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GM ganglioside

Barbara Richichi, Claudia Pastori, Stefano Gherardi, Assunta Venuti, Antonella Cerreto, Francesca Sanvito, Lucio Toma, Lucia Lopalco, Cristina Nativi
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are involved in HIV-1 entry. GM-3 ganglioside, a widespread GSL, affects HIV entry and infection in different ways, depending on the concentration, through its anchoring activity in lipid rafts. This explains why the induction of an altered GSLs metabolism was a tempting approach to reducing HIV-1 cell infection. This study assayed the biological properties of a synthetic GM-3 lactone mimetic, 1, aimed at blocking HIV-1 infection without inducing the adverse events expected by an altered metabolism of GLSs in vivo...
August 12, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Yujie Liang, Jiemei Ji, Yunan Lin, Yajun He, Jingchen Liu
OBJECTIVE: Studies indicate that bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity results from apoptosis. Gangliosides have been shown to promote neuronal repair and recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury. Previously, we confirmed that in vivo administration of the ganglioside GM-1 attenuated bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity in various animal models; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. METHODS: Cells of the neuroblastoma line N2a (Neuro2a cells) were divided into three experimental groups: control, bupivacaine-treated, and bupivacaine-treated with GM-1 pretreatment...
August 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Juan A Estrada, Mathew A Barlow, Darice Yoshishige, Arthur G Williams, H Fred Downey, Robert T Mallet, James L Caffrey
BACKGROUND: Intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) produces robust myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion induced infarction and arrhythmias. Blockade of this cardioprotection by antagonism of either β1-adrenergic or δ-opioid receptors (δ-OR) suggests autonomic and/or opioidergic adaptations. PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that IHT shifts cardiac autonomic balance toward greater cholinergic and opioidergic influence. METHODS: Mongrel dogs completed 20d IHT, non-hypoxic sham training, or IHT with the δ-OR antagonist naltrindole (200μg/kgsc)...
July 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Barbara Richichi, Giuseppina Comito, Olivier Renaudet, Michele Fiore, A Marra, B Stecca, L Pasquato, P Chiarugi, C Nativi
Two tetravalent architectures, the glycocalix 7 and the RAFT 9, presenting four residues of a GM-3 ganglioside lactone mimetic, target the host compartment of melanoma and significantly abrogate the effect induced by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) contact + hypoxia in the motility and invasiveness of tumor cells. The data reported support the involvement of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in hypoxia and show an interesting role played by compound 9 in targeting melanoma cells thereby interfering with melanoma progression...
January 14, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Satoru Inagaki, Ryuta Kimizuka, Eitoyo Kokubu, Atsushi Saito, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Host cell invasion is important for periodontal pathogens in evading host defenses and spreading into deeper areas of the periodontal tissue. Treponema denticola has been implicated in a number of potentially pathogenic processes, including periodontal tissue penetration. Here we tested the ability of T. denticola strains to invade human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC). After 2 h infection, intracellular location of T. denticola cells was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results from an antibiotic protection assay following [(3)H]uridine labeling indicated that invasion efficiency reached a maximum at 2 h after infection...
May 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Barbara King, Sofia Hassiotis, Tina Rozaklis, Helen Beard, Paul J Trim, Marten F Snel, John J Hopwood, Kim M Hemsley
Repeated replacement of sulphamidase via cerebrospinal fluid injection is an effective treatment for pathological changes in the brain in mice and dogs with the lysosomal storage disorder, mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA). Investigational trials of this approach are underway in children with this condition, however, infusions require attendance at a specialist medical facility. We sought to comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness of sustained-release (osmotic pump-delivered) enzyme replacement therapy in murine MPS IIIA as this method, if applied to humans, would require only subcutaneous administration of enzyme once the pump was installed...
May 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
H-W Zhai, Z-K Gong, J Sun, W Chen, M Zhang, J-J Zhou, B Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect ganglioside with nerve growth factor on the recovery of extremity functionality following spinal cord injury and somatosensory evoked potential. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 62 patients with spinal cord injury admitted to our hospital from February 2012 to October 2013 were selected and randomized to treatment (N = 31) and control groups (N = 31). The combination of systematic rehabilitation training and GM-1 intervention were prescribed to patients in the control group, while an additional intervention of mNGF (mouse nerve growth factor) was prescribed to patients in the treatment group...
June 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Dayong Xu, Libin Yang, Yunpeng Li, Yongqiang Sun
This paper aims to make an analysis of the effects of ganglioside (GM) combined with methylprednisolone (MP) in early acute spinal injury. Fifty-three patients with acute spinal cord injury were included in this study and they were randomly divided into experimental and control group. Twenty-seven patients in the control group were treated with MP, while the rest 26 patients received more GM based on that. By observing and comparing the clinical responses from patients and recovery time of all indexes, results came out: the curative rates in the experimental and control group were 50...
March 2015: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jiemei Ji, Xiurong Yan, Zuyun Li, Zefeng Lai, Jingchen Liu
BACKGROUND: Bupivacaine causes neuronal and axonal degeneration, leading to cauda equina syndrome or permanent nerve damage. Our previous studies have shown that intrathecal or intravenous gangliosides monosialogangliosides (GM-1s) have therapeutic effects against bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity, but we do not know what are the differences between the two methods. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity was induced in rats by three times injection of 5% bupivacaine (0...
February 2015: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nora Berois, Eduardo Osinaga
Neuroblastoma (NB), accounting for 10% of childhood cancers, exhibits aberrant cell-surface glycosylation patterns. There is evidence that changes in glycolipids and protein glycosylation pathways are associated to NB biological behavior. Polysialic acid (PSA) interferes with cellular adhesion, and correlates with NB progression and poor prognosis, as well as the expression of sialyltransferase STX, the key enzyme responsible for PSA synthesis. Galectin-1 and gangliosides, overexpressed and actively shedded by tumor cells, can modulate normal cells present in the tumor microenvironment, favoring angiogenesis and immunological escape...
2014: Frontiers in Oncology
Satoshi Uemura, Shinji Go, Fumi Shishido, Jin-ichi Inokuchi
The ganglioside GM4 is a sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipid mainly expressed in mammalian brain and erythrocytes. GM4 is synthesized by the sialylation of galactosylceramide (GalCer), while the ganglioside GM3 is synthesized by the sialylation of lactosylceramide (LacCer). Recently, the enzyme GM3 synthase was found to be responsible for the synthesis of GM4 in vitro and in vivo, yet the mechanism behind GM4 expression in cells remains unclear. In this study, we attempted to establish GM4-reconstituted cells to reveal the regulation of GM4 synthesis...
February 2014: Glycoconjugate Journal
Kazuya I P J Hidari, Maho Yamaguchi, Fumihiko Ueno, Tomoko Abe, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Takashi Suzuki
Influenza viruses (IFVs) recognize sialoglycans expressed on the host cell surface. To understand the mechanisms underlying tissue and host tropisms of IFV, it is essential to elucidate the molecular interaction of the virus with the host sialoglycan receptor. We established and applied a new monoclonal antibody, clone HYB4, which specifically recognizes the Neu5Acα2-3 determinant at the non-reducing terminal Gal residue of both glycoproteins and gangliosides to investigate the biochemical properties of IFV receptors in A549 cells...
July 5, 2013: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
(no author information available yet)
Evidence has been obtained that only GM1, but also other main brain gangliosides (GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b) increase viability of ells of the PC12 neuronal line submitted to action of H2O2. By the example of GM1 and GD1a, gangliosides have been shown to induce a protective effect when acting on PC12 cells under conditions of oxidative stress both at micro- and nanomolar concentrations that are physiological concentrations of gangliosides in cerebrospinal fluid. It has been shown for the first time that GM1 at nanomolar concentrations decrease the H2O2-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 2013: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
Rui Yang, Qingjun Wang, Lianqiu Min, Rubo Sui, Jian Li, Xuewen Liu
GM-1 ganglioside (GM-1) has been proposed as a new therapeutic agent against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate the effects of GM1 on memory deficits and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of rat model of AD. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 15): control group, model group, and treatment group, which were injected with vehicle, Aβ1-40, and Aβ1-40 together with GM-1, respectively. Morris water maze test was performed to evaluate spatial learning and memory of the rats...
August 2013: Neurological Sciences
Masayo Ogiso, Koji Matsuoka, Tomoko Okada, Tomoko Imai, Miki Itoh, Takeshi Imamura, Yoshimi Haga, Kenichi Hatanaka, Norihiko Minoura
The immobilization of carbohydrates on gold surfaces is a prerequisite technology for carbohydrate-related studies, including those of carbohydrate-biomolecule interactions. Glycolipid domains in cell membranes, such as lipid rafts, are thought to play an important role in cell biology through their carbohydrate portions. To understand the recognition of glycolipid domains such as receptors for bacterial toxins and viruses, we immobilized clusters of carbohydrates on a gold surface by using polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as a scaffold...
March 1, 2013: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
J Salcedo, R Barbera, E Matencio, A Alegría, M J Lagarda
The effect of the main gangliosides (GM(1), GM(3), GD(3)) and free sialic acid (Neu5Ac) upon the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria implicated in infant diarrhoea is assessed in vitro using the Caco-2 cell line. Concentrations of the bioactive compounds found in the bioaccessible (soluble) fraction of infant formula and human milk are employed. Bacterial adhesion behaviour included enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella entericaserovartyphi, Shigella sonnei, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori...
January 15, 2013: Food Chemistry
Michael G Jobling, Zhijie Yang, Wendy R Kam, Wayne I Lencer, Randall K Holmes
Cholera toxin (CT) from Vibrio cholerae is responsible for the majority of the symptoms of the diarrheal disease cholera. CT is a heterohexameric protein complex with a 240-residue A subunit and a pentameric B subunit of identical 103-residue B polypeptides. The A subunit is proteolytically cleaved within a disulfide-linked loop to generate the A1 and A2 fragments. The B subunit of wild-type (wt) CT binds 5 cell surface ganglioside GM(1) (GM(1)) molecules, and the toxin-GM(1) complex traffics from the plasma membrane (PM) retrograde through endosomes and the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
2012: MBio
Heather F M Gudejko, Lea M Alford, David R Burgess
Vesicle trafficking and new membrane addition at the cleavage furrow have been extensively documented. However, less clear is the old idea that expansion at the cell poles occurs during cytokinesis. We find that new membrane is added to the cell poles during anaphase, causing the plasma membrane to expand coincident with the constriction of the contractile ring and may provide a pushing force for membrane ingression at the furrow. This membrane addition occurs earlier during mitosis than membrane addition at the furrow and is dependent on actin and astral microtubules...
November 2012: Cytoskeleton
Laura B Sagle, Laura K Ruvuna, Julia M Bingham, Chunming Liu, Paul S Cremer, Richard P Van Duyne
Single-particle tracking experiments were carried out with gold nanoparticle-labeled solid supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) containing increasing concentrations of ganglioside (GM(1)). The negatively charged nanoparticles electrostatically associate with a small percentage of positively charged lipids (ethyl phosphatidylcholine) in the bilayers. The samples containing no GM(1) show random diffusion in 92% of the particles examined with a diffusion constant of 4.3(±4.5) × 10(-9) cm(2)/s. In contrast, samples containing 14% GM(1) showed a mixture of particles displaying both random and confined diffusion, with the majority of particles, 62%, showing confined diffusion...
September 26, 2012: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Stephanos Kyrkanides, Sabine M Brouxhon, Ross H Tallents, Jen-nie H Miller, John A Olschowka, M Kerry O'Banion
This study evaluated whether GM(2) ganglioside storage is necessary for neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation by performing β-hexosaminidase rescue experiments in neurons of HexB(-/-) mice. We developed a novel mouse model, whereby the expression of the human HEXB gene was targeted to neurons of HexB(-/-) mice by the Thy1 promoter. Despite β-hexosaminidase restoration in neurons was sufficient in rescuing HexB(-/-) mice from GM(2) neuronal storage and neurodegeneration, brain inflammation persisted, including the presence of large numbers of reactive microglia/macrophages due to persisting GM(2) presence in this cell type...
2012: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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