 22, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26626365/gut-microbiota-analysis-reveals-a-marked-shift-to-bifidobacteria-by-a-starter-infant-formula-containing-a-synbiotic-of-bovine-milk-derived-oligosaccharides-and-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis%C3%A2-cncm-i-3446
#15
Umberto Simeoni, Bernard Berger, Jana Junick, Michael Blaut, Sophie Pecquet, Enea Rezzonico, Dominik Grathwohl, Norbert Sprenger, Harald Brüssow, Hania Szajewska, J-M Bartoli, V Brevaut-Malaty, M Borszewska-Kornacka, W Feleszko, P François, C Gire, M Leclaire, J-M Maurin, S Schmidt, A Skórka, C Squizzaro, J-J Verdot
Non-digestible milk oligosaccharides were proposed as receptor decoys for pathogens and as nutrients for beneficial gut commensals like bifidobacteria. Bovine milk contains oligosaccharides, some of which are structurally identical or similar to those found in human milk. In a controlled, randomized double-blinded clinical trial we tested the effect of feeding a formula supplemented with a mixture of bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides (BMOS) generated from whey permeate, containing galacto-oligosaccharides and 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose, and the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp...
July 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26621571/oligosaccharides-in-urine-blood-and-feces-of-piglets-fed-milk-replacer-containing-galacto-oligosaccharides
#16
Elisabetta Difilippo, Monique Bettonvil, Rianne H A M Willems, Saskia Braber, Johanna Fink-Gremmels, Prescilla V Jeurink, Margriet H C Schoterman, Harry Gruppen, Henk A Schols
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are absorbed into the blood (about 1% of the HMO intake) and subsequently excreted in urine, where they may protect the infant from pathogen infection. As dietary galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) have partial structural similarities with HMOs, this study investigated the presence of GOS and oligosaccharides originating from milk replacer in blood serum, urine, and cecal and fecal samples of piglets, as a model for human infants. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection, oligosaccharides originating from piglet diet including 3'-sialyllactose and specific GOS ranging from degree of polymerization 3 to 6 were detected in blood serum and in urine of piglets...
December 23, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26537475/oriented-immobilized-sialyloligo-macroligand-microarray
#17
Satya Nandana Narla, Xue-Long Sun
Silaic acid is the most common terminal glycan on cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids, involving in many biological processes. Studying interactions between multivalent sialic acid scaffolds and proteins binding to it will give incredible information in understanding the biological process the sialic acid is involved in. Here we describe chemoenzymatic synthesis of chain-end functionalized sialyllactose-containing glycopolymers with different linkages and their oriented immobilization for glycoarray and SPR-based glyco-biosensor applications...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26503848/gliding-direction-of-mycoplasma-mobile
#18
Hanako Morio, Taishi Kasai, Makoto Miyata
UNLABELLED: Mycoplasma mobile glides in the direction of its cell pole by a unique mechanism in which hundreds of legs, each protruding from its own gliding unit, catch, pull, and release sialylated oligosaccharides fixed on a solid surface. In this study, we found that 77% of cells glided to the left with a change in direction of 8.4° ± 17.6° μm(-1) displacement. The cell body did not roll around the cell axis, and elongated, thinner cells also glided while tracing a curved trajectory to the left...
January 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26418008/structure-and-sialyllactose-binding-of-the-carboxy-terminal-head-domain-of-the-fibre-from-a-siadenovirus-turkey-adenovirus-3
#19
Abhimanyu K Singh, M Álvaro Berbís, Mónika Z Ballmann, Michelle Kilcoyne, Margarita Menéndez, Thanh H Nguyen, Lokesh Joshi, F Javier Cañada, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero, Mária Benkő, Balázs Harrach, Mark J van Raaij
The virulent form of turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), also known as turkey hemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV), is an economically important poultry pathogen, while the avirulent form is used as a vaccine. TAdV-3 belongs to the genus Siadenovirus. The carboxy-terminal region of its fibre does not have significant sequence similarity to any other adenovirus fibre heads of known structure. Two amino acid sequence differences between virulent and avirulent TAdV-3 map on the fibre head: where virulent TAdV-3 contains Ile354 and Thr376, avirulent TAdV-3 contains Met354 and Met376...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26364096/short-communication-quantification-of-carbohydrates-in-whey-permeate-products-using-high-performance-anion-exchange-chromatography-with-pulsed-amperometric-detection
#20
Hyeyoung Lee, Vitor Luiz de MeloSilva, Yan Liu, Daniela Barile
A method was developed for the characterization and quantification of the disaccharide lactose and 3 major bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) in dairy streams. Based on high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD), this method is advantageous because it requires minimal sample preparation and achieves good chromatographic separation of oligosaccharide isomers within 30min. The linear dynamic range and limit of detection were 0.1 to 10mg/L and 0.03 to 0.22mg/L, respectively...
November 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
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