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Johanne Dubail, Deepika Vasudevan, Lauren W Wang, Sarah E Earp, Michael W Jenkins, Robert S Haltiwanger, Suneel S Apte
Peters Plus syndrome (PPS), a congenital disorder of glycosylation, results from recessive mutations affecting the glucosyltransferase B3GLCT, leading to congenital corneal opacity and diverse extra-ocular manifestations. Together with the fucosyltransferase POFUT2, B3GLCT adds Glucoseβ1-3Fucose disaccharide to a consensus sequence in thrombospondin type 1 repeats (TSRs) of several proteins. Which of these target proteins is functionally compromised in PPS is unknown. We report here that haploinsufficiency of murine Adamts9, encoding a secreted metalloproteinase with 15 TSRs, leads to congenital corneal opacity and Peters anomaly (persistent lens-cornea adhesion), which is a hallmark of PPS...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nancy Rosenbaum Hofmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Plant Cell
Joana Rocha, Félix Cicéron, Daniele de Sanctis, Mickael Lelimousin, Valérie Chazalet, Olivier Lerouxel, Christelle Breton
The plant cell wall is a complex and dynamic network made mostly of cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins. Xyloglucan, the major hemicellulosic component in Arabidopsis thaliana, is biosynthesized in the Golgi apparatus by a series of glycan synthases and glycosyltransferases before export to the wall. A better understanding of the xyloglucan biosynthetic machinery will give clues toward engineering plants with improved wall properties or designing novel xyloglucan-based biomaterials. The xyloglucan-specific α-2-fucosyltransferase FUT1 catalyzes the transfer of fucose from GDP-fucose to terminal galactosyl residues on xyloglucan side chains...
September 16, 2016: Plant Cell
Takahiro Osuga, Rishu Takimoto, Michihiro Ono, Masahiro Hirakawa, Makoto Yoshida, Yutaka Okagawa, Naoki Uemura, Yohei Arihara, Yasushi Sato, Fumito Tamura, Tsutomu Sato, Satoshi Iyama, Koji Miyanishi, Kohichi Takada, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Masayoshi Kobune, Junji Kato
BACKGROUND: Fucose is utilized for the modification of different molecules involved in blood group determination, immunological reactions, and signal transduction pathways. We have recently reported that enhanced activity of the fucosyltransferase 3 and/or 6 promoted TGF-ß-mediated epithelial mesenchymal transition and was associated with increased metastatic potential of colorectal cancer (CRC), suggesting that fucose is required by CRC cells. With this in mind, we examined requirement of L-fucose in CRC cells and developed fucose-bound nanoparticles as vehicles for delivery of anticancer drugs specific to CRC...
September 2016: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Matthias Pink, Boris A Ratsch, Maibritt Mardahl, Pawel Durek, Julia K Polansky, Martin Karl, Ria Baumgrass, Stefan Wallner, Cristina Cadenas, Kathrin Gianmoena, Stefan Floess, Wei Chen, Karl Nordstroem, Sascha Tierling, Sven Olek, Jörn Walter, Alf Hamann, Uta Syrbe
E- and P-selectin ligands (E- and P-ligs) guide effector memory T cells into skin and inflamed regions, mediate the inflammatory recruitment of leukocytes, and contribute to the localization of hematopoietic precursor cells. A better understanding of their molecular regulation is therefore of significant interest with regard to therapeutic approaches targeting these pathways. In this study, we examined the transcriptional regulation of fucosyltransferase 7 (FUT7), an enzyme crucial for generation of the glycosylated E- and P-ligs...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Félix Cicéron, Joana Rocha, Sumaira Kousar, Sara Fasmer Hansen, Valérie Chazalet, Emilie Gillon, Christelle Breton, Olivier Lerouxel
Efforts to identify genes and characterize enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides have yet to produce and purify to homogeneity an active plant cell wall synthesizing enzyme suitable for structural studies. In Arabidopsis, the last step of xyloglucan (XG) biosynthesis is catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 1 (AtFUT1), which transfers l-fucose from GDP-β-l-fucose to a specific galactose on the XG core. Here, we describe the production of a soluble form of AtFUT1 (HisΔ68-AtFUT1) and its purification to milligram quantities...
September 2016: Biochimie
Keng-Poo Tan, Ming-Yi Ho, Huan-Chieh Cho, John Yu, Jung-Tung Hung, Alice Lin-Tsing Yu
Alpha1,2-fucosyltransferases, FUT1 and FUT2, which transfer fucoses onto the terminal galactose of N-acetyl-lactosamine via α1,2-linkage have been shown to be highly expressed in various types of cancers. A few studies have shown the involvement of FUT1 substrates in tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lysosome-associated membrane protein 1, LAMP-1, has been reported to carry alpha1,2-fucosylated Lewis Y (LeY) antigens in breast cancer cells, however, the biological functions of LeY on LAMP-1 remain largely unknown...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
Yuta Sugiyama, Aina Gotoh, Toshihiko Katoh, Yuji Honda, Erina Yoshida, Shin Kurihara, Hisashi Ashida, Hidehiko Kumagai, Kenji Yamamoto, Motomitsu Kitaoka, Takane Katayama
Fucα1-2 Gal linkages, or H-antigens, constitute histo-blood group antigens and are involved in various physiological processes. In addition, recent studies have shown that the H-antigen-containing glycans play an important role, not only in establishing harmonious relationship between gut microbes and the host, but also in preventing gut dysbiosis-related diseases. Therefore, development of an efficient method for introducing Fuc residue at Gal residue at the non-reducing end of glycans via α-(1→2) linkage is desired for research as well as medicinal purposes...
August 22, 2016: Glycobiology
Lei Cheng, Shuhang Gao, Xiaobo Song, Weijie Dong, Huimin Zhou, Lifen Zhao, Li Jia
Glycosylation has significant effects on cancer progression. Fucosylation is one of the most important glycosylation events involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we compared N-glycan profiles of liver tumor tissues and adjacent tissues of 27 HCC patients to reveal the association between fucosylation and HCC progression, as well as verified the potential role of miRNA in regulating fucosylation. Mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed pronounced differences of the N-glycosylation patterns and fucosylated N-glycans between the adjacent and tumor tissues...
August 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Xinyu Wen, Anqi Liu, Changqing Yu, Lingyu Wang, Mengying Zhou, Nan Wang, Ming Fang, Weidong Wang, Hongli Lin
Vascular calcification (VC) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality in uremia. Post-translational core fucosylation is implicated in a number of pathological processes. First, we investigated the role of core fucosylation and key TGF-β1 pathway receptors in calcified arteries in vivo. To determine whether blocking core fucosylation effectively inhibited VC and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, we established an in vitro model of phosphate-induced calcification in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to assess the role of core fucosylation in VC...
October 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Nana Li, Yuejian Liu, Yuan Miao, Lifen Zhao, Huimin Zhou, Li Jia
It is demonstrated that the maladjustment of microRNA (miRNA) plays significant roles in the occurrence and development of tumors. MicroRNA-106b-5p (miR-106b), a carcinogenic miRNA, is identified as a dysregulated miRNA in human breast cancer. In this article, the expression levels of miR-106b were discovered to be particularly higher in breast cancer tissues than that in the corresponding adjacent tissues. Accordingly, miR-106b was higher expressed in the breast cancer cell lines compared with that in the normal breast cell lines...
September 2016: IUBMB Life
P Roman, G Budziński, A Suszka-Świtek, A Caban, G Oczkowicz, R Wiaderkiewicz, F Ryszka, Z Smorąg, L Cierpka
BACKGROUND: Transgenic animals may serve as organ donors in human organ transplantation. However, the number of the studies addressing all doubts related to this issue is currently insufficient for the clinical application of this approach. The aim of this study was to analyze the hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) synthesis during a 24-hour cold preservation of the transgenic pig liver, depending on the type of transgenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on wild-type and transgenic pig livers with transferred human α1,2-fucosyltransferase (FUT) and/or α-galactosidase (GAL) gene (four groups; n = 6)...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
P Roman, G Budziński, A Suszka-Świtek, A Caban, G Oczkowicz, E Czech, F Ryszka, R Wiaderkiewicz, Z Smorąg, L Cierpka
BACKGROUND: Because of an insufficient number of human organs for transplantation, xenotransplantation may become an effective alternative. We aimed to analyze if the type of transgenesis has an influence on the hepatic caspase-3 expression, the enzyme that executes apoptosis as well as ALT, AST, and GGT activity after 24 hours of cold storage. METHODS: The experiment was carried out on the 24 livers of Polish White Landrace pigs carrying human α1,2-fucosyltransferase and/or α-galactosidase (GAL) genes and livers without this genetic modification (control)...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Gennady V Pogorelko, Nathan T Reem, Zachary T Young, Lauran Chambers, Olga A Zabotina
Cell walls are essential components of plant cells which perform a variety of important functions for the different cell types, tissues and organs of a plant. Besides mechanical function providing cell shape, cell walls participate in intercellular communication, defense during plant-microbe interactions, and plant growth. The plant cell wall consists predominantly of polysaccharides with the addition of structural glycoproteins, phenolic esters, minerals, lignin, and associated enzymes. Alterations in the cell wall composition created through either changes in biosynthesis of specific constituents or their post-synthetic modifications in the apoplast compromise cell wall integrity and frequently induce plant compensatory responses as a result of these alterations...
2016: PloS One
Yasuhiko Kizuka, Sho Funayama, Hidehiko Shogomori, Miyako Nakano, Kazuki Nakajima, Ritsuko Oka, Shinobu Kitazume, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Masahiro Sano, Hiroaki Korekane, Tsui-Ling Hsu, Hsiu-Yu Lee, Chi-Huey Wong, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Fucose, a terminal sugar in glycoconjugates, critically regulates various physiological and pathological phenomena, including cancer development and inflammation. However, there are currently no probes for efficient labeling and detection of this sugar. We chemically synthesized a novel series of alkynyl-fucose analogs as probe candidates and found that 7-alkynyl-fucose gave the highest labeling efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Among the fucose analogs, 7-alkynyl-fucose was the best substrate against all five fucosyltransferases examined...
July 21, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
Joana Rocha, Félix Cicéron, Olivier Lerouxel, Christelle Breton, Daniele de Sanctis
The plant cell wall is a complex network of polysaccharides made up of cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins. Xyloglucan (XyG), which is the main hemicellulosic component of dicotyledonous plants, has attracted much attention for its role in plant development and for its many industrial applications. The XyG-specific fucosyltransferase (FUT1) adds a fucose residue from GDP-fucose to the 2-O position of the terminal galactosyl residues on XyG side chains. Recombinant FUT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana was crystallized in two different crystal forms, with the best diffracting crystals (up to 1...
July 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Allan M Showalter, Debarati Basu
Recent research, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana, has led to the identification and characterization of the glycosyltransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of two of the most functionally important and abundant families of plant cell wall proteins, extensins, and arabinogalactan-proteins. Extensin glycosylation involves monogalactosylation of serine residues by O-α-serine galactosyltransferase and the addition of oligoarabinosides one to five arabinose units in length to contiguous hydroxyproline residues by a set of specific arabinosyltransferase enzymes, which includes hydroxyproline O-β-arabinosyltransferases, β-1,2-arabinosyltransferases, and at least one α-1,3-arabinosyltransferase...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lifen Zhao, Xiaobin Feng, Xiaobo Song, Huimin Zhou, Yongfu Zhao, Lei Cheng, Li Jia
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women. Altered fucosylation was found to be closely associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cell proliferation and metastasis, and aberrant miRNA expression has been observed in breast cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate the level of fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and miR-493-5p in breast cancer and investigate their relationship. In the present study, we demonstrated the differential expressional profiles of FUT4 and miR‑493-5p in 29 clinical breast cancer tissues, matched adjacent tissue samples and two breast carcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231)...
August 2016: Oncology Reports
Clément P Delannoy, Yoann Rombouts, Sophie Groux-Degroote, Stephanie Holst, Bernadette Coddeville, Anne Harduin-Lepers, Manfred Wuhrer, Elisabeth Elass-Rochard, Yann Guerardel
The human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 is widely used as an in vitro phagocytic cell model, since it exhibits several immune properties similar to native monocyte-derived macrophages. In this study, we investigated the alteration of N- and O- linked glycans as well as glycosphingolipids, during THP-1 differentiation, combining mass spectrometry, flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. Mass spectrometry revealed that macrophage differentiation led to a marked upregulation of expression of GM3 ganglioside as well as an increase of complex-type structures, particularly tri-antennary glycans, occurring at the expense of high-mannose N-glycans...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Sean Austin, Carlos A De Castro, Thierry Bénet, Yangfeng Hou, Henan Sun, Sagar K Thakkar, Gerard Vinyes-Pares, Yumei Zhang, Peiyu Wang
Breastfed infants tend to be less prone to infections and may have improved cognitive benefits compared to formula-fed infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are the third most abundant component of human milk, but are absent from formulae. They may be partially responsible for the benefits of breastfeeding. In this cross-sectional observational study, the HMO composition of milk from Chinese mothers was studied to determine the impact of stage of lactation, mode of delivery and geographical location. The content of 10 HMO was measured by HPLC in 446 milk samples from mothers living in three different cities in China...
2016: Nutrients
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